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1899 Sewanee Tigers football team

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1899 Sewanee Tigers football
Sewanee 1899 Football Team.jpg
SIAA champion
Conference Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association
1899 record 12–0 (11–0 SIAA)
Head coach Billy Suter
Captain Diddy Seibels
Home stadium McGee Field
Seasons
← 1898
1900 →
1899 SIAA football standings
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
Sewanee $ 11 0 0     12 0 0
Vanderbilt 4 0 0     7 2 0
Alabama 1 0 0     3 1 0
Nashville 3 1 0     3 1 0
Tennessee 2 1 0     6 2 0
Auburn 2 1 1     3 1 1
Texas 3 2 0     6 2 0
Georgia 2 2 1     2 3 1
Central 1 1 0     1 1 0
Mississippi 3 4 0     3 4 0
Clemson[disputed ] 1 2 0     4 2 0
LSU 1 3 0     1 4 0
Kentucky State 0 1 0     5 2 2
SW Presbyterian 0 1 0     1 1 0
Cumberland 0 3 0     0 3 0
Georgia Tech 0 5 0     0 5 0
Tulane 0 5 0     0 6 1
  • $ – Conference champion

The 1899 Sewanee Tigers football team represented Sewanee: The University of the South in the 1899 Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association football season. Sewanee was one of the first college football powers of the South and the 1899 team in particular was very strong. The 1899 Tigers went 12–0, outscoring opponents 322 to 10, and won the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) title.

With just 13 players, the team known as the "Iron Men" had a six-day road trip with five shutout wins over: Texas A&M, Texas, Tulane, LSU, and Ole Miss. Sportswriter Grantland Rice called the group "the most durable football team I ever saw."[1] The road trip is recalled memorably with the Biblical allusion "...and on the seventh day they rested."[2][3][n 1]

The 11 extra points against Cumberland by Bart Sims is still a school record. The offense was led by Diddy Seibels; the defense by Ormond Simkins.[n 2] John Heisman's Auburn team was the only one even to score on Sewanee.

Before the season[edit]

Despite being from a small Episcopal university in the mountains of Tennessee, the team came to dominate football in the region during the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries.[n 3] Like several other football powers of yore such as the University of Chicago, Sewanee today emphasizes scholarship over athletics.[n 4]

Sewanee had 7 starters return from the undefeated 1898 team.[5] Before play started, the Sewanee men trained hard for several weeks under coach Suter. With experience and weight, the team was hopeful for an undisputed southern championship.[6]

Schedule[edit]

Date Time Opponent Site Result Attendance
October 21 1:00 p. m. at Georgia Atlanta, GA W 12–0    
October 23 3:30 p. m. at Georgia Tech Atlanta, GA W 32–0    
October 28 Tennessee McGee FieldSewanee, TN W 46–0    
November 3 Southwestern Presbyterian McGee Field • Sewanee, TN W 54–0    
November 9 at Texas Athletic Field • Austin, TX W 12–0   2,500
November 10 at Texas A&M* Herald ParkHouston, TX W 10–0   600
November 11 4:00 p. m. at Tulane New Orleans, LA W 23–0   ~1,000
November 13 at LSU State FieldBaton Rouge, LA W 34–0   2,000+
November 14 vs. Mississippi Billings Park • Memphis, TN W 12–0    
November 20 Cumberland McGee Field • Sewanee, TN W 71–0    
November 30 2:50 p. m. vs. Auburn Riverside Park • Montgomery, AL W 11–10   3,000
December 2 vs. North Carolina Atlanta, GA W 5–0   2,000
*Non-conference game.

Source:[7]

Season summary[edit]

Sewanee’s 1899 season was very successful. From October 21 through December 2, under the leadership of Coach Herman [Billy] Suter and future College Football Hall of Famer captain Henry “Diddy” Seibels, the Sewanee team, officially the Tigers but nicknamed the "Iron Men," played and won twelve games, were not scored upon except for one game, outscored their opponents 322 to 10, and were the champion of the South. Most of their twelve opponents, including Tennessee, Louisiana State, and Texas, are among the all-time powers in college football.

Ormond Simkins

Georgia[edit]

Sewanee at Georgia
1 2 Total
Sewanee 6 6 12
Georgia 0 0 0

Ormond Simkins was the star of the 12–0 opening win over the Georgia Bulldogs, netting the first touchdown with a fine line buck of 12 yards through center "amidst thunderous applause".[9] Rex Kilpatrick scored a second touchdown on a 4-yard run.[8]

The starting lineup was: Sims (left end), Jones (left tackle), Keyes (left guard), Poole (center), Claiborne (right guard), Bolling (right tackle), Pearce (right end), Wilson (quarterback), Kilpatrick (left halfback), Seibels (right halfback), and Simkins (fullback).[6][8]

Georgia Tech[edit]

Sewanee at Georgia Tech
1 2 Total
Sewanee 27 5 32
Ga. Tech 0 0 0

Sewanee followed the defeat of Georgia with a 32–0 victory over Georgia Tech on the following Monday.[9] Sewanee won easily, the first score coming soon after the kickoff on a blocked kick recovered by Quintard Gray.[9] Gray scored the next touchdown on a 25-yard end run. Just fifteen minutes had passed when Diddy Seibels scored the third touchdown.[9] The next three touchdowns were also scored by Seibels, including pretty runs of 35 and 40 yards.[9] The team played its substitutes in the second half.[9]

The starting lineup was: Sims (left end), Jones (left tackle), Keyes (left guard), Poole (center), Claiborne (right guard), Bolling (right tackle), Pearce (right end), Wilson (quarterback), Gray (left halfback), Seibels (right halfback), and Simkins (fullback).[10]

Tennessee[edit]

Tennessee vs. Sewanee
1 2 Total
Tennessee 0 0 0
Sewanee 29 17 46

Sources:[11]

In a driving rain at McGee Field, "where each 5-yard line was a miniature stream",[12] Sewanee beat the Tennessee Volunteers 46–0. Diddy Seibels led the scoring with three touchdowns.[11] "Touchdown followed touchdown, until Sewanee finally stopped scoring from sheer exhaustion" to quote The Sewanee Purple.[12]

The starting lineup was: Sims (left end), Jones (left tackle), Keyes (left guard), Poole (center), Claiborne (right guard), K. Smith (right tackle), Pearce (right end), Wilson (quarterback), Kilpatrick (left halfback), Seibels (right halfback), and Simkins (fullback).[11]

Southwestern Presbyterian[edit]

SW Presbyterian vs. Sewanee
1 2 Total
SW Presbyterian 0 0 0
Sewanee 32 22 54

Sources:[13]

Sewanee next defeated Southwestern Presbyterian 54–0. The Sewanee Purple wrote: "Never before in the history of football at Sewanee have we piled up such a score against an opponent."[13]

The starting lineup was: Sims (left end), Jones (left tackle), Keyes (left guard), Poole (center), Claiborne (right guard), Bolling (right tackle), Pearce (right end), Wilson (quarterback), Gray (left halfback), Seibels (right halfback), and Simkins (fullback).[13]

The Road trip: 5 shutouts in 6 days[edit]

The 1899 Iron Men team's most notable accomplishment was a six-day period from November 9 to 14 which is arguably the greatest road trip in college football history. After a disagreement with traditional rival Vanderbilt University over gate receipts resulting in the 1899 game being cancelled, manager Luke Lea sought a way to make up for the lost revenue. To accomplish this he put together an improbable schedule of playing five big name opponents in six days. Playing so many games in a short period minimized costs while maximizing revenue.[14][15] During this road trip, Sewanee outscored its opponents for a combined 91–0, including Texas, Texas A&M, LSU, and Ole Miss. Sewanee obliterated each one, traveling by train for some 2,500 miles. This feat, barring fundamental changes in modern-day football, can never be equaled.[16] Contemporary sources called the road trip the most remarkable ever made by an American college team.[17]

Program from the Texas game.

Texas[edit]

Sewanee at Texas
1 2 Total
Sewanee 6 6 12
Texas 0 0 0
  • Date: November 9
  • Location: Athletic Field
    Austin, Texas
  • Game attendance: 2,500

Sources:[18]

The train carrying the players pulled into Austin on the night of the 8th to face the undefeated Texas Longhorns the following afternoon. Sewanee won 12–0. They scored five minutes into the first quarter, and a minute before the end of the game, "and the intervening time was devoted to the liveliest battle ever witnessed here".[18] Diddy Seibels played throughout the game, scoring both touchdowns, despite his head having split open just above his left eye, bleeding profusely. By the end of the game his head was coated with blood.[18]

The starting lineup was: Sims (left end), Jones (left tackle), Keyes (left guard), Poole (center), Claiborne (right guard), Bolling (right tackle), Pearce (right end), Wilson (quarterback), Kilpatrick (left halfback), Seibels (right halfback), and Simkins (fullback).[18]

Texas A&M[edit]

Sewanee at Texas A&M
1 2 Total
Sewanee 5 5 10
Texas A&M 0 0 0

Sources:[19]

Not 20 hours had passed since the Texas game before the Tigers faced the Texas A&M Aggies. The Tigers won 10–0. Guard Wild Bill Claiborne was blind in one eye, and used his discolored eye for purposes of intimidation saying: "See this? I lost it yesterday in Austin. This afternoon I'm getting a new one!"[20] Ormond Simkins first ran in a touchdown from the 1-yard-line near the end of the first half. Quarterback Warbler Wilson got the second touchdown with five seconds left in the game.[3] Texas A&M's campus paper, the Battalion, reported :..."(the Sewanee Tigers) are unmistakably the champions of the South this year..."[3]

The starting lineup was: Sims (left end), Jones (left tackle), Keyes (left guard), Poole (center), Claiborne (right guard), Bolling (right tackle), Pearce (right end), Wilson (quarterback), Kilpatrick (left halfback), Gray (right halfback), and Simkins (fullback).[19]

Tulane[edit]

Sewanee at Tulane
1 2 Total
Sewanee 17 6 23
Tulane 0 0 0
  • Date: November 11
  • Location: New Orleans, LA
  • Game start: 4:00 p. m.
  • Game attendance: ~1,000
  • Referee: E. L. Simonds

Sources:[21]

After another 350-mile overnight train leg, the Tigers beat Tulane in New Orleans 23–0. Rex Kilpatrick scored first. Quintard Gray scored twice more. The lone score of the second half was another, 5-yard run by Kilpatrick. The game was called early due to darkness.[21]

The starting lineup was: Sims (left end), Jones (left tackle), Keyes (left guard), Poole (center), Claiborne (right guard), Bolling (right tackle), Pearce (right end), Wilson (quarterback), Kilpatrick (left halfback), Seibels (right halfback), and Simkins (fullback).[21]

LSU[edit]

Sewanee at LSU
1 2 Total
Sewanee 17 17 34
LSU 0 0 0

Sources:[22]

Before the trip to Baton Rouge, the team saw a play, and then toured a sugar plantation owned by John Dalton Shaffer, rather than enjoy the nightlife of New Orleans.[3] One source reported center William H. Poole "drank heavily" on the one day off.[23] Sewanee then defeated LSU 34–0.

Captain Seibels

Diddy Seibels scored first. Sewanee's next run from scrimmage was another Seibels touchdown. Rex Kilpatrick had one score, and Sewanee managed three further touchdowns. One account reads: "In spite of their long, tiresome trip, the Sewanee men were lively as school boys out for a day off."[22]

The starting lineup was: Sims (left end), Jones (left tackle), Keyes (left guard), Poole (center), Claiborne (right guard), Bolling (right tackle), Pearce (right end), Wilson (quarterback), Kilpatrick (left halfback), Gray (right halfback), and Simkins (fullback).[24]

Mississippi[edit]

Sewanee vs. Mississippi
1 2 Total
Sewanee 6 6 12
Miss 0 0 0
  • Date: November 14
  • Location: Billings Park
    Memphis, TN

Sources:[3]

The Tigers arrived in Memphis to play Mississippi on their third pre-game overnight train ride in five days. "Ole Miss" kept the game close. Diddy Seibels scored the first touchdown with fifteen seconds left in the first half, and Kilpatrick scored the second with thirteen to go before the final whistle.[3] The game was attended by "several hundred spectators".[25]

The local Commercial Appeal praised the Tigers: "Yesterday's score against (Mississippi) marked the two hundred and fortieth point for which the Tennesseans have scored to nothing for their opponents, during the present season. The trip of the Sewanee eleven, along with record, will probably remain unequaled for generations."[3]

Cumberland[edit]

Cumberland vs. Sewanee
1 2 Total
Cumberland 0 0 0
Sewanee 47 24 71

Sources:[26]

Seemingly unfazed by the travel, the following week the Tigers crushed the Cumberland Bulldogs 71–0.[26] One account reads: "For five minutes after the beginning of the game Cumberland made some good gains, but the Sewanee defense suddenly grew strong, the ball was secured on downs, and Seibels crossed the line for touchdown seven minutes after play began."[26] Bart Sims had a school record 11 extra points, and Ormond Simkins rested instead of playing.[26]

The starting lineup was: Sims (left end), Jones (left tackle), Keyes (left guard), Poole (center), Claiborne (right guard), Bolling (right tackle), Pearce (right end), Wilson (quarterback), Kilpatrick (left halfback), Seibels (right halfback), and Brooks (fullback)[27]

Auburn: The only points scored[edit]

Sewanee at Auburn
1 2 Total
Sewanee 11 0 11
Auburn 10 0 10
  • Date: November 30
  • Location: Riverside Park
    Montgomery, AL
  • Game start: 2:50 p. m.
  • Game attendance: 3,000
  • Referee: Martin

Sources:[28]

For the championship of the South,[29] Sewanee faced John Heisman's Auburn team winning the contest by a narrow margin of 11–10. Auburn was the only team to score on Sewanee all year, when they ran an early version of the hurry-up offense,[30] and played exceptionally well on defense,[28]

After being held on downs at the 10-yard line,[31] Auburn again drove down the field and scored first when Bivins ran in a touchdown.[28] Ed Huguley followed this up with another 50-yard touchdown run, but the referee disallowed it.[n 5]

Sewanee responded once as Rex Kilpatrick ran outside the tackle for a 10-yard touchdown.[28] Auburn back Arthur Feagin, with Huguley's interference, scored to make it 10 to 5 in favor of Auburn.[28]

Coach Suter

A controversial fumble recovery by Sewanee may have saved the game. Auburn quarterback Reynolds Tichenor said it was a gift; the referee awarded Sewanee the ball, but he insisted Auburn recovered it.[28] A double pass play to Warbler Wilson got the ensuing Sewanee touchdown. Bart Sims made the extra point to edge Auburn.[28] Neither team managed to score in the second half. The delay from the crowd gathering on the field ran the game into darkness.[28]

Sportswriter Fuzzy Woodruff, a witness to the game, wrote:[32][33]

Under Heisman's tutelage, Auburn played with a marvelous speed and dash that couldn't be gainsaid and which fairly swept Sewanee off its feet. Only the remarkable punting of Simkins kept the game from being a debacle. I recall vividly one incident of the game, which demonstrates clearly just how surprising was Sewanee's victory.

The Purple was taking time out...A Sewanee player was down, his head being bathed...Suter, the Sewanee coach, and Heisman, the Auburn mentory, were walking up and down the field together. They approached this boy...Suter, evidently as mad as fire, asked the down and out player 'Are you fellows going to be run over like this all afternoon?'

'Coach,' said the boy, lifting his tired head from the ground, 'we just can't stand this stuff. We've never seen anything like it.'

Suter and Heisman turned away. 'Can you beat that?' Suter asked the Auburn coach. Heisman didn't say anything, I guess he thought a great deal. He told me afterwards that he had never felt so sorry for a man on a football field as he had for Suter at that moment.

The starting lineup was: Pierce (left end), Jones (left tackle), Claiborne (left guard), Poole (center), Keyes (right guard), Bolling (right tackle), Sims (right end), Wilson (quarterback), Kilpatrick (left halfback), Seibels (right halfback), and Simkins (fullback).[28][33]

North Carolina[edit]

Sewanee vs. North Carolina
1 2 Total
Sewanee 5 0 5
North Carolina 0 0 0
  • Date: December 2
  • Location: Atlanta, GA
  • Game attendance: 2,000
  • Referee: Taylor (Yale)

Sources:[34]

The season closed with a 5 to 0 victory over the North Carolina Tar Heels and the championship of the south. Sewanee's defense was strong, including a goal line stand,[35] and Seibels' punting gained 10 yards on each exchange of punts.[34] A single free kick from placement by Simkins proved the difference.[34]

Simkins had signaled for a fair catch, but North Carolina's Frank M. Osborne collided with him.[34] Sewanee was awarded fifteen yards and the free kick.[34] The star for the Tar Heels that day was Herman Koehler.[34]

The starting lineup was: Simkins (left end), Jones (left tackle), Keyes (left guard), Poole (center), Claiborne (right guard), Bolling (right tackle), Black (right end), Wilson (quarterback), Kilpatrick (left halfback), Seibels (right halfback), and Hull (fullback).

Postseason[edit]

Commemorative plaque on the base of the flagpole at McGee Field.

Awards and honors[edit]

W. A. Lambeth of Virginia in the journal Outing and Coach Suter both posted All-Southern teams.[36][37][n 6] Included on Suter's All-Southern were: Richard Bolling, Wild Bill Claiborne, Deacon Jones, Rex Kilpatrick, William H. Poole, Diddy Seibels, Ormond Simkins, and Warbler Wilson.[39][40] Wilson was also selected All-Southern by Lambeth. Bart Sims made Lambeth's team and was a substitute for Suter.

Legacy[edit]

By the end of the season, eleven of Sewanee's victories were against SIAA conference rivals, setting the record for the most conference games won in a single season by any team before or since.[41] On College Gameday, November 13, 1999, ESPN featured the University of the South with a four-minute segment on the 1899 football team, and CSX Railroad provided a short train ride in Cowan, which was a re-enactment of an early leg of the Sewanee to Texas train ride.

Several writers and sports personalities consider this Sewanee team one of the greatest football teams ever to play. Former Penn State coach Joe Paterno once said: "While there are some who would swear to the contrary, I did not see the 1899 Sewanee football team play in person. Winning five road games in six days, all by shutout scores, has to be one of the most staggering achievements in the history of the sport. If the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) had been in effect in 1899, there seems little doubt Sewanee would have played in the title game. And they wouldn’t have been done in by any computer ratings."[42] Tony Barnhart in Southern Fried Football: The History, Passion and Glory of the Great Southern Game listed Sewanee as his number 1 Southern football team of all-time.[43] A 16-team playoff to determine the best team in college football history with winners decided by fan votes was run by the College Football Hall of Fame, called the March of the Gridiron Champions. Sewanee, starting at the lowest seed, won the tournament.[n 7]

Personnel[edit]

Varsity lettermen[edit]

Wild Bill Claiborne
William H. Poole

Line[edit]

Player Position Games
started
Hometown Prep school Height Weight Age
Richard E. Bolling tackle 10 Edna, Texas 5'10"
William "Wild Bill" Claiborne guard 11 Amherst Co., Virginia Roanoke College 6'0" 190
John William "Deacon" Jones tackle 11 Marshall, Texas
Henry S. Keyes guard 10 Cambridge, Massachusetts
Hugh Miller Thompson "Bunny" Pearce end 9 Jackson, Mississippi 5'3" 125
William H. Poole center 10 Glyndon, Maryland 6'0" 185 19
Bartlet Et Ultimus "The Caboose" Sims end 10 Bryan, Texas 6'0" 185 21

Backfield[edit]

Player Position Games
started
Hometown Prep school Height Weight Age
Charles Quintard Gray halfback 4 Ocala, Florida
Ringland F. "Rex" Kilpatrick halfback 9 Bridgeport, Alabama 6'1" 185 18
Henry "Diddy" Seibels halfback 9 Montgomery, Alabama 5'10" 170 23
Ormond Simkins fullback 10 Corsicana, Texas 5'10" 163 20
William "Warbler" Wilson quarterback 11 Rock Hill, South Carolina 5'10" 154 22

Substitutes[edit]

Another image of the Iron Men.
Player Position Games
started
Hometown Prep school Height Weight Age
Ralph Peters Black end 1 Atlanta, Georgia 6'0" 158
Preston S. Brooks back 1 Sewanee, Tennessee
Harris G. Cope quarterback Savannah, Georgia Taft School 117 16
Albert T. Davidson Augusta, Georgia
Andrew C. Evins Spartanburg, South Carolina
Daniel B. Hull fullback 1 Savannah, Georgia 5'10" 160
Joseph Lee Kirby-Smith tackle 1 Sewanee, Tennessee 156 17
Landon R. Mason Marshall, Virginia
Floy H. Parker Canton, Mississippi
Herbert E. Smith

[45]

Coaching staff[edit]

Scoring leaders[edit]

The following is an incomplete list of statistics and scores, largely dependent on newspaper summaries.

Player Touchdowns Extra points Field goals Points
Henry Seibels 18 0 0 90
Rex Kilpatrick 11 0 0 55
Warbler Wilson 8 0 0 40
Quintard Gray 6 0 0 30
Daniel Hull 4 0 0 20
Ormond Simkins 2 10 0 20
Bart Sims 0 18 0 18
Bunny Pearce 1 9 0 14
Deacon Jones 2 0 0 10
Richard Bolling 1 0 0 5
Unaccounted for v. LSU 3 0 0 15
Free kick v. UNC 0 0 1 5
Total 56 37 1 322

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ cf. Genesis 2:2
  2. ^ Ormond was the son of William Stewart Simkins, who may have fired the first shot of the Civil War.
  3. ^ The reasons for football's success at Sewanee included its status as one of the first teams in the region and the school session running through the summer, including a long winter break, which gave the team more practice compared to its opponents.[4]
  4. ^ There is little evidence today at Sewanee of the team's former success. The school does not have a large stadium and is part of NCAA Division III, which offers players no athletic scholarships. Although Sewanee was a charter member of the NCAA's Southeastern Conference when it was formed in 1932, the Tigers never won a game and withdrew from the conference in 1940.
  5. ^ He had called back a prior touchdown before Bivins scored.[31]
  6. ^ The Vanderbilt Hustler remarked on Suter's selection of 9 of his own players, "Only nine! He surely must have been thinking of a baseball team".[38]
  7. ^ Sewanee beat such teams as the 1971 Nebraska Cornhuskers football team and 1961 Alabama Crimson Tide football team.[44]

Endnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Grantland Rice". Reading Eagle. November 27, 1941. 
  2. ^ Patrick Dorsey (September 23, 2011). "Sewanee, long-lost member of the SEC". Archived from the original on January 11, 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Larry Dagenhart. "Kings of the Mountain" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016.  Part 2 Part 3
  4. ^ Givens 2003, pp. 42-43
  5. ^ "Sewanee's Football Iron Men of 1899". American, History and Life. 32 (3-4): 1104. 1995. 
  6. ^ a b "Georgia Plays Sewanee". Atlanta Constitution. October 21, 1899. p. 8. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  7. ^ "1899". cfbdatawarehouse.com. Retrieved December 29, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c "Sewanee Wins From Georgia". Atlanta Constitution. October 22, 1899. p. 4. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "The Tech Game". The Sewanee Purple. 14 (9). October 24, 1899. Archived from the original on May 2, 2016. 
  10. ^ "Sewanee Team Is Victorious". The Atlanta Constitution. October 24, 1899. p. 5. Retrieved December 22, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  11. ^ a b c "Sewanee Beats Tennessee". The Courier Journal. October 29, 1899. p. 17. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  12. ^ a b "Tennessee Downed". The Sewanee Purple. 14 (8). October 31, 1899. Archived from the original on October 25, 2015. 
  13. ^ a b c "Again We Win". The Sewanee Purple. 14 (9). November 7, 1899. Archived from the original on October 25, 2015. 
  14. ^ Givens 2003, p. 26
  15. ^ Rachel Zoll (November 27, 1999). "1899 Sewanee 'Iron Men' remembered". Herald-Journal. 
  16. ^ see e. g. Rufus Ward (February 5, 2012). "Ask Rufus: The greatest football team ever". Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. 
  17. ^ "Sewanee's Football Tour". The Daily Times. November 16, 1899. p. 3. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  18. ^ a b c d "Football". The Daily Picayune. New Orleans. November 10, 1899. p. 8. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  19. ^ a b "Sewanee 10, Texas A. And M. 0.". The Daily Picayune. New Orleans. November 11, 1899. p. 8. Archived from the original on April 18, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  20. ^ Scott 2008, p. 22
  21. ^ a b c "Olive Still Blue But Very Hopeful". The Daily Picayune. New Orleans. November 12, 1899. p. 8. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  22. ^ a b "Sewanee Keeps It Up". The Nashville American. November 14, 1899. p. 6. Archived from the original on November 26, 2015. Retrieved November 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  23. ^ Givens, p. 32
  24. ^ "Tennesseans Invincible". The Times-Democrat. November 14, 1899. p. 8. Retrieved December 22, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  25. ^ "Sewanee Downs Mississippi". Natchez Democrat. November 15, 1899. p. 2. Retrieved December 22, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  26. ^ a b c d "Sewanee Wins Again". The Nashville American. November 21, 1899. p. 6. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  27. ^ "Cumberland Not In It". The Sewanee Purple. November 28, 1899. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i W. R. Tichenor (December 1, 1899). "Sewanee Wins From Auburn". Atlanta Constitution. p. 3. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  29. ^ Woodruff 1928, pp. 96-97
  30. ^ Jeremy Henderson. "John Heisman: Auburn 'the first to show what could be done' with the hurry-up offense". The War Eagle Reader. Archived from the original on November 21, 2015. 
  31. ^ a b Woodruff 1928, p. 100
  32. ^ Givens 2003, p. 94-95
  33. ^ a b Woodruff 1928, pp. 98-99
  34. ^ a b c d e f "Sewanee Outkicks Carolina And Wins the Fiercest Football Contest of the Season". The Atlanta Constitution. December 3, 1899. p. 8. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  35. ^ Woodruff 1928, p. 102
  36. ^ "All-Southern Football Team". Outing. Outing Publishing Company. 35: 533. 1900. Retrieved March 5, 2015 – via Google books.  open access publication – free to read
  37. ^ "[1]". The Tar Heel. January 31, 1900. p. 2. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved April 10, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  38. ^ "Which?". The Tar Heel. February 21, 1900. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. 
  39. ^ "An All-Southern College Eleven". Orange and Blue. March 28, 1900. Retrieved March 5, 2015 – via archive.org.  open access publication – free to read
  40. ^ "South's Football Players Analyzed". The Daily Picayune. New Orleans. February 11, 1900. p. 8. Retrieved March 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  41. ^ Givens 2003, p. 124
  42. ^ Walsh 2007, p. 129
  43. ^ Barnhart 2008, p. 248
  44. ^ Cam Martin (May 9, 2012). "Sewanee puffs out chest with historic title". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. 
  45. ^ "1899". Sewanee Alumni News: 13. 1949. 

Books[edit]