Sicilian Stage

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The Sicilian European Stage is a European faunal stage in the Pleistocene of the Geologic time scale. While earlier defined as between 0.781 ± 0.005 Ma and 0.26 Ma (million years ago), in the middle of the Pleistocene epoch, more accurate data places it at the end of the early Pleistocene, ending at 0.781 ± 0.005 Ma, and makes it a sub-stage.

The Sicilian Stage was originally proposed by Doderlein, in 1872,[1] and thought to occur after the end of the Calabrian. The Milazzian faunal stage is sometimes considered to be the last part of the Sicilian, and sometimes to be after it.

In 1991, Rio et al. proposed placing the Sicilian as a sub-stage below (before) the Brunhes–Matuyama magnetic reversal, as part of a newly defined Selinuntian Stage which would be divided into the Santernian, Emilian, and Sicilian sub-stages, completely replacing the Calabrian.[2] Although the problems with the Calabrian pointed out by Rio were acknowledged, the name "Calabrian" was not rejected;[3][4] however, the Sicilian was recognized by some as the third sub-stage of the Calabrian.,[5] and continues to be used.[6]

Representative Fauna[edit]

  • Tursiops osennae (Simonelli, 1911), a porpoise [7]


  1. ^ Doderlein, Pietro (1872). Note illustrative della carta geologica del Modenese e del Reggiano: Memoria III. Modena: Soliani.
  2. ^ Rio, D.; Sprovieri, R. & Thunell, R. (1991). "Pliocene-lower Pleistocene chronostratigraphy: A re-evaluation of Mediterranean type sections". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 103 (8): 1049–1058. Bibcode:1991GSAB..103.1049R. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1991)103<1049:PLPCAR>2.3.CO;2.
  3. ^ Cita, Maria Bianca; et al. (2006). "Calabrian and Ionian: A proposal for the definition of Mediterranean stages for the Lower and Middle Pleistocene" (PDF). Episodes. 29 (2): 107–114. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2006/v29i2/004. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 December 2013.
  4. ^ Massari, F.; et al. (2013). "Interplay between tectonics and glacio-eustasy: Pleistocene succession of the Crotone basin, Calabria (southern Italy)". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 114 (10): 1183–1209. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(2002)114<1183:IBTAGE>2.0.CO;2.
  5. ^ Berggren, William A.; et al. (1995). "Late Neogene chronology: New perspectives in high-resolution stratigraphy" (PDF). Geological Society of America Bulletin. 107 (11): 1272–1287. Bibcode:1995GSAB..107.1272B. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1995)107<1272:LNCNPI>2.3.CO;2.
  6. ^ Ascione, A. & Romano, P. (1999). "Vertical movements on the eastern margin of the Tyrrhenian extensional basin. New data from Mt. Bulgheria (Southern Apennines, Italy)". Tectonophysics. 315 (1): 337–356. Bibcode:1999Tectp.315..337A. doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(99)00279-6.
  7. ^ Kellogg, Remington (March 1928) "The History of Whales – Their Adaptation to Life in the Water" The Quarterly Review of Biology 3(1): pp. 29–76, page 60


  • "Sicilian European Stage". The International Commission on Stratigraphy. 2009. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009.
  • Gignoux, M. (1910) "Sur la Classification du Pliocene et du Quarternaire de I'talie du Sud" Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences 150: pp. 841–844

Preceded by
Calabrian Stage
1.806 – 0.781
European Faunal Stage
Sicilian Stage

0.781 – 0.26
Succeeded by
Tyrrhenian Stage
0.26 – 0.01143