Siege of Valenciennes (1676–77)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Siege of Valenciennes
Part of the Franco-Dutch War
Jean+Alaux,+dit+le+Romain,+Prise+de+Valenciennes.+17+mars+1677.jpg
Musketeers of the Guard entering Valenciennes
Date28 February 1677 – 17 March 1677
Location
Result French victory
Belligerents
 France  Spain
Commanders and leaders
Kingdom of France duc de Luxembourg
Kingdom of France Vauban
Spain Richebourg
Strength
35,000 maximum 1,150 plus 2,000-3,000 auxilaries

The Siege of Valenciennes took place from 28 February to 17 March 1677, during the Franco-Dutch War, when Valenciennes, then in the Spanish Netherlands, was attacked by a French army under the duc de Luxembourg. Siege operations were supervised by French military engineer Vauban and the town surrendered on 17 March; it was formally ceded to France by Spain under the August 1678 Treaty of Nijmegen.

Background[edit]

Sébastien, Marquis de Vauban (1633-1707), who supervised siege operations at Valenciennes

In the 1667-1668 War of Devolution, France captured most of the Spanish Netherlands and the Spanish province of Franche-Comté but relinquished much of their gains under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, agreed with the Triple Alliance of the Dutch Republic, England and Sweden.[1] To split the Alliance, Louis XIV paid Sweden to remain neutral, while signing an alliance with England against the Dutch in the 1670 Treaty of Dover.[2]

France invaded the Dutch Republic in May 1672 at the start of the Franco-Dutch War and initially seemed to have won an overwhelming victory. However, the Dutch position stabilised, while concern at French gains brought support from Frederick William of Brandenburg-Prussia, Emperor Leopold and Charles II of Spain.[3] France retained the Dutch stronghold of Maastricht, but withdrew from the Netherlands in 1673, additional fronts opening in the Rhineland and the Spanish Pyrenees.[4]

The French position weakened in early 1674, first when Denmark-Norway joined the Alliance, then with the February Treaty of Westminster that made peace between England and the Dutch Republic.[5] Despite this, by the end of 1674, France had re-captured Franche-Comté, while making significant gains in Alsace and the focus now changed to consolidation.[6] An effective Allied response in Flanders was hampered by power struggles in Madrid, while Spanish control over the Spanish Netherlands was by now largely nominal.[7]

Peace talks began at Nijmegen in the summer of 1676 but Louis usually took the offensive before agreeing terms, which enabled him to negotiate from strength. The French captured Condé-sur-l'Escaut, Bouchain, Maubeuge and Bavay during 1676, while repulsing an attempt to retake Maastricht.[8] The plan for 1677 was to take Valenciennes, Cambrai and St Omer, completing the French 'frontière de fer' or 'iron border;' Louis calculated this would leave the Dutch little reason to continue.[9]

In the winter of 1676/1677, French Secretary of State of War, the Marquis de Louvois, assembled supply depots along the border with the Spanish Netherlands. This allowed the campaign to open in February, a month earlier than usual, providing time to capture Valenciennes and Cambrai before the Dutch and Spanish could intervene.[9] Marshall Luxembourg was given overall command of the campaign in Flanders and arrived before Valenciennes on 28 February, with around 35,000 men. [10]

The battle[edit]

Siege of Valenciennes (1676–77) is located in Belgium
Ypres
Ypres
Valenciennes
Valenciennes
St Omer
St Omer
Cambrai
Cambrai
Cassel
Cassel
Saint-Ghislain
Saint-Ghislain
Maastricht
Maastricht
Key locations in Northern France and the Spanish Netherlands

Valenciennes was positioned on the Rhonelle, a tributary of the Scheldt (French; French: l'Escaut), a major trade route giving access to the sea at Antwerp. Until the advent of railways in the 19th century, goods and supplies were largely transported by water and campaigns often focused on gaining access to these.[11]

The Spanish Governor was Henri de Melun, Marquis de Richebourg (1623-1690), an experienced soldier and brother of the Prince d'Epinoy, senior members of the French-speaking nobility in the Spanish Netherlands. He had around 1,150 regular troops, plus two to three thousand civilian auxiliaries and adequate supplies of food and arms.[12] His position was hopeless without relief and Louvois' preparations meant the Dutch were still assembling troops and supplies. Since it was accepted the best defended town could not be held indefinitely, the primary objective for commanders like Richebourg was to occupy the attacking force as long as possible.[13]

Map of Valenciennes in the 17th century.

Siege operations were supervised by the French military engineer, Vauban; the bombardment began on 1 March but siege works were delayed by heavy rain. For propaganda purposes, Louis often appeared at major sieges and joined Luxembourg at Valenciennes, along with other subordinate commanders including his brother, Philippe of Orléans, d'Humières and La Feuillade.[14]

Work on the trenches finally began on 8 March, preparing for an assault on the Porte d'Anzin, the strongest part of the defences but where the ground was driest. By 16 March, Vauban felt they were close enough to launch an attack and proposed they do so by day. This surprised Louis and Luxembourg, as normal practice was to do so at night but he argued it would also surprise the defenders, while allowing better co-ordination among the attacking force.[15]

This was approved and the French artillery kept up a continuous bombardment during the night of 16th/17th, while an assault force of 4,000 moved into the trenches, including the elite Musketeers of the Guard. At 9:00 am on 17 March, the attackers formed two columns and stormed the walls; they achieved complete surprise and quickly over-ran the defenders, capturing a bridge over the Ronnelle that controlled access to the main city. Louis intended to annex Valenciennes, while the conventions of siege warfare accepted that as long as defenders surrendered when 'a practicable breach' had been made, both garrisons and civilians were given generous terms.[16]

As both sides wanted to minimise the looting that often followed a successful assault, Richebourg promptly surrendered and Luxembourg withdrew the attacking troops after the city council agreed to pay a ransom.[17]

Aftermath[edit]

The main army moved onto Cambrai, while 12,000 troops were detached to take St Omer, led by Philippe of Orléans and Humières. An attempt by William of Orange to relieve St-Omer was defeated at Cassel on 11 April and Cambrai surrendered on 17 April, followed by St-Omer on 20th.[18] The war continued until the Treaties of Nijmegen in August 1678, when Spain ceded Saint-Omer, Cassel, Aire, Ypres, Cambrai, Valenciennes and Maubeuge; Ypres was returned in 1697, but this fixed France's northern frontier close to where it remains today.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lynn, John (1996). The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667-1714 (Modern Wars In Perspective). Longman. p. 109. ISBN 978-0582056299.
  2. ^ Lynn, p.109-110.
  3. ^ Smith, Rhea (1965). Spain; A Modern History. University of Michigan Press. p. 200. ISBN 978-0472071500.
  4. ^ Lynn 1999, p. 117.
  5. ^ Davenport, Frances (1917). "European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies". p. 238. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  6. ^ Young, William (2004). International Politics and Warfare in the Age of Louis XIV and Peter the Great. iUniverse. pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-0595813988.
  7. ^ Van Nimwegen, 2010, p. 499
  8. ^ Young, p.134.
  9. ^ a b Van Nimwegen, 2010, p. 498
  10. ^ Van Nimwegen, 2010, p. 500
  11. ^ Childs, John (1991). The Nine Years' War and the British Army, 1688-1697: The Operations in the Low Countries (2013 ed.). Manchester University Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 0719089964.
  12. ^ Visconti Primi, Jean Baptiste (1678). La campagne du roy en l'année 1677 (2018 ed.). HACHETTE LIVRE-BNF. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-2012679610.
  13. ^ Afflerbach, Holger (ed), Strachan, Hew (ed) (2012). How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender. OUP. p. 159. ISBN 0199693625.
  14. ^ De Périni, Hardÿ (1896). Batailles françaises. Ernest Flammarion, Paris. p. 186.
  15. ^ De Périni, 1896, p. 187
  16. ^ Afflerbach & Strachan, 2012, p. 160
  17. ^ De Périni, 1896, p. 189
  18. ^ Van Nimwegen, 2010, p. 502
  19. ^ Nolan, Cathal J (2008). Wars of the age of Louis XIV, 1650–1715. ABC-CLIO. p. 128. ISBN 0-313-33046-8.

Sources[edit]

  • Afflerbach, Holger (ed), Strachan, Hew (ed); How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender; (OUP, 2012);
  • Childs, John; The Nine Years' War and the British Army, 1688-1697: The Operations in the Low Countries; (Manchester University Press, 2013 ed);
  • De Périni, Hardÿ; Batailles françaises, 1660-1700; (Ernest Flammarion, Paris, 1896);
  • Lynn, John; The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714; (Longman, 1999);
  • Nolan, Cathal; Wars of the age of Louis XIV, 1650–1715; (ABC-CLIO, 2008);
  • Van Nimwegen, Olaf; The Dutch Army and the Military Revolutions, 1588-1688; (Boydell Press, 2010);
  • Young, William; International Politics and Warfare in the Age of Louis XIV and Peter the Great; (iUniverse, 2004);


Coordinates: 50°21′25.61″N 3°31′6.00″E / 50.3571139°N 3.5183333°E / 50.3571139; 3.5183333