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Kowhai flowers.jpg
Sophora tetraptera
Scientific classification

(Spreng. ex DC. 1825) Cardoso et al. 2013[1][2]

See text.

  • Euchresteae (Nakai) H.Ohashi 1973
  • Sophora group sensu Polhill 1994
  • Sophoreae sensu stricto
  • Sophoreae sensu Polhill 1981 pro parte 7
  • Thermopsideae Yakovlev 1972

The tribe Sophoreae is one of the subdivisions of the plant family Fabaceae. Traditionally this tribe has been used as a wastebasket taxon to accommodate genera of Faboideae which exhibit actinomorphic, rather than zygomorphic floral symmetry and/or incompletely differentiated petals and free stamens.[2][3][4] Various morphological[5][6][7][8] and molecular[9][10][11][12][13] analyses indicated that Sophoreae as traditionally circumscribed was polyphyletic.[14] This led to a re-circumscription of Sophoreae, which resulted in the transfer of many genera to other tribes (Amburaneae, Angylocalyceae, Baphieae, Camoensieae, the Cladrastis clade, Exostyleae, Leptolobieae, Ormosieae, Podalyrieae, and the Vataireoids).[2] This also necessitated the inclusion of two former tribes, Euchresteae and Thermopsideae, in the new definition of Sophoreae.[2][15][16][17][18] Tribe Sophoreae, as currently circumscribed, consistently forms a monophyletic clade in molecular phylogenetic analyses.[2][12][17][19][20][21][22] The Sophoreae arose 40.8 ± 2.4 million years ago (in the Eocene).[8][23]

Description of morphological synapomorphies has yet to be undertaken, but members of this tribe can be distinguished by the relatively simple flowers, unspecialized pinnate leaves, accumulation of quinolizidine alkaloids,[24] and the presence of free stamens.[2] The tribe does have a node-based definition: the crown clade originating from the most recent common ancestor of Bolusanthus speciosus (Bolus) Harms and Sophora davidii (Franch.) Pavol..[23]


Sophoreae comprises the following genera:[2]


  1. ^ Often included in Sophora, rather than treated as a segregate genus.


  1. ^ Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S Afr J Bot. 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot. 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001.
  3. ^ Polhill RM. (1981). "Sophoreae". In Polhill RM, Raven PH. Advances in Legume Systematics, Parts 1 and 2. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 213–230. ISBN 9780855212247.
  4. ^ Polhill RM. (1994). "Classification of the Leguminosae". In Bisby FA, Buckingham J, Harborne JB. Phytochemical Dictionary of the Leguminosae, Plants and Their Constituents, Volume 1. Chapman and Hall/CRC Press, London. pp. xxv–xlvii. ISBN 9780412397707.
  5. ^ Chappill JA. (1995). "Cladistic analysis of the Leguminosae: the development of an explicit hypothesis". In Crisp MD, Doyle JJ. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 7: Phylogeny. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 1–9. ISBN 0947643796.
  6. ^ Herendeen PS. (1995). "Phylogenetic relationships of the tribe Swartzieae". In Crisp MD, Doyle JJ. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 7: Phylogeny. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 123–132. ISBN 0947643796.
  7. ^ Ferguson IK, Schrire BD, Shepperton R. (1994). "Pollen morphology of the tribe Sophoreae and relationships between subfamilies Caesalpinioideae and Papilionoideae". In Ferguson IK, Tucker SC. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 6: Structural Botany. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 53–96. ISBN 0947643788.
  8. ^ a b Crepet WL, Herendeen PS. (1992). "Papilionoid flowers from the early Eocene of southeastern North America". In Herendeen PS, Dilcher DL. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 4: The Fossil Record. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 43–55. ISBN 0947643400.
  9. ^ Käss E, Wink M. (1996). "Molecular evolution of the Leguminosae: Phylogeny of the three subfamilies based on rbcL-sequences". Biochem Syst Ecol. 24 (5): 365–378. doi:10.1016/0305-1978(96)00032-4.
  10. ^ Doyle JJ, Doyle JL, Ballenger JA, Palmer JD. (1996). "The distribution and phylogenetic significance of a 50-Kb chloroplast DNA inversion in the flowering plant family Leguminosae". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 5 (2): 429–438. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0038. PMID 8728401.
  11. ^ Doyle JJ, Doyle JL, Ballenger JA, Dickson EE, Kajita T, Ohashi H. (1997). "A phylogeny of the chloroplast gene rbcL in the Leguminosae: taxonomic correlations and insights into the evolution of nodulation". Am J Bot. 84 (4): 541–554. doi:10.2307/2446030. PMID 21708606.
  12. ^ a b Pennington RT, Lavin M, Ireland H, Klitgaard B, Preston J, Hu J-M. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships of basal papilionoid legumes based upon sequences of the chloroplast trnL intron". Syst Bot. 55 (5): 818–836. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.537.
  13. ^ Pennington RT, Klitgaard BB, Ireland H, Lavin M. (2000). "New insights into floral evolution of basal Papilionoideae from molecular phylogenies". In Herendeen PS, Bruneau A. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 9. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 233–248. ISBN 184246017X.
  14. ^ Pennington RT, Stirton CH, Schrire BD. (2005). "Tribe Sophoreae". In Lewis G, Schrire B, Mackinder B, Lock M. Legumes of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 227–249. ISBN 1900347806.
  15. ^ Lock JM. (2005). "Tribe Thermopsideae". In Lewis G, Schrire B, Mackinder B, Lock M. Legumes of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 263–265. ISBN 1900347806.
  16. ^ Ohashi H. (2005). "Tribe Euchresteae". In Lewis G, Schrire B, Mackinder B, Lock M. Legumes of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 260–261. ISBN 1900347806.
  17. ^ a b LPWG [Legume Phylogeny Working Group] (2013). "Legume phylogeny and classification in the 21st century: progress, prospects and lessons for other species-rich clades". Taxon. 62 (2): 217–248. doi:10.12705/622.8.
  18. ^ Wang HC, Sun H, Compton JA, Yang JB. (2006). "A phylogeny of Thermopsideae (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) inferred from nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences". Bot J Linn Soc. 151: 365–373. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2006.00512.x.
  19. ^ Hu J-M, Lavin M, Wojciechowski MF, Sanderson MJ. (2002). "Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal ITS/5.85 sequences in the tribe Millettieae (Fabaceae): PoecilantheCyclolobium, the core Millettieae, and the Callerya group". Syst Bot. 27 (4): 722–733. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-27.4.722.
  20. ^ Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot. 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. PMID 23221500.
  21. ^ Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M, Sanderson MJ. (2004). "A phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the plastid matK gene resolves many well-supported subclades within the family". Am J Bot. 91 (11): 1846–1862. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1846. PMID 21652332.
  22. ^ Kajita T, Ohashi H, Takeishi Y, Bailey CD, Doyle JJ. (2001). "RbcL and legume phylogeny, with particular reference to Phaseoleae, Millettieae, and allies". Syst Bot. 26 (3): 515–536. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.515.
  23. ^ a b Lavin M, Herendeen PS, Wojciechowski MF. (2005). "Evolutionary rates analysis of Leguminosae implicates a rapid diversification of lineages during the tertiary". Syst Biol. 54 (4): 575–94. doi:10.1080/10635150590947131. PMID 16085576.
  24. ^ Wink M, Mohamed GIA. (2003). "Evolution of chemical defense traits in the Leguminosae: mapping of distribution patterns of secondary metabolites on a molecular phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences of the rbcL gene". Biochem Syst Ecol. 31 (8): 897–917. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(03)00085-1.
  25. ^ Edwards D, Hawkins JA. (2007). "Are Cape floral clades the same age? Contemporaneous origins of two lineages in the genistoids s.l. (Fabaceae)". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 45 (3): 952–70. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.09.014. PMID 17980626.
  26. ^ Uysal T, Ertuğrul K, Bozkurt M. (2014). "A new genus segregated from Thermopsis (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae): Vuralia". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 300 (7): 1627–1637. doi:10.1007/s00606-014-0988-x.

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