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Spring steel is a name given to a wide range of steels used widely in the manufacture of springs, prominently in Automotive and Industrial suspension applications. These steels are generally [1 ] low-alloy, medium-carbon steel or high-carbon steel with a very high yield strength. This allows objects made of spring steel to return to their original shape despite significant deflection or twisting.
Many grades of steel can be hardened and tempered to suit application as a spring, however some steels exhibit more desirable characteristics for spring applications.
Common Spring steel grades
SAE grade (ASTM grade)
Typical hardness [HRC]
Maximum hardness [HRC]
[2 ] 0.70–0.80%
C, 0.50–0.80% Mn, max. 0.030% P, max. 0.035% S [3 ] 62-78 ksi (430-530 MPa)
[4 ] 44–50
[5 ] 50
Scaleless blue steel
C, 0.2-0.6% Mn, 0.1-0.3% Si [6 ]
Piano wire, Music wire
[2 ] 0.90–1.03%
C, 0.30–0.50% Mn, max. 0.030% P, max. 0.035% S [7 ] 60–75 ksi (413–517 MPa) Annealed
[5 ] 59
Blue spring steel
[8 ] 0.55–0.65%
C, 0.75–1.00% Mn, 0.70–0.90% Cr [9 ] 97 ksi (669 MPa)
Chrome-silicon spring steel; fatigue-resistant
50CrV4 (EN 10277)
0.47-0.55% C, max. 1.10% Mn, 0.90-1.20% Cr, 0.10-0.20% V, max. 0.40% Si
Old British "735 steel"
C, 0.70–0.95% Mn, 1.80–2.20% Si [9 ]
stainless steel (A666) [10 ] 0.08–0.15%
C, max. 2.00% Mn, 16.00–18.00% Cr, 6.00–8.00% Ni [9 ] 147 ksi (1014 MPa)
Applications [ edit ]
piano wire such as ASTM A228 (0.80–0.95% carbon), which is also known as music wire, [11 ] spring clamps, antennas, springs, and vehicle coil springs, leaf springs, and s-tines. Spring steel is also commonly used in the manufacture of metal swords used for stage combat due to its resistance to snapping or shattering.
Spring steel is one of the most popular materials used in the fabrication of
lockpicks due to its pliability and resilience. Tubular spring steel is used in some of the smaller aircraft's landing gear due to its ability to absorb the shock from landing & also acts like damping.
It is also commonly used in the making of
knives, especially for the Nepalese kukri.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Engineering.com (2006-10-23). "Springs".
^ a b (116th ed.), McMaster-Carr, p. 3630 McMaster-Carr catalog , retrieved . 3 September 2010
^ "74-75 Carbon Spring Steel". Precision Steel Warehouse . Retrieved . 5 December 2013
^ "SAE-AISI 1074 (G10740) Carbon Steel". MakeItFrom.com . Retrieved . 21 August 2015
^ a b http://www.admiralsteel.com/pdf/catalog.pdf
^ "ASTM A228 (SWP-A, K08500) Music Wire". MakeItFrom.com . Retrieved . 21 August 2015
^ "95 Carbon Spring Steel". Precision Steel Warehouse . Retrieved . 5 December 2013
^ (116th ed.), McMaster-Carr, p. 3632 McMaster-Carr catalog , retrieved . 3 September 2010
^ a b c Oberg, Erik, and F D. Jones. Machinery's Handbook. 15th ed. New York: The Industrial Press, 1956. 1546–1551. Print.
^ (116th ed.), McMaster-Carr, p. 3662 McMaster-Carr catalog , retrieved . 3 September 2010
^ Oberg et al. 2000, p. 286.
Bibliography [ edit ]
Oberg, Erik; Franklin D. Jones; Holbrook L. Horton; Henry H. Ryffel (2000). Christopher J. McCauley, Riccardo Heald, and Muhammed Iqbal Hussain, ed. (26th ed.). Ratnagiri: Industrial Press Inc. Machinery's Handbook ISBN 0-8311-2635-3.