Spytihněv II (also Spitihnew or Spytihnev) (1031 – 28 January 1061) was the duke of Bohemia from March 1055 until his death in 1061. He was the eldest son of Bretislaus I. His coronation was celebrated with the first known rendition of Lord, Have Mercy on Us. After succeeding to the throne, he went at once to Regensburg to receive imperial confirmation. This loyalty to the Holy Roman Empire did not prevent him from expelling all Germans from his lands. This new anti-German policy continued to his death.
The Investiture Controversy impending, Pope Victor II sought the alliance of the Bohemian duke. Thus, Rome granted the right to Spytihněv of wearing the mitre and tunic of a bishop for the annual sum of 100 marks. His brothers having inherited Moravia, Spytihněv tried to reduce their authority by arresting 300 Moravian magnates and stripping his brothers of their rights in the province. Thus, Vratislaus of Olomouc fled to Hungary in 1058.