Stanene

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Lattice image of stanene flake, with the middle inset showing a large-area electron micrograph of the sample. The right inset is an electron diffraction pattern confirming the hexagonal structure.[1]

Stanene[2][3][4] is a 2D material and a 2D topological insulator. It is composed of tin atoms arranged in a single, hexagonal layer, in a manner similar to graphene. Its name combines stannum (the Latin name for tin) with the suffix -ene used by graphene.[5]

Stanene was theoretically predicted to be a 2D topological insulator in 2011,[6] and its functionalized derivations as topological insulators were predicted in 2013.[7] Both may display dissipationless superconductive currents at their edges near room temperature. The addition of fluorine atoms to the tin lattice could extend the operating temperature up to 100 °C.[8] This would make it practical for use in integrated circuits to make smaller, faster and more energy efficient computers.

Synthesis[edit]

The synthesis and study of optical properties of stanene was claimed by researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.[9] Stanene synthesis was reported by a second group in 2015, using molecular beam epitaxy on a substrate of bismuth telluride.[10][11] Theoretical research suggested Ag(111) surface may be a good substrate to grow stanene epitaxially.[12]

Reactivity[edit]

First principle calculations have predicted that stanene is very reactive against common air pollutants such as NOx and COx and is able to trap and dissociate them at low temperatures.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Saxena, Sumit; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Pratap; Shukla, Shobha (2016). "Stanene: Atomically Thick Free-standing Layer of 2D Hexagonal Tin". Scientific Reports. 6: 31073. Bibcode:2016NatSR...631073S. PMC 4974617Freely accessible. PMID 27492139. doi:10.1038/srep31073. 
  2. ^ DOE/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (2013-11-21). "Will 2-D tin be the next super material?". Sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  3. ^ "Will 2-D tin be the next super material?". Phys.org. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  4. ^ Garcia, J. C.; de Lima, D. B.; Assali, L. V. C.; Justo, J. F. (2011). "Group IV graphene- and graphane-like nanosheets". J. Phys. Chem. C. 115 (27): 13242–13246. doi:10.1021/jp203657w. 
  5. ^ Singh, Ritu (November 24, 2013). "Tin could be the next super material for computer chips". Zeenews. 
  6. ^ Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Jiang, Hua; Yao, Yugui (2011). "Low-energy effective Hamiltonian involving spin-orbit coupling in silicene and two-dimensional germanium and tin" (pdf). Phys. Rev. B. Phys. Rev. B. 19 (84): 195430. Bibcode:2011PhRvB..84s5430L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.195430. 
  7. ^ Xu, Y.; Yan, B.; Zhang, H. J.; Wang, J.; Xu, G.; Tang, P.; Duan, W.; Zhang, S. C. (2013). "Large-Gap Quantum Spin Hall Insulators in Tin Films". Physical Review Letters. 111 (13): 136804. Bibcode:2013PhRvL.111m6804X. PMID 24116803. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.136804. 
  8. ^ "Will 2-D Tin be the Next Super Material?" (Press release). Stanford University: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. November 21, 2013. 
  9. ^ Saxena, Sumit; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Pratap; Shukla, Shobha (May 20, 2015), "Stanene: Atomically Thick Free-standing Layer of 2D Hexagonal Tin", Nature Scientific Reports, 6: 31073, Bibcode:2016NatSR...631073S, PMC 4974617Freely accessible, PMID 27492139, arXiv:1505.05062Freely accessible, doi:10.1038/srep31073 
  10. ^ Cesare, Chris (2015). "Physicists announce graphene's latest cousin: stanene". Nature News. 524 (7563): 18. doi:10.1038/nature.2015.18113. 
  11. ^ Feng-feng Zhu, Wei-jiong Chen; Xu, Yong; Chun-lei Gao, Dan-dan Guan; Can-hua, Liu; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Jin-feng, Jia (2015). "Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional stanene". Nature Materials. 14 (10): 1020–1025. Bibcode:2015NatMa..14.1020Z. doi:10.1038/nmat4384. 
  12. ^ Gao, Junfeng; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei (2016). "Exploring Ag (111) Substrate for Epitaxially Growing Monolayer Stanene: A First-Principles Study". Scientific Reports. 6: 29107. Bibcode:2016NatSR...629107G. PMC 4931515Freely accessible. PMID 27373464. doi:10.1038/srep29107. 
  13. ^ Takahashi, L.; Takahashi, K. (2015). "Low temperature pollutant trapping and dissociation over two-dimensional tin". Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics C. 17 (33): 21394–21396. Bibcode:2015PCCP...1721394T. doi:10.1039/C5CP03382A. 

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