Staphylococcus xylosus

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Staphylococcus xylosus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Cocci
Order: Bacillales
Family: Staphylococcaceae
Genus: Staphylococcus
Species: S. xylosus
Binomial name
Staphylococcus xylosus
Schleifer & Kloos 1975

Staphylococcus xylosus is a species of bacteria belonging to the genus Staphylococcus. It is a Gram-positive bacterium that forms clusters of cells. Like most staphylococcal species, it is coagulase-negative and exists as a commensal on the skin of humans and animals and in the environment.[1]

Staphylococcus xylosus may be used as CNC (coagulase-negative cocci) in salami fermentation.[2]

It appears to be far more common in animals than in humans. S. xylosus has very occasionally been identified as a cause of human infection, but in some cases it may have been misidentified.


S. xylosus is normally sensitive to fleroxacin, methicillin, penicillin, teicoplanin, erythromycin and tetracycline, and resistant to novobiocin. It is highly active biochemically, producing acid from a wide variety of carbohydrates.

Acid and gas are produced from D-(+)-galactose, D-(+)-mannose, D-(+)-mannitol, maltose, and lactose. Caseinolytic and gelatinase activities are normally present.

It normally produces slime but not capsules. This ability is lost upon subculture. Its cell wall peptidoglycan is similar to the L-Lys-Gly3-5 L-Ser0.6-1.5 type found in predominantly human species.

Clinical importance[edit]

Staphylococcus xylosus is a member of the skin flora of humans and other animals. It has been associated with:

  • Nasal dermatitis in gerbils
  • Pyelonephritis in humans
  • Avian staphylococcosis
  • Bovine intermammary infection

It is also found in milk, cheese, and sausage.


  1. ^ Karl H. Schleifer and Wesley E. Kloos: Isolation and Characterization of Staphylococci from Human Skin I. Amended Descriptions of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Descriptions of Three New Species: Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus xylosus. Int J Syst Bacteriol January 1975 25:50-61; doi:10.1099/00207713-25-1-50.
  2. ^ Aquilanti, L., Garofalo, C., Osimani, A. and Clementi, F.: Ecology of lactic acid bacteria and coagulase negative cocci in fermented dry sausages manufactured in Italy and other Mediterranean countries: an overview, in: International Food Research Journal 23(2): 429-445 (2016)

Further reading[edit]

  • Vela, Javier; Hildebrandt, Kelsie; Metcalfe, Andrew; Rempel, Heidi; Bittman, Shabtai; Topp, Edward; Diara, Moussa (December 2012). "Characterization of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from broiler chicken barn bioaerosol". Poultry Science. 91 (12): 3003–3012. doi:10.3382/ps.2012-02302. 

External links[edit]