Starr sting pain scale

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The Starr sting pain scale was created by the entomologist Christopher Starr as a scale to compare the overall pain of hymenopteran stings on a four-point scale, an expansion of the "pain index" originally created by Justin Schmidt.[1][2] 1 is the lowest pain rating; 4 is the highest.

Scale[edit]

Rating Insects
1.0 Southern fire ant (Solenopsis xyloni)
2.0 Honeybee, Africanized bee, Bumblebee, Yellowjacket ("Common wasp")
3.0 Velvet ant, Paper wasp
4.0 Tarantula hawk (Pepsis grossa), Bullet ant (Paraponera clavata), Executioner wasp (Polistes carnifex)[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Evans, David L. (1990). "Table 14.1". Insect Defenses: Adaptive Mechanisms and Strategies of Prey and Predators. ISBN 0-88706-896-0.
  • Tom Turpin On Six Legs "Insects Bite and Sting for Good Reasons "
  • David B. Williams DesertUSA "Tarantula Hawks"

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Starr, C.K. (1985). "A simple pain scale for field comparison of Hymenopteran stings" (PDF). Journal of Entomological Science. 20 (2): 225–231.
  2. ^ Hoyt, E.; Schultz, T., eds. (2002). Insect Lives, Stories of Mystery and Romance from a Hidden World. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-28277-8.

External links[edit]