Scoville scale

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A display of hot peppers and the Scoville scale at a supermarket in Houston, Texas

The Scoville scale is the measurement of the pungency (spicy heat) of chili peppers or other spicy foods as reported in Scoville heat units (SHU),[1] a function of capsaicin concentration. The scale is named after its creator, American pharmacist Wilbur Scoville. His method, devised in 1912, is known as the Scoville Organoleptic Test.[2]

The Scoville scale is an empirical measurement dependent on the capsaicin sensitivity of testers and so is not a precise or accurate method to measure capsaicinoid concentration, however, capsaicin concentration can very roughly be estimated as ~18µg/gram/SHU.

Scoville organoleptic test[edit]

In Scoville's method, an exact weight of dried pepper is dissolved in alcohol to extract the heat components (capsinoids), then dilluted in a solution of sugar water.[3][4] Increasing concentrations of the extracted capsinoids are given to a panel of five trained tasters, until a majority of three can detect the heat in a dillution.[3][4] The heat level is based on this dillution, rated in multiples of 100 SHU.[3]

A weakness of the Scoville Organoleptic Test is its imprecision due to human subjectivity, depending on the taster's palate and sensitivy to pungency; the human palate is quickly desensitized to capsaicins after tasting a few samples within a short time period.[3] Results vary widely, ± 50%, between laboratories.[4]

High-performance liquid chromatography[edit]

Naga Jolokia (bhut jolokia, naga morich) is rated at over one million Scoville units. It is primarily found in Northeast Indian states of Assam, Nagaland, and Manipur. It is also found in Bangladesh.
The Red Savina pepper, one of the hottest chilis, is rated at around 250,000 Scoville units.[5]

Spice heat is usually measured by a method that uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This identifies and measures the concentration of heat-producing chemicals. The measurements are used in a mathematical formula that weighs them according to their relative capacity to produce a sensation of heat. This method yields results, not in Scoville units, but in American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) pungency units. A measurement of one part capsaicin per million corresponds to about 15 Scoville units, and the published method says that ASTA pungency units can be multiplied by 15 and reported as Scoville units.

Scoville units are a measure for capsaicin content per unit of dry mass.[6][7][8] This conversion is approximate, and spice experts Donna R. Tainter and Anthony T. Grenis say that there is consensus that it gives results about 20–40% lower than the actual Scoville method would have given.

Scoville ratings[edit]

Considerations[edit]

Since Scoville ratings are defined per unit of dry mass, comparison of ratings of between products having different water content can be misleading. Typical fresh chili peppers have a water content around 90 percent, whereas, for example, Tabasco sauce has a water content of 95 percent.[9] For law-enforcement-grade pepper spray, values from 500 thousand up to 5 million SHU have been mentioned,[10] but the actual strength of the spray depends on the dilution, which could be a factor of 10.[11]

The chilis with the highest rating on the Scoville scale exceed one million Scoville units, and include specimens of naga jolokia or bhut jolokia and its cultivar, the "Ghost chili", which does not have official cultivar status.[12][13]

Numerical results for any specimen vary depending on its cultivation conditions and the uncertainty of the laboratory methods used to assess the capsaicinoid content. Pungency values for any pepper are variable, owing to expected variation within a species—easily by a factor of 10 or more—depending on seed lineage, climate (humidity is a big factor for the Bhut Jolokia; the Dorset Naga and the original Naga have quite different ratings), and even soil (this is especially true of habaneros). The inaccuracies described in the measurement methods above also contribute to the imprecision of these values.[4]

Chemicals[edit]

Scoville heat units Examples
16,000,000,000 Resiniferatoxin
5,300,000,000 Tinyatoxin
16,000,000 Capsaicin
15,000,000 Dihydrocapsaicin
9,200,000 Nonivamide
9,100,000 Nordihydrocapsaicin
8,600,000 Homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin
160,000 Shogaol
100,000 Piperine
60,000 Gingerol
16,000 Capsiate

Peppers[edit]

Scoville heat units Examples
2,000,000-2,200,000 Trinidad Moruga Scorpion,[14] Carolina Reaper[15]
855,000–1,463,700 Naga Viper pepper,[16][17] Infinity Chilli,[18] Bhut Jolokia (ghost pepper),[19][20] Trinidad Scorpion Butch T pepper,[21] Bedfordshire Super Naga,[22]
350,000–580,000 Red Savina habanero[23][17][24]
100,000–350,000 Habanero chili,[25] Scotch bonnet pepper,[25] Datil pepper, Rocoto, Madame Jeanette, Peruvian White Habanero,[26] Jamaican hot pepper,[27] Fatalii[28]
50,000–100,000 Byadgi chilli, Bird's eye chili,[29] Malagueta pepper,[29] Chiltepin pepper, Piri piri, Pequin pepper,[29] Siling Labuyo
30,000–50,000 Guntur chilli, Cayenne pepper, Ají pepper,[25] Tabasco pepper, Capsicum chinense
10,000–23,000 Serrano pepper, Peter pepper, Chile de árbol, Aleppo pepper
3,500–10,000 Chipotle,[25][30] Guajillo pepper, Espelette pepper, Fresno pepper, Jalapeño pepper, wax[31] (e.g., Hungarian wax pepper)
1,000–2,500 Anaheim pepper,[32][not in citation given] Gochujang, Pasilla pepper, Peppadew, poblano (or ancho),[33] Poblano verde,[31] Rocotillo pepper
100–900 Banana pepper, Cubanelle, paprika,[33] Peperoncini, Pimento,
0 Bell pepper[34][35]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peter, KV, ed. (2001), Handbook of Herbs and Spices 1, CRC Press, p. 120, ISBN 0-8493-1217-5 .
  2. ^ The Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 1, 1912: 453–4 .
  3. ^ a b c d Peter, K. V. (2012). Handbook of Herbs and Spices. Elsevier Science. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-85709-567-1. 
  4. ^ a b c d Tainter, Donna R.; Anthony T. Grenis (2001). Spices and Seasonings. Wiley-IEEE. p. 30. ISBN 0-471-35575-5. "Interlab variation [for the original Scoville scale] could be as high as +/−50%. However, labs that run these procedures could generate reasonably repeatable results." 
  5. ^ DeWitt, Dave; Bosland, Paul W. (2009). The Complete Chile Pepper Book. ISBN 978-0-88192-920-1. 
  6. ^ M.D. Collins et al., "Improved Method for Quantifying Capsaicinoids in Capsicum Using High-performance Liquid Chromatography". HortScience 30 137–139 (1995).
  7. ^ C.O. Nwokem et al., Determination of Capsaicin Content and Pungency Level of Five Different Peppers Grown in Nigeria. New York Science Journal 2010;3(9)
  8. ^ Z.A. Al Othman et al., Determination of Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum Fruit Samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Molecules 2011, 16, 8919–8929
  9. ^ USDA nutrient database for Peppers, jalapeno, raw (92% water content); Peppers, hot chili, red, raw (88% water content); Red Tabasco sauce (95%)
  10. ^ "Chemical hazards in law enforcement". The Police Policy Studies Council. Retrieved 2009-02-09. "Most law enforcement sprays have a pungency of 500,000 to 2 million SHU. One brand has sprays with 5.3 million SHU." 
  11. ^ "The Truth About Defensive Spray Heat". Sabre red. "Sabre Red = 10% OC @ 2,000,000 Scoville Heat Units. Thus, 90% of the formulation dilutes the 2,000,000 SHUs creating a Scoville Content of 200,000." 
  12. ^ "World’s hottest chilli grown in Grantham, Lincs". The Daily Telegraph (London). 2010-04-01. Retrieved 2010-04-24. 
  13. ^ "Grantham firm grows world's hottest chilli". UK: This is Lincolnshire. Retrieved 2010-04-24. 
  14. ^ "Chile experts identify Trinidad Moruga Scorpion as world's hottest". The Daily Telegraph (UK). 2012-02-16. 
  15. ^ "World's hottest pepper hits 2.2 million Scoville heat units". Los Angeles Times. December 26, 2013. Retrieved March 24, 2014. 
  16. ^ Dykes, Brett Michael (3 December 2010). "World’s hottest pepper is ‘hot enough to strip paint’". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2010-12-03. 
  17. ^ a b "Tezpur/Naga Jolokia – The Hottest Chile?" (PDF). The Chile Pepper Institute Newsletter 11 (2) (The Chile Pepper Institute, New Mexico State University). 2000. p. 5. "...the Red Savina Habanero whose Scoville rating is around 555,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU), the 'Naga Jolokia' possesses 855,000 SHU." 
  18. ^ "Grantham's Infinity chilli named hottest in world". BBC. 2011-02-18. 
  19. ^ Shaline L. Lopez (2007). "NMSU is home to the world's hottest chile pepper". Archived from the original on 2007-02-19. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  20. ^ "World's hottest chili pepper a mouthful for prof". CNN. AP. 23 February 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-03-22. 
  21. ^ Matthew Da Silva, "Aussies grow world's hottest chilli", Australian Geographic, 12 April 2011
  22. ^ "UK's hottest commercially grown chilli pepper goes on sale". 
  23. ^ "World's hottest chile pepper discovered". American Society for Horticultural Science. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  24. ^ "Burning Questions" (PDF). The Chile Pepper Institute Newsletter 13 (3) (The Chile Pepper Institute, New Mexico State University). 2002. p. 7. "...'Red Savina' habanero...came in at a whopping 577,000 Scoville Heat Units." 
  25. ^ a b c d "Chile Pepper Heat Scoville Scale". About.com. Retrieved 2006-09-25. 
  26. ^ "Habanero White". Chile man. Retrieved 2011-09-21. 
  27. ^ "The Scoville Scale". HappyStove.com. 
  28. ^ Scoville Food Institute, Periodic Table of Scoville Units.
  29. ^ a b c "Scoville Scale Chart for Hot Sauce and Hot Peppers". Scott Roberts. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  30. ^ "Scoville hot sauce heat scale". HotSauce.com. 
  31. ^ a b Julius, David; Caterina, Michael J.; Schumacher, Mark A.; Tominaga, Makoto; Rosen, Tobias A.; Levine, Jon D. (1997). Nature 389 (6653): 816–824. doi:10.1038/39807. ISSN 0028-0836. "Reported pungencies for pepper varieties (in Scoville units) are: Habanero (H), 100,000–300,000; Thai green (T), 50,000–100,000; wax (W), 5,000–10,000; and Poblano verde (P), 1,000–1,500 (ref. 23)." 
  32. ^ Coon, Denise; Votava, Eric; Bosland, Paul W. (2008). "The Chile Cultivars of New Mexico State University" (PDF). Research Report 763. College of Agriculture and Home Economics, New Mexico State University. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  33. ^ a b Lillywhite, Jay M.; Simonsen, Jennifer E.; Uchanski, Mark E. (2013). "Spicy Pepper Consumption and Preferences in the United States.". HortTechnology 23 (6): 868–876. "Any pepper type with ≥ 1 SHU could be considered spicy. However, for this study, paprika (0–300 SHU), New Mexico long green or red chile (300–500 SHU), and poblano/ancho (≈1369 SHU) types were included as mild spicy peppers (Table 1)." 
  34. ^ Thomas DeBaggio, Thomas DeBaggio; Arthur O. Tucker, Arthur O. Tucker (2009). The Encyclopedia of Herbs: A Comprehensive Reference to Herbs of Flavor and Fragrance. Timber Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-60469-134-4. "...a bell pepper has 0 Scoville Heat Units and a rating of 0." 
  35. ^ Laratta, B; De Masi, L; Sarli, G; Pignone, D (2013). "Hot Peppers for Happiness and Wellness: a Rich Source of Healthy and Biologically Active Compounds" (PDF). In Lanteri, Sergo; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo. Breakthroughs in the Genetics and Breeding of Capsicum and Eggplant: Proceedigns of the XV EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Capsicum and Eggplant (Comitato per l'organizzazione degli eventi (COE) DISAFA, Università degli Studi di Torino): 233–240. ISBN 978-88-97239-16-1. "Scoville Heat Units (SHU), Referring pepper varieties...0, Sweet Bell"