Tihomir of Serbia

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Tihomir
Grand Prince of Serbia
Reign 1166
Predecessor Desa
Successor Stefan Nemanja
Born before 1113
Zahumlje
Died 1171
Sitnica
Issue Stefan Prvoslav
Dynasty Vukanović
Father Zavida
Religion Eastern Orthodoxy

Tihomir Zavidović (Serbian Cyrillic: Тихомир Завидовић) was the Grand Prince of the Grand Principality of Serbia (Rascia) fl. 1162–1171.

Life[edit]

He was the first-born child of Zavida.[1] After the death of his father, Tihomir was appointed the Grand Prince of Serbia (1166[1]) by Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus though he ruled jointly with his brothers.[1] The lands were divided: Stracimir ruled West Morava, Miroslav ruled Zahumlje and Travunia Stefan Nemanja was given Toplica, Ibar, Rasina and Reke. Nemanja was also a vassal to Manuel I, through his appanage of Dubočica.[2] Nemanja aided the Imperial army against the Hungarians in Srem in 1164. The tie between Nemanja and Manuel I was most likely seen as a threat to Tihomir.[2]

Stefan Nemanja built the Monastery of Saint Nicholas in Kuršumlija and the Monastery of the Holy Mother of Christ near Kosanica-Toplica, without the approval of Tihomir.[2] Nemanja had felt that he had the free will of doing so, Tihomir disagreed, Nemanja was, or Tihomir thought that he was trying to assert independence through his relation to Manuel I.[2] Tihomir had Nemanja chained and thrown into jail, his lands were annexed.[2] Nemanja's supporters convinced the Church that Tihomir had done all this because of his disapproval of church building, thus the Church turned against Tihomir.[2] Nemanja managed to escape the jail and returned to his province.[2]

Stefan Nemanja mobilized an army, possibly with Byzantine help, and headed for the crownland. Manuel I might have been displeased with Tihomir's actions.[2] Nemanja was triumphant; Tihomir and Miroslav and Stracimir were expelled to Byzantium in 1167.[2] Stefan Nemanja quickly became a powerful figure,[2] and Manuel I subsequently turned to Tihomir and his brothers.[3] The Byzantine Empire wanted to see Serbia divided by several princes to keep it weak.[3]

Manuel I provided Tihomir with an army, coming in from Skopje. In 1171, Nemanja raised a large army and defeated Tihomir's forces at the Battle of Pantina near Zvečan. Tihomir drowned in the River of Sitnica. Nemanja captured his other brothers and made peace, giving them rule in their former lands by recognizing him as the only ruler of Serbia. The Nemanjić dynasty was named after Stefan Nemanja who ruled Serbia until 1371.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Fine, Late,[full citation needed] p. 3
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fine, Late, p. 4[full citation needed]
  3. ^ a b Fine, Late, p. 5

Sources[edit]

Tihomir of Serbia
Died: 1171
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Desa
Grand Prince of Serbia
1166
Succeeded by
Stefan Nemanja