Sztum

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Sztum
View of Sztum
View of Sztum
Flag of Sztum
Flag
Coat of arms of Sztum
Coat of arms
Sztum is located in Poland
Sztum
Sztum
Coordinates: 53°55′18″N 19°2′1″E / 53.92167°N 19.03361°E / 53.92167; 19.03361Coordinates: 53°55′18″N 19°2′1″E / 53.92167°N 19.03361°E / 53.92167; 19.03361
Country Poland
Voivodeship Pomeranian
CountySztum County
GminaGmina Sztum
Established13th century
Town rights1416
Government
 • MayorLeszek Jan Tabor
Area
 • Total4.59 km2 (1.77 sq mi)
Population
 (2006)
 • Total9,945
 • Density2,200/km2 (5,600/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
82-400
Area code(s)+48 55
Car platesGSZ
Websitehttp://sztum.pl

Sztum ([ʂtum]) (German: Stuhm) is a town in northern Poland in the Powiśle region, located in the Pomeranian Voivodeship. It is the capital of Sztum County, with some 10,141 inhabitants (2004).

History[edit]

Teutonic castle after renovation

Signs of settlement dating back to the Roman Empire era have been found. In the early Middle Ages, a fortified settlement of the Prussian people existed at the site, conquered by the Teutonic Knights in 1236. City rights were granted to the settlement in 1416 and confirmed by King Sigismund II Augustus in 1553.[1]

In the beginning of the Thirteen Years' War the town sided with the Prussian Confederation, at the request of which the region was incorporated into Poland by King Casimir IV Jagiellon.[1] The castle, which initially remained in the hands of the Teutonic Knights, was captured after a siege in 1454, but later it was taken over by the Teutonic Knights again.[1] In 1466 by the Second Peace of Toruń the town was integrated with the Kingdom of Poland. As part of Poland, the town functioned as a seat of Sztum powiat in Malbork Voivodeship (1466-1772) and a place to hold local court sessions. The Sztum castle was the seat of the local starosts. In 1635 the Treaty of Stuhmsdorf was signed in the village of Stuhmsdorf/Sztumska Wieś, just south of Sztum.

18th-century drawing of Sztum

In 1772 as a result of the First Partition of Poland the town was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1871 it became part of the newly created German Empire.

According to the Treaty of Versailles, after World War I the inhabitants of the town and its district were asked whether they want to remain in Germany or join the new Second Polish Republic in the East Prussian plebiscite of 1920. Ultimately, in the district of Stuhm 19,984 votes were counted to remain in Germany and 4,904 votes for Poland[2] Based on that result Stuhm was included in the Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder within East Prussia. In the interwar period, Sztum remained one of the main centers of the Polish community in the area.

After World War II the area was placed under Polish administration by the Potsdam Agreement under territorial changes demanded by the Soviet Union. Germans fled or were expelled and replaced with Poles expelled from the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union or forced to settle in the area through Operation Vistula in 1947.

Number of inhabitants by year[edit]

Saint Anne church
Year Number
1789 509
1831 956
1875 2,145
1880 2,210
1890 2,265
1905 2,557
1933 6,147
1939 7,374
1943 7,099
2006 9,945

[3][4][5][6]

Notable residents[edit]

International relations[edit]

Sztum is twinned with:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Tom XII, Warsaw, 1892, p. 53
  2. ^ Rocznik statystyki Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej Archived 2007-06-09 at the Wayback Machine(pdf, 623 KB). Główny Urząd Statystyczny Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej GUS, Annual (Main Statistical Office of the Republic of Poland) (1920/1922, part II)
  3. ^ Johann Friedrich Goldbeck: Volständige Topographie des Königreichs Preußen. Part II, Marienwerder 1789, p. 19.
  4. ^ Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, 6th edition, Vol. 8, Leipzig and Vienna 1907, p. 251.
  5. ^ Michael Rademacher: Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte Provinz Westpreußen, Kreis Stuhm (2006).
  6. ^ August Eduard Preuß: Preußische Landes- und Volkskunde. Königsberg 1835, p. 444, no. 59.

External links[edit]