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Tachykinin, precursor 1
Protein TAC1 PDB 2b19.png
PDB rendering based on 2b19.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols TAC1 ; Hs.2563; NK2; NKNA; NPK; TAC2
External IDs OMIM162320 MGI98474 HomoloGene2394 GeneCards: TAC1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TAC1 206552 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 6863 21333
Ensembl ENSG00000006128 ENSMUSG00000061762
UniProt P20366 P41539
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003182 NM_009311
RefSeq (protein) NP_003173 NP_033337
Location (UCSC) Chr 7:
97.73 – 97.74 Mb
Chr 6:
7.55 – 7.57 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Protachykinin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAC1 gene.[1][2]

This gene encodes four products of the tachykinin peptide hormone family, substance P and neurokinin A, as well as the related peptides, neuropeptide K and neuropeptide gamma. These hormones are thought to function as neurotransmitters which interact with nerve receptors and smooth muscle cells. They are known to induce behavioral responses and function as vasodilators and secretagogues. Alternative splicing of exons 4 and/or 6 produces four known products of undetermined significance.[2]


  1. ^ Chiwakata C, Brackmann B, Hunt N, Davidoff M, Schulze W, Ivell R (May 1991). "Tachykinin (substance-P) gene expression in Leydig cells of the human and mouse testis". Endocrinology 128 (5): 2441–8. doi:10.1210/endo-128-5-2441. PMID 1708336. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: TAC1 tachykinin, precursor 1 (substance K, substance P, neurokinin 1, neurokinin 2, neuromedin L, neurokinin alpha, neuropeptide K, neuropeptide gamma)". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Kowall NW, Quigley BJ, Krause JE et al. (1993). "Substance P and substance P receptor histochemistry in human neurodegenerative diseases.". Regul. Pept. 46 (1-2): 174–85. doi:10.1016/0167-0115(93)90028-7. PMID 7692486. 
  • Advenier C, Lagente V, Boichot E (1997). "The role of tachykinin receptor antagonists in the prevention of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation and cough.". Eur. Respir. J. 10 (8): 1892–906. doi:10.1183/09031936.97.10081892. PMID 9272936. 
  • Rameshwar P, Oh HS, Yook C et al. (2003). "Substance p-fibronectin-cytokine interactions in myeloproliferative disorders with bone marrow fibrosis.". Acta Haematol. 109 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1159/000067268. PMID 12486316. 
  • Saito R, Takano Y, Kamiya HO (2003). "Roles of substance P and NK(1) receptor in the brainstem in the development of emesis.". J. Pharmacol. Sci. 91 (2): 87–94. doi:10.1254/jphs.91.87. PMID 12686752. 
  • Di Angelantonio S, Giniatullin R, Costa V et al. (2004). "Modulation of neuronal nicotinic receptor function by the neuropeptides CGRP and substance P on autonomic nerve cells.". Br. J. Pharmacol. 139 (6): 1061–73. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705337. PMC 1573932. PMID 12871824. 
  • Bannon MJ, Poosch MS, Haverstick DM et al. (1992). "Preprotachykinin gene expression in the human basal ganglia: characterization of mRNAs and pre-mRNAs produced by alternate RNA splicing.". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 12 (1-3): 225–31. doi:10.1016/0169-328X(92)90088-S. PMID 1312203. 
  • McGregor GP, Conlon JM (1991). "Characterization of the C-terminal flanking peptide of human beta-preprotachykinin.". Peptides 11 (5): 907–10. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(90)90007-R. PMID 2284201. 
  • Theodorsson-Norheim E, Jörnvall H, Andersson M et al. (1987). "Isolation and characterization of neurokinin A, neurokinin A(3-10) and neurokinin A(4-10) from a neutral water extract of a metastatic ileal carcinoid tumour.". Eur. J. Biochem. 166 (3): 693–7. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb13567.x. PMID 3038549. 
  • Harmar AJ, Armstrong A, Pascall JC et al. (1986). "cDNA sequence of human beta-preprotachykinin, the common precursor to substance P and neurokinin A.". FEBS Lett. 208 (1): 67–72. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(86)81534-4. PMID 3770210. 
  • Bhogal N, Donnelly D, Findlay JB (1994). "The ligand binding site of the neurokinin 2 receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and identification of neurokinin A binding residues in the human neurokinin 2 receptor.". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (44): 27269–74. PMID 7961636. 
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.". Gene 138 (1-2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. 
  • Tian Y, Wu LH, Oxender DL, Chung FZ (1996). "The unpredicted high affinities of a large number of naturally occurring tachykinins for chimeric NK1/NK3 receptors suggest a role for an inhibitory domain in determining receptor specificity.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (34): 20250–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.34.20250. PMID 8702757. 
  • Tanabe T, Otani H, Zeng XT et al. (1997). "Inhibitory effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide on substance-P-induced superoxide production in human neutrophils.". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 314 (1-2): 175–83. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(96)00522-5. PMID 8957234. 
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K et al. (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.". Gene 200 (1-2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. 
  • Zimmer A, Zimmer AM, Baffi J et al. (1998). "Hypoalgesia in mice with a targeted deletion of the tachykinin 1 gene.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (5): 2630–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.5.2630. PMC 19441. PMID 9482938. 
  • Ho WZ, Lai JP, Zhu XH et al. (1998). "Human monocytes and macrophages express substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor.". J. Immunol. 159 (11): 5654–60. PMID 9548509. 
  • Lai JP, Douglas SD, Ho WZ (1998). "Human lymphocytes express substance P and its receptor.". J. Neuroimmunol. 86 (1): 80–6. doi:10.1016/S0165-5728(98)00025-3. PMID 9655475.