The nature and distribution of PPT-1 has been studied in the human basal ganglia. The protein is expressed evenly throughout the caudate and putamen, and 80 to 85% of it exists in the beta-PPT isoform. 15-20% of the protein is in the gamma-PPT isoform, while no alpha-PPT was detected at all.
In humans, beta-PPT is the dominant isoform in the brain, which contrasts with rats (predominantly gamma-PPT) and cows (alpha-PPT).
While both human and rat PPT-1 produce substance P and neurokinin A, humans produce more neuropeptide K, whereas rats produce more neuropeptide gamma. In cow brains, PPT-1 primarily encodes substance P, but not other neurokinin A-derived peptides.
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