|Tri Alpha Energy, Inc.|
|Headquarters||Foothill Ranch, United States|
Number of employees
|Subsidiaries||TAE Life Sciences|
TAE Technologies (formerly Tri Alpha Energy) is an American company based in Foothill Ranch, California, created for the development of aneutronic fusion power. The company's design relies on a field-reversed configuration (FRC), which combines features from other fusion concepts in a unique fashion.
The company was founded in 1998, and is backed by private capital. They operated as a stealth company for many years, refraining from launching its website until 2015. The company did not generally discuss progress nor any schedule for commercial production. However, it has registered and renewed various patents. It regularly publishes theoretical and experimental results in academic journals with over 150 publications and posters at scientific conferences over the last five years. TAE has a research library hosting these articles on their website.
As of 2014[update], TAE Technologies reportedly had more than 150 employees and raised over $150 million, far more than any other private fusion power research company or the vast majority of federally-funded government laboratory and university fusion programs. Main financing has come from Goldman Sachs and venture capitalists such as Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen's Vulcan Inc., Rockefeller's Venrock, and Richard Kramlich's New Enterprise Associates. The Government of Russia, through the joint-stock company Rusnano, invested in Tri Alpha Energy in October 2012, and Anatoly Chubais, Rusnano CEO, became a board member.
Since 2014 TAE Technologies has worked with Google to develop a process to analyze the data collected on plasma behavior in fusion reactors. In 2017, using a machine learning tool developed through the partnership and based on the "Optometrist Algorithm", TAE was able to find significant improvements in plasma containment and stability over the previous C-2U machine. The results of the study were published in Scientific Reports. Ernest Moniz, the former United States Secretary of Energy at the US Department of Energy, joined the company's board of directors in May 2017. As of July 2017 the company reported that it had raised more than $500 million in backing. In November 2017 the company was admitted to a United States Department of Energy Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment program that allowed the company access to the Cray XC40 supercomputer.
Steven Specker stepped down as CEO in July 2018. Michl W. Binderbauer moved from CTO to CEO following Specker's retirement. Specker will remain as a board member and advisor.
TAE Life Sciences
In March 2018 TAE Technologies announced that it had raised $40 million to spin off a subsidiary focused on refining boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer treatment. The subsidiary is named TAE Life Sciences and it received funding led by ARTIS Ventures. TAE Life Sciences also announced that it would partner with Neuboron Medtech, which will be the first to install the company's beam system. The company shares common board members with TAE Technologies and is led by Bruce Bauer.
The TAE Technologies design differs from previous concepts in the way it stores particles. Instead of an external magnetic field or similar arrangement, in their colliding beam fusion reactor (CBFR) the particles are injected into a field-reversed configuration (FRC), a self-stabilized rotating cylinder of particles similar to a smoke ring. The ring's field is created by the electrical current of the injected protons and boron fuel and supported by electrons that are also injected into the FRC.
The FRC is held in a cylindrical, truck-sized vacuum chamber containing solenoids. It appears the FRC will then be compressed, either using adiabatic compression similar to those proposed for magnetic mirror systems in the 1950s, or by forcing two such FRCs together using a similar arrangement.
The design must achieve the "hot enough/long enough" threshold to achieve fusion. The required temperature is 3 billion degrees Celsius (~250 keV), while the required duration (achieved with C2-U) is multiple milliseconds.
Unlike other magnetic confinement fusion devices such as the tokamak, FRCs provide a magnetic field topology whereby the axial field inside the reactor is reversed by eddy currents in the plasma, as compared to the ambient magnetic field externally applied by solenoids. The FRC is less prone to magnetohydrodynamic and plasma instabilities than are other magnetic confinement fusion methods. The science behind the colliding beam fusion reactor is used in the company's C-2, C-2U and C-2W projects.
The 11B(p,α)αα aneutronic reaction
An essential component of the design is the use of "advanced fuels", i.e. fuels with primary reactions that do not produce neutrons, such as hydrogen and boron-11. FRC fusion products are all charged particles for which highly efficient direct energy conversion is feasible. Neutron flux and associated on-site radioactivity is virtually non-existent. So unlike other nuclear fusion research involving deuterium and tritium, and unlike nuclear fission, no radioactive waste is created. The hydrogen and boron-11 fuel used in this type of reaction is also much more abundant.
|1p + 11B||→||12C|
A proton (identical to the most common hydrogen nucleus) striking boron-11 creates a resonance in carbon-12, which decays by emitting one high-energy primary α−particle. This leads to the first excited state of beryllium-8, which decays into two low-energy secondary α-particles. This is the model commonly accepted in the scientific community since the published results account for a 1987 experiment.
TAE Technologies claimed that the reaction products should release more energy than what is commonly envisaged. In 2010, Henry R. Weller and his team from the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) used the high intensity γ-ray source (HIγS) at Duke University, funded by TAE and the U.S. Department of Energy, to show that the mechanism first proposed by Ernest Rutherford and Mark Oliphant in 1933, then Philip Dee and C. W. Gilbert from the Cavendish Laboratory in 1936, and the results of an experiment conducted by French researchers from IN2P3 in 1969, was correct. The model and the experiment predicted two high energy α-particles of almost equal energy. One was the primary α-particle and the other a secondary α-particle, both emitted at an angle of 155 degrees. A third secondary α-particle is also emitted, of lower energy.
Inverse cyclotron converter (ICC)
Direct energy conversion systems for other fusion power generators, involving collector plates and "venetian blinds" or a long linear microwave cavity filled with a 10-Tesla magnetic field and rectennas, are not suitable for fusion with ion energies above 1 MeV. The company employed a much shorter device, an inverse cyclotron converter (ICC) that operated at 5 MHz and required a magnetic field of only 0.6 tesla. The linear motion of fusion product ions is converted to circular motion by a magnetic cusp. Energy is collected from the charged particles as they spiral past quadrupole electrodes. More classical collectors collect particles with energy less than 1 MeV.
The estimation of the ratio of fusion power to radiation loss for a 100 MW FRC has been calculated for different fuels, assuming a converter efficiency of 90% for α-particles, 40% for Bremsstrahlung radiation through photoelectric effect, and 70% for the accelerators, with 10T superconducting magnetic coils:
- Q = 35 for deuterium and tritium
- Q = 3 for deuterium and helium-3
- Q = 2.7 for hydrogen and boron-11
- Q = 4.3 for polarized hydrogen and boron-11.
The spin polarization enhances the fusion cross section by a factor of 1.6 for 11B. A further increase in Q should result from the nuclear quadrupole moment of 11B. And another increase in Q may also result from the mechanism allowing the production of a secondary high-energy α-particle.
TAE Technologies plans to use the p-11B reaction in their commercial FRC for safety reasons and because the energy conversion systems are simpler and smaller: since no neutron is released, thermal conversion is unnecessary, hence no heat exchanger or steam turbine.
The "truck-sized" 100 MW reactors designed in TAE presentations are based on these calculations.
The CBFR-SPS is a 100 MW-class, magnetic field-reversed configuration, aneutronic fusion rocket concept. The reactor is fueled by an energetic-ion mixture of hydrogen and boron (p-11B). Fusion products are helium ions (α-particles) expelled axially out of the system. α-particles flowing in one direction are decelerated and their energy directly converted to power the system; and particles expelled in the opposite direction provide thrust. Since the fusion products are charged particles and does not release neutrons, the system does not require the use of a massive radiation shield.
Various experiments have been conducted by TAE Technologies on the world's largest compact toroid device called "C-2". Results began to be regularly published in 2010, with papers including 60 authors. C-2 results showed peak ion temperatures of 400 Electron volts (5 million degrees Celsius), electron temperatures of 150 Electron volts, plasma densities of 1E-19 m−3 and 1E9 fusion neutrons per second for 3 milliseconds.
The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, built a powerful plasma injector, shipped in late 2013 to the company's research facility. The device produces a neutral beam in the range of 5 to 20 MW, and injects energy inside the reactor to transfer it to the fusion plasma.
In March 2015, the upgraded C-2U with edge-biasing beams showed a 10-fold improvement in lifetime, with FRCs heated to 10 million degrees Celsius and lasting 5 milliseconds with no sign of decay. The C-2U functions by firing two donut shaped plasmas at each other at 1 million kilometers per hour, the result is a cigar-shaped FRC as much as 3 meters long and 40 centimeters across. The plasma was controlled with magnetic fields generated by electrodes and magnets at each end of the tube. The upgraded particle beam system provided 10 megawatts of power.
In 2017, TAE Technologies renamed the C-2W reactor "Norman" in honor of the company's co-founder Norman Rostoker who died in 2014. In July 2017, the company announced that the Norman reactor had achieved plasma. The Norman reactor is reportedly able to operate at temperatures between 50 million and 70 million°C. In February 2018, the company announced that after 4,000 experiments it had reached a high temperature of nearly 20 million°C. In 2018, TAE Technologies partnered with the Applied Science team at Google to develop the technology inside Norman to maximize electron temperature, aiming to demonstrate breakeven fusion.
- Boyle, Alan (30 November 2017). "TAE Fusion Venture Wins Supercomputer Time - and Reports Progress on Test Device". GeekWire.
- "Michl Binderbauer". Bloomberg Businessweek.
- "Tri Alpha Energy Appoints CTO Michl Binderbauer as Company President". MarketWatch. 11 May 2017.
- "Research Homepage of Toshiki Tajima". School of Physical Science, University of California, Irvine. Archived from the original on 2 June 2014.
- Orlowski, Aaron (8 September 2015). "Tri Alpha Energy Takes Small Step Toward Huge Goal of Fusion Reactor". The Orange County Register. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Fehrenbacher, Katie (10 July 2017). "Nuclear Fusion Startup Tri Alpha Energy Hits a Big Milestone". GreenTechMedia.
- "SEC / Form D" (PDF). U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. United States federal government, Washington, D.C. 23 February 2001.
- Tajima, Toshiki (24 April 2014). Aneutronic path of fusion at TAE (PDF) (Speech). Public Lecture, American Nuclear Society Student Section of UCI. University of California, Irvine. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 June 2014.
- Kanellos, Michael (11 March 2013). "Hollywood, Silicon Valley and Russia Join Forces on Nuclear Fusion". Forbes. New York City: Forbes, Inc.
- Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl W.; Monkhorst, Hendrik J. (21 November 1997). "Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor". Science. 278 (5342): 1419–1422. Bibcode:1997Sci...278.1419R. doi:10.1126/science.278.5342.1419. PMID 9367946.
- Grossman, Lev (2 November 2015). "Inside the Quest for Fusion, Clean Energy's Holy Grail". Time. Retrieved 24 February 2016. Cite journal requires
- Mark Halper (5 May 2013). "The secret U.S.-Russian nuclear fusion project". SmartPlanet. CBS Interactive.
- Casacchia, Chris (29 August 2010). "Nuclear Startup: Well Funded, Low Profile". Orange County Business Journal. Orange County, California: Richard Reisman. Archived from the original on 31 August 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- WO application 9710605, Rostoker, Norman & Monkhorst, Hendrik J., "Fusion Reactor that Produces Net Power from the p-B11 Reaction", published 2004-10-23, assigned to Rostoker, Norman and Monkhorst, Hendrik J.
- US patent 6850011, Monkhorst, Hendrik J. & Rostoker, Norman, "Controlled fusion in a field reversed configuration and direct energy conversion", issued 2005-02-01, assigned to The Regents Of The University Of California and University Of Florida Research Foundation
- WO application 2006096772, Binderbauer, Michl; Bystritskii, Vitaly & Rostoker, Norman et al., "Plasma electric generation system", published 2006-12-28, assigned to Binderbauer, Michl and Bystritskii, Vitaly
- US patent 7439678, Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl & Qerushi, Artan et al., "Magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma with tuning of electrostatic field", issued 2008-10-21, assigned to The Regents Of The University Of California
- US application 2013125963, Binderbauer, Michl & Tajima, Toshiki, "Conversion of high-energy photons into electricity", published 2013-05-23, assigned to Tri Alpha Energy, Inc.
- WO application 2013074666, Binderbauer, Michl; Barnes, Dan & Garate, Eusebio et al., "Systems and methods for forming and maintaining a high performance FRC", published 2013-07-11, assigned to The Regents Of The University Of California
- WO application 2014039579, Belchenko, Yuri I.; Burdakov, Alexander V. & Binderbauer, Michl et al., "Negative ion-based neutral beam injector", published 2014-03-13, assigned to Tri Alpha Energy, Inc.
- "Tri Alpha Energy Research Library". Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Weller, Henry R. (10 October 2012). Tri-Alpha structures in 12C (PDF). Light Nuclei from First Principles- INT-2012. Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington.
- Gota, Hiroshi; Binderbauer, Michl W.; Guo, Houyang Y.; Tuszewski, Michel; Barnes, Dan; Sevier, Leigh (16 August 2011). A Well-Confined Field-Reversed Configuration Plasma Formed by Dynamic Merging of Two Colliding Compact Toroids in C-2 (PDF). Innovative Confinement Concepts (ICC) & US-Japan Compact Torus Plasma (CT) Workshops. Seattle, WA.
- Waldrop, Mitchel (23 July 2014). "Plasma Physics:The Fusion Upstarts". Nature. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- "Fusion Institutions | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)".
- Martin, Richard (14 September 2015). "Finally, Fusion Takes Small Steps Toward Reality". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Michael Kanellos (21 May 2007). "Nuclear fusion firm draws $40 million from VCs". CNET. CBS Interactive.
- Vadim Jernov (6 February 2013). "Rusnano Chief Chubais Joins US Tri Alpha Energy Board". RIA Novosti.
- Bennett, Jay (26 July 2017). "Google's Nuclear Fusion Project is Paying Off". Popular Mechanics.
- Ballarte, Chelsey (26 July 2017). "Better, or Worse? Google Joins Tri Alpha Energy to Find Better Paths to Fusion Power". GeekWire.
- Baltz, E. A.; Trask, E.; Binderbauer, M.; Dikovsky, M.; Gota, H.; Mendoza, R.; Platt, J. C.; Riley, P. F. (25 July 2017). "Achievement of Sustained Net Plasma Heating in a Fusion Experiment with the Optometrist Algorithm". Scientific Reports. Scientific Reports. 7: 6425. Bibcode:2017NatSR...7.6425B. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-06645-7. PMC 5526926.
- Tesh, Sarah (22 May 2017). "Former Energy Secretary Joins Fusion Power Firm". Physicsworld.com.
- Temple, James (11 July 2017). "Obama's Energy Secretary Addresses Trump's Attacks on His Legacy". MIT Technology Review.
- "TAE rearranges its leadership and gets ready for next chapter in fusion quest backed by Paul Allen". GeekWire. 17 July 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "TAE Bags $40M To Take Targeted Radiotherapy Mainstream". FierceBiotech. 12 March 2018.
- "TAE Life Sciences Fetches $40 Mln Series A in ARTIS Ventures-led Round". PE Hub Network. 12 March 2018.
- "Fusion Energy Venture Branches Out Into Cancer Therapy With TAE Life Sciences". GeekWire. 12 March 2018.
- Rostoker, N.; Binderbauer, M.; Monkhorst, H.J. (16–20 June 1996). Fusion reactors based on colliding beams in a field reversed configuration plasma. Annual meeting of the American Nuclear Society. Fusion Technology. 30 (3). Reno, NV: American Nuclear Society. pp. 1395–1402. ISSN 0748-1896.
- Rostoker, N.; Binderbauer, M.; Monkhorst, H. J. (8–12 March 1999). "Colliding Beam Fusion Reactors with Pulsed Injection". In E. Panarella (ed.). Proceedings of the Third Symposium. Symposium on Current Trends in International Fusion Research. Washington, D.C.: NRC Research Press (published 2002). pp. 79–95. ISBN 9780660184807.
- Rostoker, Norman; Qerushi, Artan; Binderbauer, Michl (June 2003). "Colliding Beam Fusion Reactors". Journal of Fusion Energy. 22 (2): 83–92. Bibcode:2003JFuE...22...83R. doi:10.1023/B:JOFE.0000036407.10861.bc.
- BOYLE, ALAN (10 February 2018). "TAE Technologies pushes plasma machine to a new high on the nuclear fusion frontier". GeekWire. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
- Rostoker, N.; Wessel, F.J.; Rahman, H.U.; Maglich, B.C.; Spivey, B. (22 March 1993). "Magnetic Fusion with High Energy Self-Colliding Ion Beams". Physical Review Letters. 70 (12): 1818–1821. Bibcode:1993PhRvL..70.1818R. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.1818. PMID 10053394.
- Binderbauer, M.W.; Rostoker, N. (December 1996). "Turbulent Transport in Magnetic Confinement: How to Avoid it". Journal of Plasma Physics. 56 (3): 451–465. Bibcode:1996JPlPh..56..451B. doi:10.1017/S0022377800019413.
- Rostoker, N.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Wessel, F. J.; Monkhorst, H. J. Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor (PDF). Invited Paper, Special Session on Advanced Fuels APS-DPP. American Physical Society. Archived from the original on 20 December 2005.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
- Clery, Daniel (24 August 2015). "Exclusive: Secretive Fusion Company Claims Reactor Breakthrough". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Grandoni, Dino (25 October 2015). "Start-Ups Take on Challenge of Nuclear Fusion". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Becker, H. W.; Rolfs, C.; Trautvetter, H. P. (1 January 1987). "Low-energy cross sections for 11B(p, 3α)". Zeitschrift für Physik A. 327 (3): 341–355. doi:10.1007/BF01284459.
- Brian Westenhaus (15 April 2011). "The Boron-11 Hydrogen Fueled Fusion Looks Better Than Thought". New Energy and Fuel.
- Oliphant, M.L.E.; Rutherford, Lord E. (3 July 1933). "Experiments on the Transmutation of Elements by Protons" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 141 (843): 259–281. Bibcode:1933RSPSA.141..259O. doi:10.1098/rspa.1933.0117.
- Dee, P.I.; Gilbert, C.W. (2 March 1936). "The Disintegration of Boron into Three α-Particles". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 154 (881): 279–296. Bibcode:1936RSPSA.154..279D. doi:10.1098/rspa.1936.0051. JSTOR 96484.
- Quebert, J.L.; Marquez, L. (31 March 1969). "Effets des résonances de 12C sur l'émission de particules alpha dans la réaction 11B(p, 3α)". Nuclear Physics A. 126 (3): 646–670. Bibcode:1969NuPhA.126..646Q. doi:10.1016/0375-9474(69)90854-9.
- "Overturned scientific explanation may be good news for nuclear fusion". Duke University. 31 March 2011.
- Stave, S.; Ahmed, M.W.; France III, R.H.; Henshaw, S.S.; Müller, B.; Perdue, B.A.; Prior, R.M.; Spraker, M.C.; Weller, H.R. (24 January 2011). "Understanding the View the 11B(p,α)αα reaction at the 0.675 MeV resonance" (PDF). Physics Letters B. 696 (1–2): 26–29. Bibcode:2011PhLB..696...26S. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2010.12.015.
- Spraker, M.C.; Ahmed, M.W.; Blackston, M.A..; Brown, N.; France III, R.H.; Henshaw, S.S.; Perdue, B.A.; Prior, R.M.; Seo, P.-N.; Stave, S.; Weller, H.R. (August 2012). "The 11B(p,α)8Be → α + α and the 11B(α,α)11B Reactions at Energies Below 5.4 MeV". Journal of Fusion Energy. 31 (4): 357–367. Bibcode:2012JFuE...31..357S. doi:10.1007/s10894-011-9473-5.
- Yoshikawa, K.; Noma, T.; Yamamoto, Y. (May 1991). "Direct-Energy Conversion from High-Energy Ions Through Interaction with Electromagnetic Fields". Fusion Science and Technology. 19 (3P2A): 870–875. doi:10.13182/FST91-A29454.
- Monkhorst, Hendrik J.; Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl (16–20 November 1998). Spin Polarization of proton and B11 Beams for the Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor. 40th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics (DPP 1998). New Orleans, LA: American Physical Society. Bibcode:1998APS..DPPR8M309M.
- Wessel, F.J.; Rostoker, N.; Binderbauer, M.W.; Rahman, H.U.; O'Toole, J.A. (30 January – 3 February 2000). Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System. STAIF 2000. Proceedings of the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF 2000). 504. Albuquerque, New Mexico: American Institute of Physics (published January 2000). pp. 1425–1430. doi:10.1063/1.1290961.
- Cheung, A.; Binderbauer, M.; Liu, F.; Qerushi, A.; Rostoker, N.; Wessel, F.J. (8–11 February 2004). Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System (PDF). STAIF 2004. Proceedings of the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF 2004). 699. Albuquerque, New Mexico: American Institute of Physics (published January 2004). pp. 354–361. doi:10.1063/1.1649593. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2013.
- Binderbauer, M.W.; Guo, H.Y.; Tuszewski, M.; Barnes, D.C. (20–24 June 2010). High-flux plasma state formed by dynamic merging of two colliding compact toroids. IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS) 2010. Norfolk, VA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. doi:10.1109/PLASMA.2010.5534406.
- Guo, H.Y.; (TAE team); et al. (January 2011). "Formation of a long-lived hot field reversed configuration by dynamically merging two colliding high-β compact toroids". Physics of Plasmas. 18 (5): 056110. Bibcode:2011PhPl...18e6110G. doi:10.1063/1.3574380.
- Tuszewski, M.; et al. (May 2012). "A new high performance field reversed configuration operating regime in the C-2 device". Physics of Plasmas. 19 (5): 056108. Bibcode:2012PhPl...19e6108T. doi:10.1063/1.3694677.
- Gota, H.; Thompson, M.C.; Knapp, K.; Van Drie, A.D.; Deng, B.H.; Mendoza, R.; Guo, H.Y.; Tuszewski, M. (October 2012). "Internal magnetic field measurement on C-2 field-reversed configuration plasmas". Review of Scientific Instruments. 83 (10): 10D706. Bibcode:2012RScI...83jD706G. doi:10.1063/1.4729497. PMID 23126880.
- Deng, B.H.; Aefsky, J.S; Gota, M.; Kinley, H. (30 October 2014). Measurement of density fluctuation and particle transport in C-2.
- Новосибирские физики собрали инжектор для термоядерного реактора [Novosibirsk physicists build injector for fusion reactor]. Sib.fm (in Russian). Siberia, Russia: Sib.fm. 8 November 2013.
- Ivanov, A.A.; et al. (February 2014). "Development of a negative ion-based neutral beam injector in Novosibirsk". Review of Scientific Instruments. 85 (2): 02B102. Bibcode:2014RScI...85bB102I. doi:10.1063/1.4826326. PMID 24593542.
- Zolfagharifard, Ellie (27 August 2015). "Has A Secretive California Firm Worked Out How to Harness Fusion Power? Tri Alpha Energy Reveals a 'Reactor Breakthrough'". Daily Mail. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Byrne, Michael (26 August 2015). "Fusion Power Is a Bit Closer, Claims Mysterious Energy Startup". Motherboard. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- Clery, Daniel (24 August 2015). "Exclusive: Secretive Fusion Company Claims Reactor Breakthrough". Science Magazine. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- Clery, Daniel (2 June 2015). "Mystery company blazes a trail in fusion energy". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aac4674.
- Clery, Daniel (28 August 2015). "Dark horse scores a fusion coup". Science. 349 (6251): 912–913. doi:10.1126/science.349.6251.912. PMID 26315414.
- Boyle, Alan (10 July 2017). "With Paul Allen's Backing, Tri Alpha Energy Revs Up 'Norman' Device for Fusion Research". GeekWire.
- "TAE Technologies Pushes Plasma Machine to a New High on the Nuclear Fusion Frontier". GeekWire.
- "Powering the world with fusion". Google AI.
- McMahon, Jeff. "Energy From Fusion In 'A Couple Years,' CEO Says, Commercialization In Five". Forbes. Retrieved 16 January 2019.