TNCO ceilings

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The Tar, Nicotine and Carbon monoxide ceilings (or TNCO ceilings) are the average upper limits on total aerosol residue, nicotine and carbon monoxide contents of a cigarette, as measured on a smoking machine and according to a given set of ISO standards.[1] Because these refer to machine-generated yields rather than the average smoker's intake, these values have often been decried as misleading.[2]

A growing number of countries are nevertheless using such values as upper yield limitations for the cigarettes marketed under their jurisdiction.

Africa[edit]

Country Tar Nicotine CO As of
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 15 1.5 - 2007 07
 Egypt 15 2 - 2005 01
 Libya 12 0.8 -  
 South Africa 12 1.2 - 2006 06

(All values in mg/cigarette and must be reported on packs.)

Most countries on the continent do not impose maximum values for either tar, nicotine or CO, but Burkina Faso, Benin, Cape Verde, Morocco nevertheless demand that yield values be reported on pack.

Americas[edit]

Country Tar Nicotine CO As of
 Honduras 14 1.1 - 1995 11
 Brazil 10 1 10 2001 12

(All values in mg/cigarette and must be reported on packs.)

Whereas Ecuador prohibits the indication of TNCO yields, Canada, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama and Peru require these values to be indicated without mandating upper limits. Canada demands values measured both with ISO standards and Health Canada's Intensive Method, as well as the yields for formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide and benzene.

Asia & Pacific[edit]

Country Tar Nicotine CO As of
 Brunei 15 1.3 - 2008 02
 China 11 - - 2013 01
 Hong Kong 17 - - 1999 07
 Macau 20 1.5 - 1996 08
 Malaysia 10 1.0 10 1993 05
 Mongolia 15 1.4 - -
 South Korea 8 0.7 - -
 Singapore 10 1.0 - 2013 03
 Taiwan 12 1.2 - 2007 07
 Vietnam 24 2.2 - 2007 03[3]

(All values in mg/cigarette and must be reported on packs (see exceptions below).)

Although many countries in the region do not impose formal ceilings, some still request that tar and nicotine yield values be indicated on the pack (India, Indonesia, Japan). In Brunei, Malaysia and Vietnam, on the other hand, measured values must only be reported to the government.


HARA<BE

Eastern Europe and former CIS[edit]

Country Tar Nicotine CO As of
 Albania 10 1 10 2007 05
 Armenia 14[4] 1.2 - 2005 12
 Belarus 14 1.2 - -
 Croatia 12 - - -
 Georgia 10 1 - 2005 04
 Kazakhstan 14[4] 1.2 - 2003 07
 Kyrgyzstan 14[4] 1.2 -
 Macedonia 10 1 10 2008 03
 Moldova 15 1.2 - 2008 01[5]
 Montenegro 10 1 10 2004 02
 Russia 10 1 10 2010 06
 Serbia 14[6] 1.4 14 2007 01
 Turkmenistan 16 1.4 - -
 Ukraine 15[7] 1.3 - 1997 07
 Uzbekistan 16 1.4 - -

(All values in mg/cigarette and must be reported on packs.)

While Kosovo should soon enact regulation imposing ceilings, Bosnia-Herzegovina only requires tar and nicotine yields to be indicated, without imposing maximal values.

European Union/EFTA[edit]

Country Tar Nicotine CO As of
 Austria 10 1 10 2004 01
 Belgium 10 1 10 2004 01
 Bulgaria 10 1 10 2008 01
 Cyprus 10 1 10 2004 05
 Czech Republic 10 1 10 2004 05
 Denmark 10 1 10 2004 01
 Estonia 10 1 10 2006 06
 Finland 10 1 10 2004 01
 France 10 1 10 2004 01
 Germany 10 1 10 2004 01
 Greece 10 1 10 2007 01
 Hungary 10 1 10 2004 04
 Iceland 10 1 10 2004 01
 Ireland 10 1 10 2003 09
 Italy 10 1 10 2004 01
 Latvia 10 1 10 2004 10
 Liechtenstein 10 1 10 2004 10
 Lithuania 10 1 10 2004 06
 Luxembourg 10 1 10 2004 01
 Malta 10 1 10 2004 04
 Netherlands 10 1 10 2004 01
 Norway 10 1 10 2004 01
 Poland 10 1 10 2004 03
 Portugal 10 1 10 2004 01
 Romania 10 1 10 2007 01
 Slovakia 10 1 10 2006 07
 Slovenia 10 1 10 2004 01
 Spain 10 1 10 2004 01
 Sweden 10 1 10 2004 01
  Switzerland 10 1 10 2004 10
 United Kingdom 10 1 10 2003 09

(All values in mg/cigarette.)

Current regulations are based on European Union directive "2001/37" (PDF). (220 KiB). All yields must be indicated on the side of the pack with a minimum surface area of 10%, except for Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, Luxembourg, Malta (12%), Liechtenstein & Switzerland (15%) and Italy (20%).

The maximum levels have been previously limited to 15 mg tar (1992), then to 12 mg tar (01-1998), without maximum levels for nicotine and CO.

Middle East[edit]

Country Tar Nicotine CO As of
 Bahrain 10 0.6 12 1995 01
 Jordan 10 1 15 2004 01
 Kuwait 10 0.6 12 1995 01
 Oman 10 0.6 12 1995 01
 Palestinian Authority 25 1.6 - 2005 07
 Qatar 10 0.6 12 1995 01
 Saudi Arabia 10 0.6 12 1995 01
 Syria 13 1.1 10.5 2007 01
 Turkey 12 1 10 2007 01
 UAE 10 0.6 12 1995 01
 Yemen 12 0.8 - 1995 01

(All values in mg/cigarette and must be reported on packs (see exceptions below.)

The Palestinian Authority and Yemen do not require tar and nicotine values to be indicated on the packs' side.

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ ISO methods 3308 (general conditions), 4387 (tar), 8454 (CO) and 10315 (nicotine).
  2. ^ WHO Scientific Advisory Committee on Tobacco Product Regulation. Recommendation on Health Claims Derived from ISO/FTC Method to Measure Cigarette Yield. 2002
  3. ^ Tar/Nicotine ceilings will be gradually lowered in two-year intervals from 22/2 mg on March 17, 2008, to 16/1.4 mg on March 17, 2014
  4. ^ a b c For filter cigarettes. Non filter: 16 mg tar and 1.3 mg nicotine
  5. ^ According to the Ministry of Agriculture Draft Law, the Max. Yield of Tar/Nicotine/CO for filter cigarettes suggested to be as follows: as of 01.01.2008 - 15/1,2 (+CO regulated); as of 01.01.2010 - 12/1,0/14; as of 01.01.2012 - 10/1,0/10 respectively.
  6. ^ As of January 2008 respective T/N/CO ceilings will be 12.0, 1.3, 13.0; as of January 2009 10.0, 1.2, 12.0; as of January 2010 10.0, 1.1, 11.0; as of January 2011 10.0, 1.0, 10.0.
  7. ^ Ceiling values in Ukraine to be lowered to 12 mg and 1.2 mg/cigarette for tar and nicotine, respectively, as of Jan. 1, 2009

See also[edit]