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AliasesTOMM40, C19orf1, D19S1177E, PER-EC1, PEREC1, TOM40, translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40
External IDsMGI: 1858259 HomoloGene: 101105 GeneCards: TOMM40
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 19 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 19 (human)[1]
Chromosome 19 (human)
Genomic location for TOMM40
Genomic location for TOMM40
Band19q13.32Start44,890,569 bp[1]
End44,903,689 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TOMM40 202264 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)


Location (UCSC)Chr 19: 44.89 – 44.9 MbChr 7: 19.7 – 19.72 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast), also known as TOMM40, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TOMM40 gene.[5][6]


TOMM40 codes for a protein that is embedded into outer membranes of mitochondria and is required for the movement of proteins into mitochondria. More precisely, TOMM40 is the channel-forming subunit of a translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM) that is essential for protein transport into mitochondria.[7]

Clinical significance[edit]

In humans, certain alleles of this gene have been statistically associated with an increased risk of developing late-onset Alzheimer's Disease.[8][9] One study has found that TOMM40 risk alleles appears twice as often in people with Alzheimer's disease than those without it.[10] Because TOMM40 is located on chromosome 19, and is closely adjacent to APOE,[6] another gene known to be associated with Alzheimer's, another study has suggested that the statistically significant correlation of TOMM40 with Alzheimer's is due to linkage disequilibrium.[11][12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000130204 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000002984 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:".
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  5. ^ "Entrez Gene: TOMM40 translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast)".
  6. ^ a b Freitas EM, Zhang WJ, Lalonde JP, Tay GK, Gaudieri S, Ashworth LK, Van Bockxmeer FM, Dawkins RL (1998). "Sequencing of 42kb of the APO E-C2 gene cluster reveals a new gene: PEREC1". DNA Seq. 9 (2): 89–100. doi:10.3109/10425179809086433. PMID 10520737.
  7. ^ Humphries AD, Streimann IC, Stojanovski D, Johnston AJ, Yano M, Hoogenraad NJ, Ryan MT (March 2005). "Dissection of the mitochondrial import and assembly pathway for human Tom40". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (12): 11535–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M413816200. PMID 15644312.
  8. ^ Devi L, Prabhu BM, Galati DF, Avadhani NG, Anandatheerthavarada HK (August 2006). "Accumulation of amyloid precursor protein in the mitochondrial import channels of human Alzheimer's disease brain is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction". J. Neurosci. 26 (35): 9057–68. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1469-06.2006. PMID 16943564.
  9. ^ Roses AD, Lutz MW, Huentelman MJ, Chiba-Falek O, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Reiman EM (2009-07-12). "Apoe-3 And Tomm-40 Haplotypes Determine Inheritance Of Alzheimer's Disease Independently Of Apoe-4 Risk". Alzheimer's Association 2009 International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease. Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved 2009-07-14.; Cortez MF (2009-07-12). "Alzheimer's Gene Discovery May Help Predict Age Disease Hits". Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  10. ^ Potkin SG, Guffanti G, Lakatos A, et al. (2009). Domschke K, ed. "Hippocampal Atrophy as a Quantitative Trait in a Genome-Wide Association Study Identifying Novel Susceptibility Genes for Alzheimer's Disease". PLoS ONE. 4 (8): e6501. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006501. PMC 2719581. PMID 19668339.
  11. ^ Yu CE, Seltman H, Peskind ER, Galloway N, Zhou PX, Rosenthal E, Wijsman EM, Tsuang DW, Devlin B, Schellenberg GD (June 2007). "Comprehensive Analysis of APOE and Selected Proximate Markers for Late-onset Alzheimer Disease: Pattern of Linkage Disequilibrium and Disease/Marker Association". Genomics. 89 (6): 655–65. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2007.02.002. PMC 1978251. PMID 17434289.
  12. ^ Bu G (May 2009). "Apolipoprotein E and its receptors in Alzheimer's disease: pathways, pathogenesis and therapy". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10 (5): 333–44. doi:10.1038/nrn2620. PMC 2908393. PMID 19339974.

Further reading[edit]