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What's with the capitalization on the O? Miserlou 03:43, 6 November 2007 (UTC)
I'm not sure it's correct at all that kappa agonists don't induce dysphoria. I can find numerous papers by respected authors in the field within the last year that refer to kappa-induced dysphoria. Either the anonymous wikipedia editor is correct and the experts are under a misconception, or this page needs a serious rewrite. 184.108.40.206 (talk) 11:56, 7 April 2008 (UTC)
- Try to track down papers that describe how the dysphoria has been measured. If you find animal studies, take into account that dysphoria is a genuinely human term and that avoidance in animals can have other meanings. Сасусlе 12:45, 7 April 2008 (UTC)
- I have tracked down papers describing how dysphoria is measured. The Land et al. paper outlines a stress-induced mechanism of kappa-dependent dysphoria very well. Regardless of the rewarding aspects of Salvinorin A in humans, kappa opioid receptor agonists have been demonstrated to be dysphoric in mice! This must be changed!*
The differences between Sal A and other KOR agonists are clear. The rewarding vs. dysphoric effects are likely due to dose-response relationships that are complex. To outright state that KOR agonists are NOT dysphoric is simply not true. Several personal accounts from Sal A users describe intense dysphoric experiences, and rewarding experience when the Sal A has worn off.
Dysphoria as it relates to addiction:
The article lacks a good description of the kinetics of Kappa opioid activation. It is clear in numerous reports that animals avoid contexts that have been previously paired with Kappa agonists. Human reports consistently describe "dysphoria" following Salvinorin use, followed by a rebound reward. This all fits into the addiction session quite well, because the the first entry seemed poised to favor KOR agonism as a solution to addiction, however it seems unlikely that a drug addict would take such a substance when they already are likely to feel drug craving and withdrawal symptoms which are dysphoric. The effects of KOR on dopamine are clear and robust and should be highlighted. It would be nice to break the addiction paragraph up a bit to describe the dopamine effects, the behavioral effects, and the mechanisms for KOR in stress-induced behaviors, including reinstatement, anxiety, and depression-like models. (The Dynorphin page for example does this quite nicely) —Preceding unsigned comment added by Nordique1 (talk • contribs) 21:26, 5 April 2009 (UTC)
This article needs to be rewritten.
Literally one out of every four sentences in this article talks about salvinorin A. This article is not entitled "salvinorin A", but "kappa opioid receptor". There's very little information about the kappa opioid receptor in the article, which was apparently written by someone who thinks the most noteworthy thing about this topic is whatever erowid says about it.
Suggestion that naloxone...
I removed the uncited suggestion that Naloxone is effective at counteracting the effects of kappa agonists; on the Naloxone page it was suggest that the drug is effective at counteracting, specifically, salvia (ie: as a way to bring someone back from a hallucinogenic state), which seems a stretch, especially since the literature is mixed on whether or not it is effective in animal tests and other experiments, and ESPECIALLY when the drug itself is neither recommended, prescribed, or otherwise suggested to be used in such situations. SiberioS (talk) 04:10, 21 May 2008 (UTC)
Treatment in Drug Addiction
Just some of my thoughts...
2nd paragraph, reference to 44: must include short-term/long-term effect. Assuming long term (long term administration of a kappa agonist). Also, this isn't the point of the article referenced here. The writer should have picked a better reference - I thought it was funny.
4th paragraph: "although seemingly paradoxical" needs to be removed. It's rather subjective and that whole sentence is actually unnecessary.
Last paragraph: "The longer effects of kappa opioid agonism..." should be taken out as it doesn't flow with the topic sentence. Personally, I would take this whole paragraph out, since it's somewhat redundant and half of the paragraph lacks any reference.
It might be better organized if the article makes a clear distinction between the short term effect of kappa receptor agonism and the long term effect (leading to upregulation of mu receptors, etc.). Opq4i (talk) 03:36, 13 October 2009 (UTC)
Incorrectly listed agonists/antagonists
The article is listing some k-opioid agonists and antagonists incorectly. For example buprenorphine is listed as an agonist, when it's action is kinda mixed but mostly antagonistic. http://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/22/7341.full - " It [buprenoprhine] has mixed but primarily antagonistic actions on κ-opioid (KORs) and δ-opioid (DORs) receptors (Sadée et al., 1982; Richards and Sadée, 1985; Kajiwara et al., 1986; Leander, 1987; Zhu et al., 1997; Huang et al., 2001)."
I would really appreciate if someone had the time to check all the other agonists/antagonists and make sure they're listed correctly. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 220.127.116.11 (talk) 12:59, 8 March 2013 (UTC)
And unlisted is N-methyltetrahydroprotoberberine, the putative antinociceptive (analgesic) agent in Corydalis yanhusuo http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874114005765 "Discovery of N-methyltetrahydroprotoberberines with κ-opioid receptor agonists-opioid receptor agonist activities from corydalis yanhusuo W. T. Wang by using two-dimensional liquid chromatography" (Yan Zhanga, Chaoran Wangb, Zhimou Guob, Xiuli Zhangb, Zhiwei Wanga, Xinmiao Liangb, Olivier Civellia, Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 155, Issue 3, 29 September 2014, Pages 1597–1602) --18.104.22.168 (talk) 22:31, 5 February 2016 (UTC)