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Q1. Both sets of dates are correct. The viceroyalty was first established in 1785 by Catherine the Great by transforming Astrakhan Governorate and adding some lands from Taurida Oblast. It was abolished by Paul I in 1796. In 1844, a viceroyalty of the same name was created again; it existed until 1881.
Q2/3. I don't think the template supports it. A split is possible (that's what was done for Northern Oblast, for example, although it's not an identical situation). Actually, I think a split is a good idea. The two viceroyalties share nothing in common but the name; it really makes little sense to dump them both into one article as it was done in the Russian Wikipedia.
Q4: It's complicated :) Caucasus Viceroyalty was abolished in 1796, but its parts were not. Caucasus Governorate, which accounted for a good chunk of the abolished viceroyalty, was renamed Astrakhan Governorate. It was split in 1803 into Caucasus Governorate and Astrakhan Governorate. In 1822, Caucasus Governorate was transformed into Caucasus Oblast, which was renamed Stavropol Governorate in 1847. Lest you are wondering how the second Caucasus Viceroyalty enters into this, it was established in 1844 on the territories the Russian Empire recently acquired and did not overlap with then-existing Caucasus Oblast. I'd speculate that the reason Caucasus Oblast was renamed was to avoid confusion with the new viceroyalty, but I can't back this statement up with sources.—Ëzhiki (Igels Hérissonovich Ïzhakoff-Amursky) • (yo?); March 13, 2013; 13:40 (UTC)
Q1: "Both sets of dates are correct" - There are three. Aleksandr Krymsky (talk) 23:54, 16 March 2013 (UTC)
Would be nice if someone with good knowledge of transliteration could Romanize the Cyrillic names. Also it would be nice if the exact title of these people would be stated. Aleksandr Krymsky (talk) 00:37, 17 March 2013 (UTC)