Taungoo District was created by the Pagan Dynasty in the 1280s, and was much larger. It was ruled by appointed governors through succeeding dynasties. In 1510, Taungoo District briefly became the small, independent kingdom of Taungoo. But within twenty years that kingdom soon controlled most of Burma, the capital was moved to Pegu, and Taungoo became a district again. By the mid-19th century, Taungoo was governed by a local governor appointed by the Konbaung kings. The Taungoo District consisted of 52 wards, including today's Pyinmana and Naypyidaw regions. The Taungoo District was cut in half after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The British annexed the southern half, including the city of Taungoo while the northern portion, including Pyinmana and Ela, remained Burmese.
The district contains the following townships
- "Burma: Second-Order Administrative Divisions (Districts)" The Permanent Committee of Geographic Names (PCGN), United Kingdom, from Internet Archive
- Shwe Yinnma Oo (2010-08-02). "Taungoo prepares for 500th birthday". The Myanmar Times.
- Sir James George Scott, John Percy Hardiman (1901). Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States, Part 2. 3. Printed by the superintendent, Government printing, Burma. p. 374.
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