The Teutons (Latin: Teutones, Teutoni, Greek: "Τεύτονες") were a Germanic tribe or Celtic tribe mentioned by Greek and Roman authors, notably Strabo and Marcus Velleius Paterculus. According to a map by Ptolemy, they originally lived in Jutland, which is in agreement with Pomponius Mela, who placed them in Scandinavia (Codanonia), implying that they may have originally inhabited both regions previously, but scholars disagreed on whether they were related to the Celts.
Rather than relating directly to the tribe, the broad term Teutonic peoples or particularly Teuton is now used to identify members of a people speaking Germanic languages, a branch of the Indo-European languages.
In the late second century BC, many of the Teutones (under their leader Teutobod) as well as the Cimbri migrated from their original homes in southern Scandinavia and on the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, moving south and west to the Danube valley, where they encountered the expanding Roman Republic. The Teutones and Cimbri were recorded[by whom?] as passing west through Gaul before attacking Roman Italy.
After achieving decisive victories over the Romans at Noreia and Arausio in 105 BC, the Cimbri and Teutones divided their forces. Gaius Marius then defeated them separately in 102 BC and 101 BC respectively, ending the Cimbrian War. The defeat of the Teutones occurred at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae (near present-day Aix-en-Provence). Some surviving captives reportedly participated as the rebelling gladiators in the Third Servile War of 73-71 BC.
Historians debate the issue of the linguistic affinities of the Teutones. Their name is Celtic in form, and many writers classify the Teutones as Celts; however, the early traveller of the 4th century BC, Pytheas, mentions a people of this name as inhabitants of the northern ocean coasts. Strabo (64 or 63 BC – c. AD 24) and Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. 19 BC – c. AD 31), moreover, classify them as Germanic peoples, and this is perhaps more probable. (Some early historians did not clearly distinguish between Celts and Teutones.)
Mass suicide of the women of the Teutones
According to the writings of Valerius Maximus and Florus, the king of the Teutones, Teutobod, was taken in irons after the Teutones were defeated by the Romans. Under the conditions of the surrender, three hundred married women were to be handed over to the victorious Romans as concubines and slaves. When the matrons of the Teutones heard of this stipulation, they begged the consul that they might instead be allowed to minister in the temples of Ceres and Venus. When their request was denied, the Teutonic women slew their own children. The next morning, all the women were found dead in each other's arms, having strangled each other during the night. Their joint martyrdom passed into Roman legends of Teutonic fury.
- Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). "Teutons". Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. pp. 797–798. ISBN 1438129181. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- Strauss, Barry (2009). The Spartacus War. Simon and Schuster. pp. 21–22. ISBN 1-4165-3205-6.
- Chisholm 1911, p. 673.
- Lucius Annaeus Florus, Epitome 1.38.16–17 and Valerius Maximus, Factorum et Dictorum Memorabilium 6.1.ext.3
- Fick, August, Alf Torp and Hjalmar Falk: Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen. Part 3, Wortschatz der Germanischen Spracheinheit. 4. Aufl. (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht), 1909.
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