The Good Soldier
First Edition of The Good Soldier, with original title
|Author||Ford Madox Ford|
|Publisher||John Lane, The Bodley Head|
|Media type||Print (hardback and paperback)|
The Good Soldier: A Tale of Passion is a 1915 novel by English novelist Ford Madox Ford. It is set just before World War I and chronicles the tragedy of Edward Ashburnham, the soldier to whom the title refers, and his own seemingly perfect marriage and that of two American friends. The novel is told using a series of flashbacks in non-chronological order, a literary technique that formed part of Ford's pioneering view of literary impressionism. Ford employs the device of the unreliable narrator to great effect as the main character gradually reveals a version of events that is quite different from what the introduction leads the reader to believe. The novel was loosely based on two incidents of adultery and on Ford's messy personal life.
The novel's original title was The Saddest Story, but after the onset of World War I, the publishers asked Ford for a new title. Ford suggested (sarcastically) The Good Soldier, and the name stuck.
In 1998, the Modern Library ranked The Good Soldier 30th on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. In 2015, the BBC ranked The Good Soldier 13th on its list of the 100 greatest British novels.
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The Good Soldier is narrated by the character John Dowell, half of one of the couples whose dissolving relationships form the subject of the novel. Dowell tells the stories of those dissolutions as well as the deaths of three characters and the madness of a fourth, in a rambling, non-chronological fashion that leaves gaps for the reader to fill. The "plot" is not then the real story; the reader is asked to consider whether they believe Dowell and what part he truly played in how this "saddest story ever told" actually plays out.
Events as narrated
The novel opens with the famous line, "This is the saddest story I have ever heard." Dowell explains that, for nine years, he, his wife Florence, and their friends Captain Edward Ashburnham (the "good soldier" of the book's title) and his wife Leonora had an ostensibly normal friendship while Edward and Florence sought treatment for their heart ailments at a spa in Nauheim, Germany.
As it turns out, nothing in the relationships or in the characters is as it first seems. Florence's heart ailment is a fiction she perpetrated on John to force them to stay in Europe so that she could continue her affair with a French artist named Jimmy. Edward and Leonora have a loveless, imbalanced marriage broken by his constant infidelities (both of body and heart) and Leonora's attempts to control Edward's affairs (both financial and romantic). Dowell is a fool and is coming to realise how much of a fool he is, as Florence and Edward had an affair under his nose for nine years without John knowing until Florence was dead.
Florence's affair with Edward leads her to commit suicide when she realises that Edward is falling in love with his and Leonora's young ward, Nancy Rufford, the daughter of Leonora's closest friend. Florence sees the two in an intimate conversation and rushes back into the resort, where she sees John talking to a man she knows (and who knows of her affair with Jimmy) but whom John doesn't know. Assuming that her relationship with Edward and her marriage to John are over, Florence takes prussic acid—which she has carried for years in a vial that John thought held her heart medicine—and dies.
With that story told, Dowell moves on to tell the story of Edward and Leonora's relationship, which appears normal but which is a power struggle that Leonora wins. Dowell runs through several of Edward's affairs and peccadilloes, including his possibly innocent attempt to comfort a crying servant on a train; his affair with the married Maisie Maidan, the one character in the book whose heart problem was unquestionably real, and his bizarre tryst in Monte Carlo and Antibes with a kept woman known as La Dolciquita. Edward's philandering ends up costing them a fortune in bribes, blackmail and gifts for his lovers, leading Leonora to take control of Edward's financial affairs. She gradually gets him out of debt.
Edward's last affair is his most scandalous, as he becomes infatuated with their young ward, Nancy. Nancy came to live with them after leaving a convent where her parents had sent her; her mother was a violent alcoholic, and her father (it is later suggested that this man may not be Nancy's biological father) may have abused her. Edward, tearing himself apart because he does not want to spoil Nancy's innocence, arranges to have her sent to India to live with her father, even though this frightens her terribly. Once Leonora knows that Edward intends to keep his passion for Nancy chaste, but only wants Nancy to continue to love him from afar, Leonora torments him by making this wish impossible—she pretends to offer to divorce him so he can marry Nancy, but informs Nancy of his sordid sexual history, destroying Nancy's innocent love for him. After Nancy's departure, Edward commits suicide. When Nancy reaches Aden and sees the obituary in the paper, she becomes catatonic.
The novel's last section has Dowell writing from Edward's old estate in England, where he takes care of Nancy, whom he cannot marry because of her mental illness. Nancy is only capable of repeating two things—a Latin phrase meaning "I believe in an omnipotent God" and the word "shuttlecocks." Dowell states that the story is sad because no one got what they wanted. Leonora wanted Edward but lost him and married the normal (but dull) Rodney Bayham. Edward wanted Nancy but lost her. Dowell wanted a wife but ended up a nurse to two sick women, one a fake.
As if in an afterthought, Dowell closes the novel by telling the story of Edward's suicide. Edward receives a telegram from Nancy that reads, "Safe Brindisi. Having a rattling good time. Nancy." He asks Dowell to take the telegram to his wife, pulls out his pen knife, says that it's time he had some rest and slits his own throat.
Dowell ends up generally unsure about where to lay the blame but expressing sympathy for Edward, because Dowell thinks himself to be similar to Edward in nature. The fact is he has been a disengaged, a voyeur, and perhaps the most manipulative character of the novel. He is guilty of caring for no one but himself, and while the others have their flaws, he is the one character who has never participated in life and the one who is revealed to be the most despicable when he dashes up a hill, thereby leaving Edward to slit his throat with a very small pen knife.
Careful textual deconstruction of the novel reveals inconsistencies of narration that suggest different, hidden plot elements. For example, Dowell marries an heiress who ostensibly has a bad heart, despite not loving her, and despite her having stated openly that she does not love him. Dowell states repeatedly that he has no need or interest in her money—one might argue that he protests his disinterest rather too much. Florence eventually dies, ostensibly by suicide. If the readers suspend their trust in the narrator, some may be left with the impression that the narrator is obfuscating, happy his wife dies and not doing anything to prevent it; just as he does little throughout the entire book. Thus, behind the more or less explicit narrative lurks a possible counter-narrative in which Dowell is something of a sociopath, caring for no one but himself, an observer of others who are living more fully while never actively engaging very intensely in life himself, and indeed, perhaps a voyeur relishing the demise of others. This would be the story of a manipulative man trying to elicit the sympathy of the audience he speaks/writes to, who must decide whether he is a deluded victim or a heartless manipulator of the reader's emotions.
Florence supposedly poisons herself in a possibly painful manner, and Edward supposedly cuts his own throat, but as always in this novel, we only have Dowell's word for it, and he epitomises the "unreliable narrator." In both cases, he stands by, perhaps knowing what is likely to happen. The reader is invited to position herself with regard to the possible ambiguities as the events unfold, to decide just how much of the truth Dowell reveals. Some commentators have even suggested that Dowell, who is considered by all, and presented by himself, as passive, murders both Florence and Edward. In this view the entire story is his justification for doing so without his admitting his guilt.
Also, although Edward is the only actual soldier in the story, the title "The Good Soldier" functions as a mechanism for exploring, comparing and contrasting all the main characters. What defines "duty?" What defines "honor?" What separates right from wrong? These are the questions asked but not exactly answered.
Ford's novel relied heavily on the criticism of "throughout…Ford explores gentry, patriarchy, and imperialism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries." The novel was as much a book about the twists of betrayal and the lies that build up as much as it was about social commentary of the time.
John Dowell: The narrator, husband to Florence. Dowell is an American Quaker, either a gullible and passionless man who cannot read the emotions of the people around him or a master manipulator who plays the victim.
Florence Dowell: John Dowell's wife and a scheming, manipulative, unfaithful woman who uses Dowell for his money while pursuing her affairs on the side. She fakes a heart ailment to get what she wants out of her husband and has a lengthy affair with Edward Ashburnham.
Edward Ashburnham: Friend of the Dowells and husband of Leonora. Ashburnham is a hopeless romantic who keeps falling in love with the women he meets; he is at Nauheim for the treatment of a heart problem, but it's unclear whether the ailment is real. He is Dowell's opposite, a virile, physical, passionate man.
Leonora Ashburnham: Edward's wife by a marriage that was more or less arranged by their fathers. Leonora comes to resent Edward's philandering as much for its effect on her life as on her marriage and asserts more and more control over Edward until he dies.
Nancy Rufford: The young ward of the Ashburnhams; Edward falls in love with Nancy after he tires of Florence. Eventually, Edward arranges for Nancy to be sent to India to live with her father, but she goes mad en route when she learns of Edward's death.
La Dolciquita: A Spanish dancer (The Grand Duke's mistress) who is Edward's first sexual affair. Although he believes himself to be romantically attached to her, he quickly becomes disillusioned by her thirst for his money. She is not at all interested in Edward's "sentimental" gestures, and asks for money and expensive gifts in exchange for sex.
Maisie Maidan: Edward's third affair. Maisie was a young, pretty, married woman whom Leonora purchases from her "child husband" and brings back to Europe[clarification needed] for Edward's sake. Maisie has a true heart defect, and it takes her life as she tries to flee from Edward.
But how well can we judge the characterisations the novel when Dowell was such an unreliable narrator? Arguably, he could have completely misinterpreted himself into the best light possible in the hopes of bringing some redemption back into his own character. However
"by the end of the novel Dowell has tested the limits of rational explanation. He has interpreted character by religion, by nationality, by gender, and by the calendar…Dowell's disillusionment follows the arc of modernism. He begins with presuppositions typical of much Victorian characterization: the individual conditioned by circumstance, composed of intelligible motives, susceptible to moral analysis-the justified self. Then, confronted with the singularity of desire, his 'generalizations' totter and fall."
Dowell, therefore, admits that his assumptions throughout his writings and characterisations of the people in his life may be flawed. Whether that has to do with personal guilt, an attempt to reshape history in his favour, there is no clear answer.
Gender and performance
Gender performativity existing as a reclaimed "communication model; of gender that accommodates…performative understandings of multiple, fluid, and situated identifications, such as race, sexuality, disability, age, and others." This type of performance which is used as a social construction is important to note when speaking about every character in The Good Soldier.
What becomes obvious and is repeatedly brought up is that the social norms/construction of the time were the goal. And Leonora was the monument to that virtue in Dowell's eyes. To him, Leonora "merely yield[ed] to prevailing conventions; she actively [desired] them. The strictly justified self exists in perfect conformity with the moral norms of a culture, and thus Leonora [began] as a living moral tautology." Leonora marries again at the end to a man and has children and a life that could only be described of as normal, which was all she had wanted to begin with. She had clung to her traditions for so long.
Florence was the opposite. She flaunted her sexuality, had affairs with men—even Edward Ashburnham despite what began as a friendship with Leonora. Both her and Leonora's stories can be looked at through contemporary feminist theories, especially Sandra Lee Bartky's "Foucault, Femininity, and the Modernization of Patriarchal Power." Both Leonora and Florence police themselves and each other over societal expectations. Leonora did so wanting to be the faithful, dutiful wife. Florence doing everything she could to outshine everyone around her, even by sleeping with them.
While female gender and presentation is important, the generalisations of the male social norms are brought up continuously. The title itself—"The Good Soldier"—reminds the reader of a man's place in the society. And Dowell, in comparing himself with Edward Ashburnham, was not in the position to define himself as masculine since he defines Edward as the ideal of masculinity. He did not have extramarital affair like Edward, nor was he a soldier, or a land owner. The pressures of masculinity lead Dowell to buying the Ashburnham land and taking care of the psychologically broken Nancy by the end of The Good Soldier.
The novel was adapted into the television film of the same title by Granada Television in 1981. It starred Jeremy Brett, Vickery Turner, Robin Ellis and Susan Fleetwood. It was directed by Kevin Billington and written by Julian Mitchell. In the US it aired as part of the Masterpiece Theatre series.
- Womack, Kenneth and William Baker, eds. The Good Soldier: A Tale of Passion. Broadview Press, 2003.
- Ford, Madox Ford (2003). Kenneth Womack and William Baker, eds. The Good Soldier: A Tale of Passion. New York: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-381-3.
- Ciabattari, Jane (7 December 2015). "The 100 greatest British novels". BBC. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Hoffman, Karen (2004). ""Am I No Better Than a Eunuch?": Narrating Masculinity and Empire in Ford Madox Ford's 'The Good Soldier'". Journal of Modern Literature. 27: 30–46.
- Levenson, Michael (1984). "Character in The Good Soldier". Twentieth Century Literature. 30: 373–387.
- Golombisky, Kim (16 December 2017). "Renewing the Commitments of Feminist Public Relations Theory From Velvet Ghetto to Social Justice". Journal of Public Relations Research. 27: 389–415.
- BBC – Book at Bedtime – The Good Soldier
- Global British Comedy Collaborative – Ford Madox Ford