Tolypocladium inflatum

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Tolypocladium inflatum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Ascomycota
Class: Sordariomycetes
Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
Order: Hypocreales
Family: Ophiocordycipitaceae
Genus: Tolypocladium
Species: T. inflatum
Binomial name
Tolypocladium inflatum
W. Gams (1971)
Synonyms[1][2][3][4]

Pachybasium niveum O. Rostr. (1916)
Tolypocladium niveum (O. Rostr.) Bissett (1983)
Beauveria nivea (O. Rostr.) Arx (1986)
Cordyceps subsessilis Petch (1937)
Elaphocordyceps subsessilis (Petch) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung & Spatafora (2007)

Tolypocladium inflatum is an ascomycete fungus originally isolated from a Norwegian soil sample that, under certain conditions, produces the immunosuppressant drug ciclosporin. In its sexual stage (teleomorph) it is a parasite on scarab beetles. It forms a small, compound ascocarp that arises from the cadaver of its host beetle. In its asexual stage (anamorph) it is a white mold that grows on soil. It is much more commonly found in its asexual stage and this is the stage that was originally given the name "Tolypocladium inflatum".

The fungus from which ciclosporin was first isolated was originally misidentified as Trichoderma polysporum.[5] Gams later showed the fungus belonged in a new genus of molds, Tolypocladium, and he coined the name Tolypocladium inflatum for the ciclosporin fungus.[6] In 1983, Bissett found that T. inflatum was the same species as Pachybasium niveum, and since the older name would have priority under the rules of botanical nomenclature, Bissett made the combination Tolypocladium niveum.[7] However, because of the economic importance of the fungus in the pharmaceutical industry, the name T. inflatum was later formally conserved to avoid confusion, so today the correct name of the mold that produces ciclosporin is Tolypocladium inflatum.

In 1996, Kathie Hodge of Cornell University and colleagues determined that the mold T. inflatum was the asexual state of what was then known as Cordyceps subsessilis.[8] Cordyceps subsessilis was later moved to the genus Elaphocordyceps. However, under the ICN's 2011 "one fungus, one name" principle, fungi can not have different names for their anamorphic and teleomorphic stages if they are found to be the same species so Elaphocordyceps subsessilis was made a synonym of Tolypocladium inflatum.[1][9]

The Genome of the T. inflatum strain/isolate NRRL 8044 (ATCC 34921) was sequenced and published in 2013 by Bushley et al.[10] This was the same strain from which the cyclosporin was first isolated.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Quandt (2014). "Phylogenetic-based nomenclatural proposals for Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales) with new combinations in Tolypocladium". IMA Fungus. 5 (1): 121–134. 
  2. ^ "Tolypocladium inflatum W. Gams (1971)". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2016-01-03. 
  3. ^ "Elaphocordyceps subsessilis (Petch) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung & Spatafora (2007)". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2016-01-03. 
  4. ^ "Beauveria nivea (O. Rostr.) Arx (1986)". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2016-01-03. 
  5. ^ Dreyfuss M, Härri E, Hofmann H, Kobel H, Pache W, Tscherter H. (1976). "Cyclosporin A and C: new metabolites from Trichoderma polysporum (Link ex Pers.) Rifai". European Journal of Applied Microbiology 3: 125–133.
  6. ^ Gams W. (1971). "Tolypocladium, eine Hyphomycetengattung mit geschwollenen Phialiden". Persoonia 6: 185–191.
  7. ^ Bissett J. (1983). "Notes on Tolypocladium and related genera". Canadian Journal of Botany 61: 1311–1329.
  8. ^ Hodge KT, Krasnoff SB, Humber RA. (1996). "Tolypocladium inflatum is the anamorph of Cordyceps subsessilis". Mycologia 88: 715–719.
  9. ^ Hawksworth, D. L. (2011). "A new dawn for the naming of fungi: impacts of decisions made in Melbourne in July 2011 on the future publication and regulation of fungal names". MycoKeys. 1: 7–20. doi:10.3897/mycokeys.1.2062. 
  10. ^ Bushley, Kathryn E.; Raja, Rajani; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Cumbie, Jason S.; Nonogaki, Mariko; Boyd, Alexander E.; Owensby, C. Alisha; Knaus, Brian J.; Elser, Justin (2013-06-01). "The genome of tolypocladium inflatum: evolution, organization, and expression of the cyclosporin biosynthetic gene cluster". PLoS genetics. 9 (6): e1003496. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003496. ISSN 1553-7404. PMC 3688495free to read. PMID 23818858.