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Definitions of Translational Research
Translational research (also referred to as translational science) is defined by the European Society for Translational Medicine (EUSTM) as an interdisciplinary branch of the biomedical field supported by three main pillars: benchside, bedside and community.  The goal of TM is to combine disciplines, resources, expertise, and techniques within these pillars to promote enhancements in prevention, diagnosis, and therapies. Accordingly, TM is a highly interdisciplinary field, the primary goal of which is to coalesce assets of various natures within the individual pillars in order to improve the global healthcare system significantly.
It is defined for school based education by the Education Futures Collaboration (www.meshguides.org) as research which translates concepts to classroom practice (Burden et al 2013. Examples of translational research are commonly found in education subject association journals and in the MESHGuides which have been designed for this purpose (Younie (2016)).
Translational research applies findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. In a medical research context, it aims to "translate" findings in fundamental research into medical practice and meaningful health outcomes. Translational research implements a “bench-to-bedside”, from laboratory experiments through clinical trials to point-of-care patient applications, model, harnessing knowledge from basic sciences to produce new drugs, devices, and treatment options for patients. The end point of translational research is the production of a promising new treatment that can be used with practical applications, that can then be used clinically or are able to be commercialized.
As a relatively new research discipline, translational research incorporates aspects of both basic science and clinical research, requiring skills and resources that are not readily available in a basic laboratory or clinical setting. It is for these reasons that translational research is more effective in dedicated university science departments or isolated, dedicated research centres. Since 2009, the field has had specialized journals, the American Journal of Translational Research and the Translational Research (journal) dedicated to translational research and its findings.
Translational research is broken down into different stages, including two-stage (T1 and T2), four-stage (T1, T2, T3, and T4), and five-stage (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) schemes. In a two-stage model, T1 research, refers to the “bench-to-bedside” enterprise of translating knowledge from the basic sciences into the development of new treatments and T2 research refers to translating the findings from clinical trials into everyday practice. In a five-stage scheme, T1 involves basic research, T2 involves pre-clinical research, T3 involves clinical research, T4 involves clinical implementation, and T5 involves implementation in the public health sphere.
In a two-stage scheme, translational research includes two areas of translation. One is the process of applying discoveries generated during research in the laboratory, and in preclinical studies, to the development of trials and studies in humans. The second area of translation concerns research aimed at enhancing the adoption of best practices in the community. Cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies is also an important part of translational science.
Comparison to basic research or applied research
Basic research is the systematic study directed toward greater knowledge or understanding of the fundamental aspects of phenomena and is performed without thought of practical ends. It results in general knowledge and understanding of nature and its laws.
Applied research is a form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science. It accesses and uses some part of the research communities' (the academia's) accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, often state, business, or client-driven purpose.
In medicine, translational research is increasingly a separate research field. A citation pattern between the applied and basic sides in cancer research appeared around 2000.
Challenges and criticisms of translational research
Critics of translational research point to examples of important drugs that arose from fortuitous discoveries in the course of basic research such as penicillin and benzodiazepines, and the importance of basic research in improving our understanding of basic biological facts (e.g. the function and structure of DNA) that go on to transform applied medical research.
Examples of failed translational research in the pharmaceutical industry include the failure of anti-aβ therapeutics in Alzheimer's disease. Other problems have stemmed from the widespread irreproducibility thought to exist in translational research literature.
Translational research facilities
Although translational research is relatively new, it is being recognised and embraced globally. There are currently committed translational research institutes or research departments at the following locations:
- The more than 50 hubs of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards program
- Translational Research Institute (Australia), Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
- Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, United States.
- Maine Medical Center in Portland, Maine, United States has a dedicated translational research institute.
- Scripps Research Institute, Florida, United States, has a dedicated translational research institute.
Additionally, translational research is now acknowledged by some universities as a dedicated field to study a PhD or graduate certificate in, in a medical context. These institutes currently include Monash University in Victoria, Australia, the University of Queensland, Diamantina Institute in Brisbane, Australia, at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, America, and at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska.
- American Journal of Translational Research
- Personalized medicine
- Biomedical research
- Biological engineering
- Systems biology
- Translational Research Informatics
- Clinical trials
- Clinical and Translational Science
- Translational Research Institute
- NIH Roadmap
- CTSA Awards
- Center for Translational Injury Research
- American Journal of Translational Research
- Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research
- Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes
- OSCAT2012 : Conference on translational medicine
- Cohrs, Randall J.; Martin, Tyler; Ghahramani, Parviz; Bidaut, Luc; Higgins, Paul J.; Shahzad, Aamir. "Translational Medicine definition by the European Society for Translational Medicine". New Horizons in Translational Medicine 2 (3): 86–88. doi:10.1016/j.nhtm.2014.12.002.
- Burden, K., Younie, S. (2013) Translational Research Principles applied to education: the mapping of educational specialist knowhow (MESH initiative), Journal of Education for Teaching: international research and pedagogy, Vol 39, No.4 pp 459-463)
- Younie, S. 2016 "Mapping Educational Specialist knowHow (MESH") International Teacher Education Knowledge Mobilisation Summit: a framework for UNESCO SDG4 2030 2016, Whitehall, London
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