Treaty of Niš (1923)

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Treaty of Niš
Signed 23 March 1923 (1923-03-23)
Location Niš, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Negotiators

Kingdom of Yugoslavia Živojin Lazić

Bulgaria Aleksandar Stamboliyski
Signatories

Kingdom of Yugoslavia Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes

Bulgaria Kingdom of Bulgaria

The Treaty of Niš (Bulgarian: Нишка спогодба, Serbian: Нишки споразум/Niški sporazum) was a treaty signed on 23 March 1923 by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and the Kingdom of Bulgaria[1] which obliged the Kingdom of Bulgaria to suppress the operations of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) carried out from Bulgarian territory. As a result of the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine Bulgaria was in a grave situation having lost territory to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Greece and Romania and the right to maintain an army of no more than 20,000 combined with heavy reparations to those countries. The treaty was an attempt to normalize relations with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and gain its support on the Bulgarian claims to Western Thrace and Southern Dobruja but knowing the Bulgarian weakness the latter reduced the negotiations to technical issues and the Bulgarian responsibilities to fight the IMRO.

Treaty[edit]

The treaty was signed after its text was first discussed and agreed at the Conference of Niš held in period 1—17 March 1923.[2] There was a leak of information through which the IMRO was informed about the preparation of the treaty during the conference in Niš.[3] The treaty was signed by Aleksandar Stamboliyski on behalf of Kingdom of Bulgaria. By this treaty Bulgaria undertook the obligation to suppress the operations of the IMRO carried out from Bulgarian territory.[4]

The treaty become known to the public on 7 May 1923 after the ordinance of the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria.[5]

Aftermath[edit]

Based on the informations that "leaked" during the Niš Conference, the IMRO undertook immediate measures, based on a secret circular letter № 384, to create a second subsidiary organization in the border revolutionary districts in the Macedonia. The plan of the Central Committee was to move the second subsidiary organization and members away from Bulgaria and by that to preserve the organization and members in case the Bulgarian government undertook repressive measures.[6] Three days after the conference in Niš was over, Todor Aleksandrov took new precautions and prepared constitutive documents to a new secret structure called Railway Secret Organization (RSO) as a new subsidiary organization of IMRO.[7]

The IMRO had a prominent role in assassinating Aleksandar Stamboliyski due to his signing of the Treaty of Niš.[8] The assassins also cut off his hand, representing their opposition to his signing of the Treaty of Niš.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lampe, John R. (2000) [1996], Yugoslavia as history: twice there was a country (II ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 156, ISBN 0-521-77357-1, Treaty of Niš signed in 1923 
  2. ^ Grebenarov, Alexandar (1999). "Todor Alexandrov and the railroad secret organization". the Macedonian Review quarterly. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011. The conference in Nish opened on March 1, 1923. On March 14, 1923, three days before the closing of the conference, 
  3. ^ Grebenarov, Alexandar (1999). "Todor Alexandrov and the railroad secret organization". the Macedonian Review quarterly. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011. there is a "leak" of information which becomes known to the revolutionary leaders during the very conference in Nish 
  4. ^ Roberts, Priscilla Mary (2005). World War One. ABC-CLIO. p. 1721. ISBN 1-85109-879-8. On 23 March 1923 Stamboliyski signed the convention of Nish with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia). With this agreement, Stamboliyski promised to suppress the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), which was then carrying out operations against Yugoslavia from Bulgarian territory. IMRO members, as well as other opponents of Stamboliyski's foreign and domestic policies, murdered him on 14 June 1923 at his farm in Slavovitsa, cutting off the hand that signed the Nish treaty. 
  5. ^ Grebenarov, Alexandar (1999). "Todor Alexandrov and the railroad secret organization". the Macedonian Review quarterly. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011. The decisions of the conference become known to the public only after the Ordinance №44 of the Council of Ministers from May 7, 1923. 
  6. ^ Grebenarov, Alexandar (1999). "Todor Alexandrov and the railroad secret organization". the Macedonian Review quarterly. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011. there is a "leak" of information ... during the very conference in Nish. This alarming news compels the leaders to undertake immediate measures to preserve IMRO and its bases in the country. On March 14, 1923, three days before the closing of the conference, T. Alexandrov sends a secret circular letter № 384 to the commanders of the border revolutionary districts in Macedonia. They are informed that in connection with the new situation the Central Committee is planning to create a second subsidiary organization whose area of action will be the border region with Macedonia. ... to move away and thus to preserve the bases and the members of IMRO in case of measures of repression undertaken by the government ... 
  7. ^ Grebenarov, Alexandar (1999). "Todor Alexandrov and the railroad secret organization". the Macedonian Review quarterly. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011. after the end of the conference in Nish. Three days later ... To this end he prepares the constitutive documents to a new conspiratorial structure called Railway Secret Organization(RSO)... the new subsidiary organization of IMRO. 
  8. ^ Lampe, John R. (2000) [1996], Yugoslavia as history: twice there was a country (II ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 156, ISBN 0-521-77357-1, The prominent VMRO role in assassinating him shortly thereafter, precisely of that signature 
  9. ^ Roberts, Priscilla Mary (2005). World War One. ABC-CLIO. p. 1721. ISBN 1-85109-879-8. IMRO members as well as other opponents of Stamboliyski's foreign and domestic policies murdered him... cutting off the hand that signed the Niš Treaty.