Trinity Area School District

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Trinity Area School District
Map of Washington County Pennsylvania School Districts.png
Address
231 Park Avenue
Washington, Pennsylvania, Washington County 15301
United States
Information
Type Public
Established 1925
Closed Amity School, Laboratory School, Log Pile School, Lone Pine School, North Franklin School, Patten School
School board 9 elected members
Superintendent Dr. Michael P. Lucas, salary $140,000[1] (contract July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2019)[2]
Administrator

David G Roussos, Business Manager

Donald L Snoke, Ast Super
Principal Saundra Deems, TEES
Principal Dr Beth Tully, TNES
Principal Peter Keruskin, TMS
Principal Thomas Samosky, TSHS
Staff 166 non teaching staff members
Faculty 237 teacher 2013[3]
Grades K-12
Age 5 years old to 21 years old special education
Enrollment

3,270 pupils (2014-15)[4]
3,419 pupils (2009-10)

3,725 pupils (2005-06)[5]
 • Kindergarten 227 (2009), 239 (2014)
 • Grade 1 247 (2009), 236
 • Grade 2 224 (2009), 267
 • Grade 3 234 (2009), 240 (2014)
 • Grade 4 256 (2009), 252 (2014)
 • Grade 5 265 (2009), 230 (2014)
 • Grade 6 277 (2009), 264 (2014)
 • Grade 7 252 (2009), 246 (2014)
 • Grade 8 307 (2009), 259 (2014)
 • Grade 9 289 (2009), 259 (2014)
 • Grade 10 254 (2009), 265 (2014)
 • Grade 11 291 (2009), 265 (2014)
 • Grade 12 296 (2009), 248 (2014)
 • Other Enrollment declining to 3,390 by 2019[6]
Language English
Color(s) Blue&White
Yearbook Olympus
Budget $53,121,929 (2016-17)[7]
Website

Trinity Area School District is a public school district located near Washington in southwestern Pennsylvania. It serves the Pittsburgh exurbs of Canton Township, South Strabane Township, and North Franklin Township, as well as rural Amwell Township. Trinity Area encompasses approximately 87 square miles (230 km2). According to 2000 federal census data, it serves a resident population of 25,591. By 2010, the district's population increased to 26,072 people.[8] The educational attainment levels for the Trinity Area School District population (25 years old and over) were 88% high school graduates and 22.8% college graduates.[9] Trinity Area School District is one of the 500 public school districts of Pennsylvania and one of 15 public school districts operating in Washington County.

According to the Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center, 25% of the district’s pupils lived at 185% or below the Federal Poverty Level [1] as shown by their eligibility for the federal free or reduced price school meal programs in 2012.[10] In 2013 the Pennsylvania Department of Education, reported that 11 students in the Trinity Area School District were homeless.[11] In 2009, Trinity Area School District residents' per capita income was $19,473, while the median family income was $48,310.[12] In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501 [13] and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010.[14] In Washington County, the median household income was $53,693.[15] By 2013, the median household income in the United States rose to $52,100.[16] In 2014, the median household income in the USA was $53,700.[17]

In school year 2007-08, the Trinity Area School District provided basic educational services to 3,542 pupils through the employment of 259 teachers, 142 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 20 administrators. According to district officials, by 2011-12, the district's enrollment had declined to 3,225 pupils. Trinity Area School District employed: 251 teachers, 148 full-time and part-time support personnel, and sixteen (16) administrators during the 2011-12 school year. The district received $18.4 million in state funding in the 2011-12 school year.

The district operates six schools: Trinity North Elementary, Trinity East Elementary, Trinity South Elementary School, Trinity West Elementary School, Trinity Middle School and Trinity High School. High school students may choose to attend the Western Area Career Technology Center (WACTC) for training in the construction and mechanical trades, as well as other careers. The Intermediate Unit IU1 provides the district with a wide variety of services like: specialized education for disabled students; state mandated training on recognizing and reporting child abuse; speech and visual disability services; criminal background check processing for prospective employees and professional development for staff and faculty.

History[edit]

The history of the school district dates back to the 1850s when Joseph McKnight built a home on top of a hill overlooking the city of Washington, Pennsylvania. This home came to be called Spring Hill. It was first used as a school when it served as the main building of Trinity Hall School for Boys founded by the rector of Trinity Episcopal Parish, then located adjacent to Washington and Jefferson College on Beau Street. In the 1860s, the Rt. Rev. John Barret Kerfoot, newly elected Bishop of Pittsburgh and former president of Trinity College, Hartford, wanted a school modeled after St. James School in Maryland. The Episcopalian school for boys shifted from its original emphasis on religious and secular education to being a military academy. Trinity Hall Military Academy became one of the best equipped military schools for boys in the country. The Smith family owned the property after McKnight and welcomed President Ulysses S. Grant to stay there on several occasions. It had to be expanded in 1881 due to the school's number of students had increased. After the death of William Smith in 1904, the school closed due to lack of funding. It reopened in 1925 as a joint venture of Amwell, Canton, North Franklin, and South Strabane Townships to establish the building as a public high school. This marked the founding of the school district.

Governance[edit]

Ttinity Area School District is governed by 9 individually elected board members (serve without compensation for a term of four years), the Pennsylvania State Board of Education, the Pennsylvania Department of Education and the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[18] The federal government controls programs it funds like: Title I funding for low income children in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act(renamed Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) in December 2015) which mandates the district focus its resources on student success in acquiring reading and math skills.[19] The school board is required by state law to post a financial report on the district in its website by March of each school year.[20]

The Superintendent and Business Manager are appointed by the school board. The Superintendent is the chief administrative officer with overall responsibility for all aspects of operations, including education and finance. The Business Manager is responsible for budget and financial operations. Neither of these officials are voting members of the School Board. The School Board enters into individual employment contracts for these positions. These contracts must be in writing and are subject to public discloure under the state’s Right to Know Act. In Pennsylvania, public school districts are required to give 150 days notice to the Superintendent and Business Manager regarding renewal of their employment contracts.[21] Pursuant to Act 141 of 2012 which amended the Pennsylvania School Code, all school districts that have hired superintendents on/after the fall of 2012 are required to develop objective performance standards and post them on the district’s website.[22]

Academic achievement[edit]

In 2015, Trinity Area School District ranked 176th out of 493 Pennsylvania public school districts, by the Pittsburgh Business Times.[23] The ranking is based on the last 3 years of student academic achievement as demonstrated by PSSAs results in: reading, writing, math and science and the three Keystone Exams (literature, Algebra 1, Biology I) in high school.[24] Three school districts were excluded because they do not operate high schools (Saint Clair Area School District, Midland Borough School District, Duquesne City School District). The PSSAs are given to all children in grades 3rd through 8th. Adapted PSSA examinations are given to children in the special education programs. Writing exams were given to children in 5th and 8th grades.[25]

In 2009, the academic achievement, of the students in the Trinity Area School District, was in the 58th percentile among all 500 Pennsylvania school districts Scale (0-99; 100 is state best) [31]

Graduation rate[edit]

In 2015, the district’s graduation rate was 85.76%.[32]

According to traditional graduation rate calculations

High school[edit]

Trinity High School is located at 231 Park Avenue, Washington. In 2015, enrollment was reported as 1037 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 27% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 13.6% of pupils received special education services, while 4.4% of pupils were identified as gifted.[40] The school employed 75 teachers.[41] Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.[42]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2013, Trinity High School reported an enrollment of 1,072 pupils in grades 9th through 12th, with 311 pupils eligible for a federal free or reduced-price lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. In 2013, the school employed 74 teachers, yielding a student-teacher ratio of 14:1.[43] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[44]

2015 School Performance Profile

Trinity High School achieved 84.6 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. The PDE reported that 86% of the High School’s students were on grade level in reading/literature. In Algebra 1, 79% of students showed on grade level skills at the end of the course. In Biology I, 79% demonstrated on grade level science understanding at the end of the course.[45] Statewide, 53 percent of schools with an eleventh grade achieved an academic score of 70 or better. Five percent of the 2,033 schools with 11th grade were scored at 90 and above; 20 percent were scored between 80 and 89; 28 percent between 70 and 79; 25 percent between 60 and 69 and 22 percent below 60. The Keystone Exam results showed: 73 percent of students statewide scored at grade-level in English, 64 percent in Algebra I and 59 percent in biology.[46][47]

2014 School Performance Profile

Trinity High School achieved a score of 84 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature, 81% were on grade level. In Algebra 1, 78% showed on grade level skills. In Biology, just 53% demonstrated on grade level science understanding at the end of the course.[48][49] Statewide, the percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in Algebra I increased to 39.7% to 40.1%. The percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in reading/literature declined to 52.5%. The percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in biology improved from 39.7% to 41.4%.[50]

According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,134 of 2,947 Pennsylvania public schools (72 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher.[51] Fifty-three percent of schools statewide received lower SPP scores compared with last year's, while 46 percent improved. A handful were unchanged.[52][53]

2013 School Performance Profile

Trinity High School achieved a score of 80.5 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature, 79% were on grade level on the Keystone Exam. In Algebra 1, 72% showed on grade level skills. In Biology, just 47% showed on grade level science understanding.[54] According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,181 public schools (less than 73 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher. Pennsylvania 11th grade students no longer take the PSSAs. Instead, beginning in 2012, they take the Keystone Exams at the end of the associated course.[55]

Western PA ranking

In 2011, the 11th grade ranked 40th among 122 western Pennsylvania school district 11th grades, for academic achievement as measured by five years of the PSSAs.[56]

AYP history

In 2012, Trinity High School achieved AYP (Adequate YEarly Progress) status.[57] In 2011, Trinity Senior High School declined to Warning AYP status due to lagging mathematics achievement. The math achievement fell below the State AYP goal of 67% for Math and below the statewide 11th grade achievement level of 60% on grade level. In 2010, the school achieved AYP status.[58]

PSSA Results

Pennsylvania System of School Assessments, commonly called PSSAs are No Child Left Behind Act related examinations which were administered from 2003 through 2012, in all Pennsylvania public high schools. The exams were administered in the Spring of each school year. The goal was for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014. The tests focused on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science. The Science exam included content in science, technology, ecology and the environmental studies. The mathematics exam included: algebra I, algebra II, geometry and trigonometry. The standards were first published in 1998 and are mandated by the Pennsylvania State Board of Education.[59]

In 2013, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania changed its high school assessments to the Keystone Exams in Algebra 1, Reading/literature and Biology1. The exams are given at the end of the applicable course, rather than all in the spring of the student's 11th grade year.[60]

11th Grade Reading
  • 2012 - 75% on grade level, (13% below basic). State - 67% of 11th graders are on grade level.[61]
  • 2011 - 70% (13% below basic). State - 69.1%[62]
  • 2010 - 75%, (11% below basic). State - 66%.[63]
  • 2009 - 74%, (16% below basic), State - 65%.[64]
  • 2008 - 75%, (9% below basic). State - 65%.[65]
  • 2007 - 82% (10% below basic), State - 65%.[66]
11th Grade Math
  • 2012 - 62% on grade level (19% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 59% of 11th graders are on grade level.[67]
  • 2011 - 58% (21% below basic). State - 60.3%
  • 2010 - 64% (19% below basic). State - 59%.[68]
  • 2009 - 54% (28% below basic). State - 56%
  • 2008 - 57% (29% below basic). State - 56% [69]
  • 2007 - 67% (11% below basic). State - 53%
11th Grade Science
  • 2012 - 45% on grade level (7% below basic). State - 42% of 11th graders were on grade level.[70]
  • 2011 - 40% (14% below basic). State - 40%[71]
  • 2010 - 44% (12% below basic). State - 39%
  • 2009 - 43% (13% below basic). State - 40%
  • 2008 - 48% (7% below basic). State - 39%

College remediation[edit]

According to a Pennsylvania Department of Education study released in January 2009, 18% of Trinity Senior High School graduates required remediation in mathematics and or reading before they were prepared to take college level courses in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education or community colleges.[72][73] Less than 66% of Pennsylvania high school graduates, who enroll in a four-year college in Pennsylvania, will earn a bachelor's degree within six years. Among Pennsylvania high school graduates pursuing an associate degree, only one in three graduate in three years.[74][75] Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, one in three recent high school graduates who attend Pennsylvania's public universities and community colleges takes at least one remedial course in math, reading or English.

Dual enrollment[edit]

The high school offers the Pennsylvania dual enrollment program. This state program permits high school students to take courses, at local higher education institutions, to earn college credits. The students continue to have full access to activities and programs at their high school. The college credits are offered at a deeply discounted rate. The state offers a small grant to assist students in costs for tuition, fees and books.[76] Under the Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement, many Pennsylvania colleges and universities accept these credits for students who transfer to their institutions.[77] The Pennsylvania College Credit Transfer System reported in 2009, that students saved nearly $35.4 million by having their transferred credits count towards a degree under the new system.[78]

In 2010 the district received $17,753.00 in a state grant to be used assist students with tuition, fees and books.

Graduation requirements[edit]

The Trinity Area School District School Board has determined that students must earn 22 credits to graduate.[79]

By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students must complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district.[80] At Trinity High School the graduation project includes: 10 hours of community service, school visitation, job shadowing and a written paper. Trinity's CARE project focuses on career exploration. The completion of each phase of CARE earns the student 1/4 credit with a full credit eventually earned towards graduation.

By Pennsylvania School Board regulations, for the graduating classes of 2015 and 2016, students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, English Composition, and Literature for which the Keystone Exams serve as the final course exams. Students’ Keystone Exam scores shall count for at least one-third of the final course grade.[81]

Trinity Middle School[edit]

Trinity Middle School is located at 50 Scenic Drive, Washington. In 2015, enrollment was 769 pupils, in grades 6th through 8th, with 33.9% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 14% of pupils received special education services, while 4% of pupils were identified as gifted.[82] According to a 2014 report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[83]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2013, Trinity Middle School reported an enrollment of 768 pupils, in grades 6th through 8th, with 244 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced-price lunch due to family poverty. The school employed 59 teachers, yielding a student-teacher ratio of 13:1.[84] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[85]

2015 School Performance Profile

The PDE withheld SPP scores. It was reported that 56% of 8th grade students at Trinity Middle School students were on grade level in reading on the PSSAs given in April 2015. In math/Algebra 1, only 37% of 8th grade students showed on grade level skills. In science, 69% of the school’s 8th graders demonstrated on grade level science understanding. No eighth grade writing scores were reported. In 7th grade, 67% were on grade level in reading, while 39% showed on grade level math skills. Among 6th graders, 68% were on grade level in reading and 41% were on grade level in mathematics.[86] Statewide 58% of eighth (8th) graders were on grade level in reading, while 29% demonstrated on grade level math skills. Pennsylvania 7th graders were 58% on grade level in reading and 33% demonstrated on grade level math skills. Among sixth (6th) graders, 60.7% were reading on grade level, while 39.7% demonstrated on grade level math skills. Statewide 61.9% of fifth (5th) graders were on grade level in reading, while 42.8% demonstrated on grade level math skills.[87]

2014 School Performance Profile

Trinity Middle School achieved a score of 77 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature, 78.5% were on grade level. In Algebra 1/Math, 78% showed on grade level mathematics skills. In Science, 78% of 8th graders showed on grade level science understanding. In writing, 68% of the 8th grade students demonstrated on grade level writing skills.[88]

2013 School Performance Profile

Trinity Middle School achieved out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, writing, mathematics and science achievement. In reading, just 75% of the students were on grade level. In Mathematics/Algebra 1, 79% of the students showed on grade level skills. In Science, only 70% of the 8th graders demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, 72% of the 8th grade students demonstrated on grade level writing skills.[89] According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,181 public schools (less than 73 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher.

AYP history

In 2010 through 2012, Trinity Middle School achieved AYP status.[90] In 2011 and 2010, the school's attendance rate was 93%.[91]

PSSA history

PSSA are given in the Spring of each school year. Sixth and seventh grades have been tested in reading and mathematics since 2006. Eighth graders are tested in: reading, writing, mathematics and Science. Beginning in the Spring of 2013, eighth graders, who are enrolled in Algebra I take the Keystone Exam for Algebra I at the end of the course. The testing of 8th grade in reading and mathematics began in 1999, as a state initiative.[92] Testing in science began in 2007. The goal is for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014. The tests focus on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science.[93] The standards were published in 1998 and are mandated by the Pennsylvania State Board of Education.[94] In 2014, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania adopted the Pennsylvania Core Standards - Mathematics.[95]

Eighth grade

In 2011, the 8th grade ranked 49th among 149 western Pennsylvania school district 8th grades, for academic achievement as measured by five years of the PSSAs.[96] In 2009, the 8th grade was ranked 51st out of 141 western Pennsylvania middle schools based on three years of student academic achievement in PSSAs in: reading, math writing and one year of science.[97] (Includes schools in: Allegheny County, Beaver County, Butler County, Fayette County, Westmoreland County, and Washington County

8th Grade Reading
  • 2012 - 87% on grade level, 62% advanced. State - 79% of 8th graders on grade level.[98]
  • 2011 - 89%, 66% advanced. State - 81.8%
  • 2010 - 88% (5% below basic). State - 81%[99]
  • 2009 - 86% (8% below basic). State - 80%[100]
  • 2008 - 83% (9% below basic). State - 78%[101]
  • 2007 - 80% (7% below basic). State - 75%[102]
8th Grade Math
  • 2012 - 77% on grade level (10% below basic), 56% advanced. State - 76%
  • 2011 - 88%, 56% advanced. State - 76.9%[103]
  • 2010 - 79% (9% below basic) State - 75%
  • 2009 - 77% (7% below basic), State - 71%
  • 2008 - 73% (14% below basic), State - 70% [104]
  • 2007 - 71% (10% below basic), State - 67%
8th Grade Science
  • 2012 - 69% on grade level (14% below basic). State – 59% of 8th graders were on grade level.[105]
  • 2011 - 68%, (13% below basic). State – 58%
  • 2010 - 72%, State - 57%.[106]
  • 2009 - 65%, State - 54% [107]
  • 2008 - 67%, State - 52% [108]
Seventh grade

In 2011, Trinity Middle School's 7th grade ranked 51st among 148 western Pennsylvania school district 7th grades, for academic achievement as measured by five years of the PSSAs.[109]

Sixth grade

In 2011, the 6th grade ranked 90th among 202 western Pennsylvania school district 6th grades, for academic achievement as measured by five years of the PSSAs.[110]

Dropout Early Warning System

In 2013, Trinity Area School District did not implement a no-cost dropout prevention Early Warning System and Interventions Catalog at the middle school.[111] The process identifies students at risk for dropping out by examining the pupil’s: attendance, behavior and course grades. Interventions are implemented to assist at-risk pupils to remain in school. The program is funded by federal and private dollars.[112]

Trinity East Elementary School[edit]

Trinity East Elementary School is located at 252 Cameron Rd, Washington. In 2015, the school's enrollment was 418 pupils in grades kindergarten through 5th, with 14% of pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price meals due to family poverty. Additionally, 14% of the pupils receive special education services, while 4% are identified as gifted.[113] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated highly qualified under No Child Left Behind. The school provides full-day kindergarten.[114] The school is not a federally designated Title I school.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2012, enrollment was 409 pupils in grades kindergarten through 5th, with 53 pupils receiving a free or reduced-price lunch. The school employed 23 teachers, yielding a student-teacher ratio of 17:1.[115] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.[116] The school provided full-day kindergarten to all its pupils beginning in 2006.[117]

2015 School Performance Profile

According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 79% of 5th grade students at Elementary School were on grade level in reading on the PSSAs given in April 2015. In mathematics, 79% of 5th grade students showed on grade level skills. No fifth grade writing scores were reported. In 4th grade, 82% were on grade level in reading, while just 60% showed on grade level math skills. In science, 96% of fourth graders showed on grade level understanding. Among third (3rd) graders, 79% were on grade level in reading and 78% were on grade level in mathematics.[118] Statewide 61.9% of fifth (5th) graders were on grade level in reading, while 42.8% demonstrated on grade level math skills. Pennsylvania 4th graders were 58.6% on grade level in reading and 44.4% demonstrated on grade level math skills. In science, 77.3% of fourth graders showed on grade level understanding. Among Pennsylvania third (3rd) graders, 62% were reading on grade level, while 48.5% demonstrated on grade level math skills.[119]

2014 School Performance Profile

Trinity East Elementary School achieved a score of 82.5 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2013-14, 85% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd through 5th. In 3rd grade, % of the pupils were reading on grade level. In math, 93% were on grade level (3rd-5th grades). In 4th grade science, 93% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, only 62% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level skills.[120]

Special education[edit]

In December 2014, Trinity Area School District administration reported that 524 pupils or 15.9% of the district's pupils received Special Education services, with 41% of the identified students having a specific learning disability.[121] In December 2009, the district administration reported that 552 pupils or 15% of the district's pupils received Special Education services.[122][123]

In 2007, Pennsylvania Secretary of Education Gerald Zahorchak testified before the Pennsylvania House Education Committee regarding full-day kindergarten. He claimed that districts which offered the program would see a significant decrease in special education students due to early identification and early intervention. He asserted the high cost of full-day kindergarten would be recouped by Districts in lower special education costs.[124] Trinity Area School District has provided full-day kindergarten since 2006. The district has seen a slight decrease in the percentage of special education students it serves, but this has yielded no savings. The Board has applied to raise taxes beyond the Act 1 limit due to special education costs.

The district engages in identification procedures to ensure that eligible students receive an appropriate educational program consisting of special education and related services, individualized to meet student needs. At no cost to the parents, these services are provided in compliance with state and federal law; and are reasonably calculated to yield meaningful educational benefit and student progress. To identify students who may be eligible for special education, various screening activities are conducted on an ongoing basis. These screening activities include: review of group-based data (cumulative records, enrollment records, health records, report cards, ability and achievement test scores); hearing, vision, motor, and speech/language screening; and review by the Instructional Support Team or Student Assistance Team. When screening results suggest that the student may be eligible, the district seeks parental consent to conduct a multidisciplinary evaluation. Parents who suspect their child is eligible may verbally request a multidisciplinary evaluation from a professional employee of the district or contact the Special Education Department.[125]

In 2010, the state of Pennsylvania provided $1,026,815,000 for Special Education services. The funds were distributed to districts based on a state policy which estimates that 16% of the district's pupils are receiving special education services. This funding is in addition to the state's basic education per pupil funding, as well as, all other state and federal funding.[126] The Special Education funding structure is through the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) funds and state appropriations. IDEA funds are appropriated to the state on an annual basis and distributed through intermediate units (IUs) to school districts, while state funds are distributed directly to the districts. Total funds that are received by school districts are calculated through a formula. The Pennsylvania Department of Education oversees four appropriations used to fund students with special needs: Special Education; Approved Private Schools; Pennsylvania Chartered Schools for the Deaf and Blind; and Early Intervention. The Pennsylvania Special Education funding system assumes that 16% of the district’s students receive special education services. It also assumes that each student’s needs accrue the same level of costs.[127] Over identification of students, in order to increase state funding, has been an issue in the Commonwealth. Some districts have more than 20% of its students receiving special education services while others have 10% supported through special education.[128] The state requires each public school district and charter school to have a three-year special education plan to meet the unique needs of its special education students.[129] In 2012, the Obama Administration's US Department of Education issued a directive requiring schools include students with disabilities in extracurricular activities, including sports.[130]

Trinity Area School District received a $1,903,871 supplement for special education services in 2010.[131] For the 2011-12, 2012–13 and 2013-14 school years, all Pennsylvania public school districts received the same level of funding for special education that they received in 2010-11. This level funding was provided regardless of changes in the number of pupils who need special education services and regardless of the level of services the respective students required.[132][133] For the 2014-2015 school year, Trinity Area School District received an increase to $1,943,098 from the Commonwealth for special education funding.[134] Additionally, the state provides supplemental funding for extraordinarily impacted students. The district must apply for this added funding.

In 2013, the state's Special Education Funding Reform Commission provided a report on the state of funding for special education in the Commonwealth.[135] Funding for special education programs is borne largely on a local basis at 60%, with the state contributing $1 billion or 30% and the federal government providing 10% of the funding.

Gifted education[edit]

The District Administration reported that 98 or 2.81% of its students were gifted in 2009.[136] By law, the district must provide mentally gifted programs at all grade levels. The primary emphasis is on enrichment and acceleration of the regular education curriculum through a push in model with the gifted instructor in the classroom with the regular instructor. This approach permits such specialized instructional strategies as tiered assignments, curriculum compacting, flexible grouping, learning stations, independent projects and independent contracts. Students identified as gifted attending the High School have access to honors and advanced placement courses, and dual enrollment with local colleges. The referral process for a gifted evaluation can be initiated by teachers or parents by contacting the student’s building principal and requesting an evaluation. All requests must be made in writing. To be eligible for mentally gifted programs in Pennsylvania, a student must have a cognitive ability of at least 130 as measured on a standardized ability test by a certified school psychologist. Other factors that indicate giftedness will also be considered for eligibility.[137]

Bullying and school safety[edit]

The Trinity Area School District administration reported there were zero incidents of bullying in the district in 2009. There were 25 reports of fighting.[138][139]

The Trinity Area School Board has provided the district's bullying policy online.[140] All Pennsylvania schools are required to have an anti-bullying policy incorporated into their Code of Student Conduct. The policy must identify disciplinary actions for bullying and designate a school staff person to receive complaints of bullying. The policy must be available on the school's website and posted in every classroom. All Pennsylvania public schools must provide a copy of its anti-bullying policy to the Office for Safe Schools every year, and shall review their policy every three years. Additionally, the district must conduct an annual review of that policy with students.[141] The Center for Schools and Communities works in partnership with the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime & Delinquency and the Pennsylvania Department of Education to assist schools and communities as they research, select and implement bullying prevention programs and initiatives.[142]

Education standards relating to student safety and antiharassment programs are described in the 10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention in the Pennsylvania Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education.[143]

Budget[edit]

Pennsylvania public school districts budget and expend funds according to procedures mandated by the General Assembly and the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE). An annual operating budget is prepared by school district administrative officials. A uniform form is furnished by the PDE and submitted to the board of school directors for approval prior to the beginning of each fiscal year on July 1.

Under Pennsylvania’s Taxpayer Relief Act, Act 1 of the Special Session of 2006, all school districts of the first class A, second class, third class and fourth class must adopt a preliminary budget proposal. The proposal must include estimated revenues and expenditures and the proposed tax rates. This proposed budget must be considered by the Board no later than 90 days prior to the date of the election immediately preceding the fiscal year. The preliminary budget proposal must also be printed and made available for public inspection at least 20 days prior to its adoption. The board of school directors may hold a public hearing on the budget, but are not required to do so. The board must give at least 10 days’ public notice of its intent to adopt the final budget according to Act 1 of 2006.[144]

In 2013, the average teacher salary in Trinity Area School District was $62,414 a year.[145] The district employed 323 teachers and administrators with a top salary of $149,313.[146][147] Pennsylvania teacher salaries (2013–14) are searchable in a statewide database provided by TribLive News.[148] Trinity Area School District teacher and administrator retirement benefits are equal to at least 2.00% x Final Average Salary x Total Credited Service. (Some teachers benefits utilize a 2.50% benefit factor.)[149] After 40 years of service, Pennsylvania public school teachers and administrators can retire with 100% of the average salary of their final 3 years of employment. According to a study conducted at the American Enterprise Institute, in 2011, public school teachers’ total compensation is roughly 50 percent higher than they would likely receive in the private sector. The study found that the most generous benefits that teachers receive are not accounted for in many studies of compensation including: pension, retiree health benefits and job security.[150] In 2014-15, Pennsylvania public school district mandated teacher pension contribution rose to 21.40% of employee salaries and in 2015-16 it rose again to 25.84% of total salaries.[151] In 2014-15, the state mandated district contribution to the teacher pension fund rose to 21.40% of employee salaries and in 2015-16 it rose again to 25.84% of total district salaries.[152]

In 2011, the average teacher salary in Trinity Area School District was $61,029 a year.[153] The district employed 265 teachers and administrators with a top salary of $139,050.

In 2009, Trinity Area School District reported employing over 270 teachers with a starting salary of $40,000 for 182 for instructional days a 5 non teaching days.[154] The average teacher salary was $57,260 while the maximum salary is $138,318.[155] As of 2007, Pennsylvania ranked in the top 10 states in average teacher salaries. When adjusted for cost of living Pennsylvania ranked fourth in the nation for teacher compensation.[156] Additionally, Trinity Area School District teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance, a retirement bonus of 50% of their salary, professional development reimbursement, 3 paid personal days, 1 emergency leave day, 4 paid bereavement days and 10 sick days, life insurance and other benefits. The union heads get paid time off to perform union business. Teachers receive additional compensation for additional duties and extra work outside of school hours.[157] According to State Rep. Glen Grell, a trustee of the Pennsylvania Public School Employees’ Retirement System Board, a 40-year educator can retire with a pension equal to 100 percent of their final salary.[158]

In 2007, the district employed 233 teachers. The average teacher salary in the district was $54,849 for 180 school days worked.[159]

Administration costs

Trinity Area School District administrative costs per pupil in 2008 was $792.09 per pupil. The district is ranked 206th out of 500 in Pennsylvania for administrative spending. The lowest administrative cost per pupil in Pennsylvania was $398 per pupil.[160] The superintendent was paid $139,000 plus an extensive benefits package. The Pennsylvania School Boards Association collects and maintains statistics on salaries of public school district employees in Pennsylvania.[161] According to the association's report, the average salary for a superintendent, for the 2007-08 school year, was $122,165. Superintendents and administrators receive a benefit package commensurate with that offered to the district's teachers' union.[162] According to PSBA, the median Superintendent salary rose to over $130,000 in 2011.[163]

Per-pupil spending

In 2008, Trinity Area School District reported spending $12,442 per pupil. This ranked 229th in the commonwealth.[164] In 2013, per-pupil spending rose to $13,574.19.

Reserves

In 2009, the district reported $2,634,846 in an unreserved-undesignated fund balance. The designated fund balance was reported as zero.[165]

In January 2011, the Pennsylvania Auditor General conducted a performance audit of the district. Findings were reported to the administration and school board.[166]

The district is funded by a combination of: a local income tax, a property tax, a real estate transfer tax 0.5%, coupled with substantial funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the federal government. Grants can provide an opportunity to supplement school funding without raising local taxes. In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, pension and Social Security income are exempted from state personal income tax and local earned income tax regardless of the individual's wealth.[167]

State basic education funding[edit]

According to a report from Representative Todd Stephens office, Trinity Area School District receives 39.1% of its annual revenue from the state.[168]

In December 2014, the Pennsylvania Education Funding Reform Commission conducted a hearing. Testimony was given regarding state funding at the fastest growing districts and those with the greatest decline in enrollment since 1996.[169][170] The commission developed a new basic education funding formula which sets a new way to distribute state basic education dollars. It abolished the practice of "hold harmless" funding, which gave districts at least the same as they got the previous school year regardless of declining enrollment. The plan became law in June 2016 (House Bill 1552).[171][172][173]

For the 2015-16 school year, Governor Tom Wolf released a partial Basic Education Funding of $5,557,220 to Trinity Area School District, in January 2016.[174] This was part of $10.3 billion in school funding withheld from the public schools, by the Governor since the summer of 2015.[175] The dispersement did not follow the new Basic Education Fair Funding formula which had been established by the Pennsylvania General Assembly in June 2015.[176] Ten (10) Pennsylvania school districts received no increase in Basic Education funding under Governor Wolf.[177][178]

In compliance with a legislative mandate that was passed with veto proof majorities in the PA House and Senate,[179] the final BEF funding was determined for 2015-16, in April 2016. Trinity Area School District received $11,419,931 in Basic Education Funds for the 2015-16 school year. This was a 1.48% increase yielding a $418,251 increase over the previous school year funding. The district also received $359,398 in Ready to Learn funding from the state.[180] The Pennsylvania education budget is $5.93 billion for basic education, a $200 million or 3.5 percent increase over 2014-15 allocation. Another $1.08 billion was allotted for special education funding, a $30 million or 2.9 percent increase over 2014-15. Additionally, the state paid over $500 million towards school employee social security payments and over $1 billion to the teacher's pension fund (PSERS).[181]

For the 2014-15 school year, Trinity Area School District received $11,347,276 in State Basic Education funding. The district received $359,398 in new Ready To Learn Block grant. The State’s enacted Education Budget included $5,526,129,000 for the 2014-2015 Basic Education Funding.[182] The Education budget also included Accountability Block Grant funding at $100 million and $241 million in new Ready to Learn funding for public schools that focus on student achievement and academic success. The State paid $500.8 million to Social Security on the school employees behalf and another $1.16 billion to the state teachers pension system (PSERS). In total, Pennsylvania’s Education budget for K-12 public schools is $10 billion. This was a $305 million increase over 2013-2014 state spending and the greatest amount ever allotted by the Commonwealth for its public schools.[183]

In the 2013-2014 school year, the Trinity Area School District received a 1.6% increase or $11,345,120 in Pennsylvania Basic Education Funding. This is $181,917 more than its 2012-13 state BEF to the district. Additionally, Trinity Area School District received $208,204 in Accountability Block Grant funding to focus on academic achievement and level funding for special education services. Among the public school districts in Washington County, Peters Township School District received the highest percentage increase in BEF at 3.6%. The district had the option of applying for several other state and federal grants to increase revenues. The Commonwealth’s budget increased Basic Education Funding statewide by $123 million to over $5.5 billion. Most of Pennsylvania’s 500 public school districts received an increase of Basic Education Funding in a range of 0.9% to 4%. Eight public school districts received exceptionally high funding increases of 10% to 16%. The highest increase in state funding was awarded to Austin Area School District which received a 22.5% increase in Basic Education Funding.[184] The highest percent of state spending per student is in the Chester-Upland School District, where roughly 78 percent comes from state coffers. In Philadelphia, it is nearly 49 percent.[185] As a part of the education budget, the state provided the PSERS (Pennsylvania school employee pension fund) with $1,017,000,000 and Social Security payments for school employees of $495 million.[186]

For the 2012-13 school year, Trinity Area School District received $11,163,203.[187] The Governor's Executive Budget for 2012-2013 included $9.34 billion for kindergarten through 12th grade public education, including $5.4 billion in basic education funding, which was an increase of $49 million over the 2011-12 budget. In addition, the Commonwealth provided $100 million for the Accountability Block Grant (ABG) program. Trinity Area School District received $208,204 in ABG funds. The state also provided a $544.4 million payment for School Employees’ Social Security and $856 million for School Employees’ Retirement fund called PSERS.[188] This amount was a $21,823,000 increase (0.34%) over the 2011-2012 appropriations for Basic Education Funding, School Employees' Social Security, Pupil Transportation, Nonpublic and Charter School Pupil Transportation. Since taking office, Corbett’s first two budgets have restored more than $918 million in support of public schools, compensating for the $1 billion in federal stimulus dollars lost at the end of the 2010-11 school year.

In 2011-12, Trinity Area School District received $11,163,203 in state Basic Education Funding.[189] Additionally, the Trinity Area School District will receive $161,236, in Accountability Block Grant funding. The enacted Pennsylvania state Education budget includes $5,354,629,000 for the 2011-2012 Basic Education Funding appropriation. This amount is a $233,290,000 increase (4.6%) over the enacted State appropriation for 2010-2011. The highest increase in state basic education funding was awarded to Duquesne City School District which received an over 49% increase.[190]

For the 2010-11 school year, Trinity Area School District received a 2.95% increase in state Basic Education Funding (BEF) resulting in $11,945,749 from the state.[191] Charleroi School District received 9.90% which was the highest increase in BEF in Washington County. Kennett Consolidated School District in Chester County received the highest increase in the state at 23.65% increase in funding for the 2010-11 school year. One hundred fifty school districts received the base 2% increase in 2010-11. The amount of increase each school district receives was determined by the Governor and the Secretary of Education through the allocation set in the state budget proposal made in February each year.[192]

In the 2009-2010 budget year, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 3.95% increase in Basic Education Funding for a total of $11,603,644 to Trinity Area School District. The district also received supplemental funding for English language learners, Title 1 federal funding for low-income students, for district size, a poverty supplement from the commonwealth and more.[193] Burgettstown Area School District received a 6.45% increase, the highest increase in Washington County for the 2009-10 school year. Among the 500 school districts in Pennsylvania, Muhlenberg School District in Berks County received the highest with a 22.31% increase in funding.[194]

The state Basic Education funding to the district in 2008-09 was $10,863,558.46. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 570 district students received free or reduced-price lunches due to low family income in the 2007-2008 school year.[195]

Accountability Block Grants[edit]

Beginning in 2004-2005, the state launched the Accountability Block Grant school funding. This program has provided $1.5 billion to Pennsylvania’s school districts. The Accountability Block Grant program requires that its taxpayer dollars are focused on specific interventions that are most likely to increase student academic achievement. These interventions include: teacher training, all-day kindergarten, lower class size K-3rd grade, literacy and math coaching programs that provide teachers with individualized job-embedded professional development to improve their instruction, before or after school tutoring assistance to struggling students. For 2010-11 the Trinity Area School District applied for and received $565,118 in addition to all other state and federal funding. The district used the funding to provide full-day kindergarten for the 7th year, to reduce class size k-3 and to provide teaching coaching to improve math and reading instruction.[196][197]

Ready to Learn grant[edit]

Beginning in the 2014-2015 budget, the State funded a new Ready to Learn Grant for public schools. A total of $100 million is allocated through a formula to districts based on the number of students, level of poverty of community as calculated by its market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) and the number of English language learners. Ready to Learn Block Grant funds may be used by the Districts for: school safety; Ready by 3 early childhood intervention programs; individualized learning programs; and science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) programs.[198]

Trinity Area School District received $418,251 in Ready to Learn Grant dollars in addition to State Basic Education funding, Special Education funding, transportation reimbursement, reimbursement for Social Security payments for employees and other state grants which the district must apply to receive.

Classrooms for the Future grant[edit]

The Classroom for the Future state program provided districts with hundreds of thousands of extra state funding to buy laptop computers for each core curriculum high school class (English, Science, History, Math) and paid for teacher training to optimize the computers use. The program was funded from 2006-2009. Trinity Area School District was denied funding by the PDE, in 2006-07. In 2007-08 the district received $352,385. For the 2008-09, school year. the district received $63,341 for a total of $415,726. Of the 501 public school districts in Pennsylvania, 447 of them received Classrooms for the Future grant awards.[199] Among the public school districts in Washington County, the highest award was given to Canon-McMillan School District which received $493,791. The highest funding statewide was awarded to Philadelphia City School District in Philadelphia County - $9,409,073. The grant program was discontinued by Governor Edward Rendell as part of the 2009-10 state budget.

Other grants[edit]

Trinity Area School District did not participate in: Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection's Environmental Education annual grants;[200][201] PA Science Its Elementary grants (discontinued effective with 2009-10 budget by Governor Rendell);[202] Education Assistance Grants; 2012 Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy grant;[203] 2013 Safe Schools grants; 2012 and 2013 Pennsylvania Hybrid Learning Grants;[204] Project 720 High School Reform grants[205] (discontinued effective with 2011-12 budget); nor the federal 21st Century Learning grants.

Federal grants[edit]

Trinity Area School District received an extra $1,621,202 in ARRA - Federal Stimulus money to be used in specific programs like special education and meeting the academic needs of low-income students.[206] The funding is for the 2009-10 and 2010-11 school years.

Race to the Top grant[edit]

Trinity Area School District officials did not apply for the Race to the Top federal grant which would have brought the district up to one million additional federal dollars for improving student academic achievement.[207] Participation required the administration, the school board and the local teachers' union to sign an agreement to prioritize improving student academic success. In Pennsylvania, 120 public school districts and 56 charter schools agreed to participate.[208] Pennsylvania was not approved for the grant. The failure of districts to agree to participate was cited as one reason that Pennsylvania was not approved.[209]

Title II grants[edit]

The Federal government provides annual grants to schools to be used to improve the quality of teacher instructions to pupils. The goal is to provide each child in public schools with “High Quality” teachers and principals as defined by the state.[210] The funds are sent to the state Department of Education which distributes them to each school district and charter school.[211] Beginning in 2002, the federal funding committed to Title II was $3,175,000,000.

Public school district administrations must apply to the state annually for the Title II funds. In 2012-13, Trinity Area School District received $183,794 in federal Title II funding.[212] In 2014-15, Trinity Area School District applied for and received $177,688.[213]

English language learners grant[edit]

The Federal government provides annual grants to schools to assist in educating immigrant children and children who are identified as limited English proficient.[214] Upon registering for school a language survey is done for all new enrollment pupils, typically in kindergarten or preschool. They identify the primary language spoken at home. This data is collected and submitted to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, which in turn notifies the federal government.[215]

In 2012-13, Trinity Area School District received $1,086 in Title III funding for English language learners.[216] For 2014-15, Trinity Area School District received $3,422 in Title III funding.[217]

Common Cents state initiative[edit]

The Trinity Area School Board did not participate in the Pennsylvania Department of Education Common Cents program. The program called for the state to audit the district, at no cost to local taxpayers, to identify ways the district could save tax dollars.[218] After the review of the information, the district was not required to implement the recommended cost savings changes.

Real estate taxes[edit]

In 2015-16, Trinity Area School Board set local property tax rates at 113.0000 mills.[219] A mill is $1 of tax for every $1,000 of a property's assessed value. Washington County uses 25 percent of assessed property value. Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region. A reassessment was last conducted in 1981 in Washington County.[220] Property taxes, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, apply only to real estate – land and buildings. The property tax is not levied on cars, business inventory, or other personal property. Certain types of property are exempt from property taxes, including: places of worship, places of burial, private social clubs, charitable and educational institutions and all government property (local, state and federal). Additionally, service-related, disabled US military veterans may seek an exemption from paying property taxes. Unlike other states, under Pennsylvania state tax policy, natural gas and oil pipelines are exempted from property taxes.[221] There are a plethora of gas pipelines in the district due to Marcellus shale gas development.[222] Pipeline companies prohibit development within the 100-foot-wide right-of-way, thereby limiting future development options for the landowner. This limits future potential property tax revenues for the school district, by constraining future land development.[223]

Pennsylvania school district revenues are dominated by two main sources: 1) Property tax collections, which account for the vast majority (between 75-85%) of local revenues; and 2) Act 511 tax collections (Local Tax Enabling Act), which are around 15% of revenues for school districts.[224] In 2010, miscalculations by the State Tax Equalization Board (STEB) were widespread in the Commonwealth and adversely impacted funding for many school districts, including those that did not cross county borders.[225]

The average yearly property tax paid by Washington County residents amounts to about 2.54% of their yearly income. Lackawanna County ranked 928th out of the 3143 United States counties for property taxes as a percentage of median income.[235] According to a report prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, the total real estate taxes collected by all school districts in Pennsylvania rose from $6,474,133,936 in 1999-00 to $10,438,463,356 in 2008-09 and to $11,153,412,490 in 2011.[236] Property taxes in Pennsylvania are relatively high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value (1.34%) and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income (3.55%).[237] Pennsylvania's 2011 tax burden of 10.35% ranked 10th highest out of 50 states. The tax burden was above the national average of 9.8%. Pennsylvania's taxpayers paid $4,374 per capita in state and local taxes, including school taxes.[238]

Act 1 Adjusted index[edit]

The Act 1 of 2006 Index regulates the rates at which each school district can raise property taxes in Pennsylvania. Districts are not authorized to raise taxes above that index unless they allow voters to vote by referendum, or they seek an exception from the state Department of Education. The base index for the 2011-2012 school year is 1.4 percent, but the Act 1 Index can be adjusted higher, depending on a number of factors, such as property values and the personal income of district residents. Act 1 included 10 exceptions, including: increasing pension costs, increases in special education costs, a catastrophe like a fire or flood, increase in health insurance costs for contracts in effect in 2006 or dwindling tax bases. The base index is the average of the percentage increase in the statewide average weekly wage, as determined by the PA Department of Labor and Industry, for the preceding calendar year and the percentage increase in the Employment Cost Index for Elementary and Secondary Schools, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor, for the previous 12-month period ending June 30. For a school district with a market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) greater than 0.4000, its index equals the base index multiplied by the sum of .75 and its MV/PI AR for the current year.[239] A specific timeline for Act I Index decisions is published annually, by the Pennsylvania Department of Education.[240]

The School District Adjusted Index for the Trinity Area School District 2006-2007 through 2010-2011.[241]

For the 2016-17 budget year, Trinity Area School Board applied for two exceptions to exceed the district's Act 1 Index limit: rising special education costs and increasing teacher pension costs.[248] Statewide 299 school districts adopted a resolution to not exceed their Act I index in 2016-17.

For the 2015-16 budget year, Trinity Area School Board applied for two exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit: for increasing special education cost and for its rapidly rising teacher pension costs. For the school budget 2015-16, 310 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above its Act 1 Index limit. Another 187 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeding the Index limit. Regarding the pension costs exception, 172 school districts received approval to exceed the Index limit in full, while others received a partial approval of their request. For special education costs, 119 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. No Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for the grandfathered construction debts exception.[249]

For the 2014-15 budget year, Trinity Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit. In 2014-15, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 21.4% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS).[250] For the school budget 2014-15, 316 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above its Act 1 Index limit. Another 181 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeding the Index limit. Districts may apply for multiple exceptions each year. For the pension costs exception, 163 school districts received approval to exceed the Index in full, while others received a partial approval of their request. For special education costs, 104 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Seven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for the grandfathered construction debts exception.[251]

For the 2013-14 budget year, Trinity Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit. In 2013-14, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 16.93% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS). For the school budget year 2013-14, 311 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index. Another 171 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the pension costs exception, 169 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 75 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Eleven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for grandfathered construction debts.[252]

For the 2012-13 budget year, Trinity Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index. In 2012-13, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 12.36% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS). For 2012-2013 budget year, 274 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; while 223 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the exception for pension costs, 194 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 129 districts received approval to exceed the tax limit.[253]

For the 2011-12 school year, Trinity Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index. For each annual school budget, the Trinity Area School Board has the option of adopting either 1) a resolution in January certifying they will not increase taxes above their index or 2) a preliminary budget in February. A school district adopting the resolution may not apply for referendum exceptions or ask voters for a tax increase above the inflation index. A specific timeline for these decisions is publisher each year by the Pennsylvania Department of Education.[254]

According to a state report, for the 2011-2012 school year budgets, 247 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 250 school districts adopted a preliminary budget. Of the 250 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget, 231 adopted real estate tax rates that exceeded their index. Tax rate increases in the other 19 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget did not exceed the school district’s index. Of the districts who sought exceptions 221 used the pension costs exemption and 171 sought a Special Education costs exemption. Only 1 school district sought an exemption for Nonacademic School Construction Project, while 1 sought an exception for Electoral debt for school construction.[255]

Trinity Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 index for the budgets in 2009-10 or in 2010-11.[256] In the Spring of 2010, 135 Pennsylvania school boards asked to exceed their adjusted index. Approval was granted to 133 of them and 128 sought an exception for pension costs increases.[257]

Property tax relief[edit]

In 2009, the Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief from gambling for the Trinity Area School District was $171 per approved permanent primary residence. In the district, 7,515 property owners applied for the tax relief. Washington School District received $407, the highest property tax relief allotted in Washington County for 2009.[258] The tax relief was subtracted from the total annual school property on the individual's tax bill. Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. The Pennsylvania Auditor General found that 73% of property owners applied for tax relief in Washington County.[259] Pennsylvania awarded the highest property tax relief to residents of the Chester-Upland School District in Delaware County at $632 per homestead and farmstead in 2010.[260] This was the second year Chester Upland School District was the top recipient.

Additionally, the Pennsylvania Property Tax/Rent Rebate program is provided for low income Pennsylvanians aged 65 and older; widows and widowers aged 50 and older; and people with disabilities age 18 and older. The income limit is $35,000 for homeowners. The maximum rebate for both homeowners and renters is $650. Applicants can exclude one-half (1/2) of their Social Security income, consequently individuals who have income substantially more than $35,000, may still qualify for a rebate. Individuals must apply annually for the rebate. This can be taken in addition to Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief.[261]

Extracurriculars[edit]

The district offers a variety of clubs, activities and sports. Eligibility to participate is set by school board policies.[262][263]

By Pennsylvania law, all K-12 students in the district, including those who attend a private nonpublic school, cyber charter school, charter school and those homeschooled, are eligible to participate in the extracurricular programs, including all athletics. They must meet the same eligibility rules as the students enrolled in the district's schools.[264][265]

In 2010 an investigation was conducted into the uncontrolled spending of the Trinity High School athletics coaches. The report called for various changes to assure appropriate, student focused, spending.[266]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karin Mansfield (June 5, 2014). "Trinity Taps Lucas as Superintendent". Observer Reporter. 
  2. ^ PDE< ED NAmes and Addresses, 2016
  3. ^ NCES, Common Core of Data - Trinity Area SD, 2016
  4. ^ PDE, Enrollment by LEA, 2015
  5. ^ PDE, Enrollment by LEA, 2005
  6. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Enrollment and Projections - Pennsylvania School Districts
  7. ^ By Karen Mansfield., Tentative school budget calls for 8.8 mill tax increase, The Observer Recorder, May 5, 2016
  8. ^ US Census Bureau, 2010 Census Poverty Data by Local Education Agency, 2011
  9. ^ proximityone (2014). "School District Comparative Analysis Profiles". 
  10. ^ Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center, Education Facts Student Poverty Concentration by LEA, 2012
  11. ^ Collin Deppen (January 2015). "How many children are homeless in your school district?" (PDF). Pennsylvania Department of Education. 
  12. ^ American Fact Finder, US Census Bureau, 2009
  13. ^ US Census Bureau (2010). "American Fact Finder, State and County quick facts". 
  14. ^ US Census Bureau (September 2011). "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010" (PDF). 
  15. ^ US Census Bureau (2014). "Pennsylvania Median household income, 2006-2010 by County". 
  16. ^ Michael Sauter & Alexander E.M. Hess, (August 31, 2013). "America's most popular six-figure jobs". USA Today. 
  17. ^ Jeff Guo (September 15, 2015). "Lower wages for whites, higher wages for immigrants, and inequality for all". The Washington Post. 
  18. ^ Pennsylvania Public School Code Governance 2010
  19. ^ US Department of Education (2015). "Every Student Succeeds Act". 
  20. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly (2012). "Act of Jul. 12, 2012, P.L. 1142, No. 141 Section 921-A". 
  21. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly, Pennsylvania School Code, 2013
  22. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly (2012). "Act of Jul. 12, 2012, P.L. 1142, No. 141". 
  23. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 10, 2015). "Guide to Pennsylvania Schools Statewide School District Ranking 2015". 
  24. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 11, 2014). "What makes up a district's School Performance Profile score?". 
  25. ^ Paul Jablow (November 18, 2015). "Understanding the PSSA exams". The Notebook. 
  26. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 11, 2014). "Western Pennsylvania School Guide 2014". 
  27. ^ "Statewide Honor Roll Rankings 2013". Pittsburgh Business Times. April 5, 2013. 
  28. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Statewide Honor Roll Rankings 2012, April 4, 2012
  29. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 2010). "Pennsylvania School District Rankings,". 
  30. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (May 23, 2007). "Three of top school districts in state hail from Allegheny County,". 
  31. ^ "2009 PSSA RESULTS Trinity Area School District,". The Morning Call. Retrieved March 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  32. ^ PDE, Graduation rate by LEA, 2015
  33. ^ PDE, Graduation rate by LEA, 2014
  34. ^ PDE, Graduation rate by LEA, 2013
  35. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Trinity Area School District AYP Data Table 2012". 
  36. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (March 15, 2011). "New 4-year Cohort Graduation Rate Calculation Now Being Implemented". 
  37. ^ "Trinity Area School District Academic Achievement Report Card 2010" (PDF). Retrieved March 3, 2011. 
  38. ^ The Times-Tribune (June 25, 2009). "Washington County Graduation Rates 2008". 
  39. ^ Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children. "High School Graduation rate 2007". Retrieved January 31, 2011. 
  40. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 4, 2015). "Trinity High School Fast Facts 2015". 
  41. ^ US News and World Report, Best High Schools, 2015
  42. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2015). "Highly Qualified Teacher Guidelines". 
  43. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core Data -Trinity High School, 2014
  44. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Trinity High School 2012, September 21, 2012
  45. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 4, 2015). "Trinity High School School Performance Profile 2015". 
  46. ^ Jan Murphy (November 4, 2015). "Report card for state's high schools show overall decline". Pennlive.com. 
  47. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 4, 2015). "2015 Keystone Exam School Level Data". 
  48. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 6, 2014). "Trinity High School Academic Performance Data 2013-14". 
  49. ^ Evamarie Socha (November 6, 2014). "Half of Valley districts see state test scores decline". The Daily Item. 
  50. ^ Eleanor Chute (November 21, 2014). "Pennsylvania student scores declined with reduced funding, test results show". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  51. ^ Acting Secretary of Education Carolyn Dumaresq, Acting Secretary of Education Announces Results of 2013-14 School Performance Profile; Strong Performance in 72 Percent of Schools, November 6, 2014
  52. ^ Kathy Boccella, Dylan Purcell, Kristen A. Graham (November 6, 2014). "Pa. school rankings: Downingtown STEM No. 1; Phila. falters". The Philadelphia Inquirer. 
  53. ^ Jan Murphy (November 6, 2014). "More Pa. school scores decline than improve, state report card shows". Pennlive.com. 
  54. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, High School Academic Performance Data 2013, October 4, 2013
  55. ^ Eleanor Chute, Mary Niederberger (December 11, 2013). "New assessment shows fuller picture of Pa. schools". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  56. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 4, 2011). "School And School District Information 2011 Guide to Western Pennsylvania Schools". 
  57. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Trinity Senior High School AYP Overview 2012". 
  58. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "Trinity Senior High School AYP Overview". 
  59. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "State Academic Standards". 
  60. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "State Assessment System". 
  61. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2012). "2011-2012 PSSA and AYP Results". 
  62. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "2010-2011 PSSA and AYP Results". 
  63. ^ "2010 PSSAs: Reading, Math, Writing and Science Results". 
  64. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 14, 2010). "2009 PSSAs: Reading, Math, Writing and Science Results". 
  65. ^ Pennsylvania Department oF Education (August 2008). "The 2008 PSSA Mathematics and Reading School Level Proficiency Results (by Grade and School Total)". 
  66. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2007). "PSSA Math and Reading results by School and Grade 2007". 
  67. ^ "How is your school doing?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. October 15, 2012. 
  68. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Trinity High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2010, October 20, 2010
  69. ^ "Math PSSA Scores by District 2007-08 Trinity Area School District Results". The Times-Tribune. June 25, 2009. 
  70. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Trinity High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2012" (PDF). 
  71. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010-2011 PSSA results in Science, September 29, 2011
  72. ^ Jan Murphy (January 30, 2009). "Report: One-third of local high schoolers unprepared for college". Pennlive.com. 
  73. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (January 20, 2009). "Pennsylvania College Remediation Report 2009". 
  74. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, IPEDS Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, 2008
  75. ^ Achieve.org (2014). "THE VALUE OF THE COLLEGE- AND CAREER-READY AGENDA IN PENNSYLVANIA" (PDF). 
  76. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Pennsylvania Department of Education - Dual Enrollment Guidelines". 
  77. ^ "Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement". March 2010. 
  78. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. (April 29, 2010). "Report: PA College Credit Transfer System Makes Higher Education More Affordable, Accessible". 
  79. ^ Trinity Area School District Administration. "Trinity Area School District Student Handbook" (PDF). 
  80. ^ "Pennsylvania School Code §4.24 (a) High school graduation requirements". 
  81. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 2011). "Pennsylvania Keystone Exams Overview". 
  82. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 4, 2015). "Trinity Middle School Fast Facts 2015". 
  83. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Middle School, November 5, 2015
  84. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core Data – Trinity Middle School, 2012
  85. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Trinity Middle School, September 21, 2012
  86. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 1, 2015). "2015 PSSA School Level Data". 
  87. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 1, 2015). "2015 PSSA State Level Data". 
  88. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 6, 2014). "Trinity Middle School Academic Performance Data 2014". 
  89. ^ PDE, Trinity Middle School Academic Performance Data 2013, October 4, 2013
  90. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "TRINITY Middle School AYP Overview". 
  91. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "TRINITY Middle School AYP Data Table". 
  92. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "IU16-PSSA 95-96 Results by School". Retrieved May 11, 2014. 
  93. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "Standards Aligned Systems". 
  94. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "State Academic Standards". 
  95. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "State Academic Standards Mathematics". 
  96. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 4, 2011). "School And School District Information 2011 Guide to Western Pennsylvania Schools". 
  97. ^ The Rankings: Eighth grade, Pittsburgh Business Times, May 15th, 2009.
  98. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Trinity Middle School School Academic Achievement Report Card 2012" (PDF). 
  99. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Trinity Middle School School Academic Achievement Report Card 2010, October 20, 2010
  100. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Trinity Middle School School Academic Achievement Report Card 2009, September 14, 2009
  101. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Trinity Middle School School Academic Achievement Report Card 2008, August 15, 2008
  102. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Trinity Middle School School Academic Achievement Report Card 2007, 2007
  103. ^ The Times-Tribune (2011). "Grading Our Schools database, 2010-11 Math PSSA results". 
  104. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "PSSA Results Math and Reading School 2008". Retrieved February 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  105. ^ The Times-Tribune (2012). "Grading Our Schools database, 2011-12 Science PSSA results". 
  106. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Report (August 2010). "Science PSSA 2010 by Schools". 
  107. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "PSSA Science results 2008-09". Retrieved February 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  108. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Science Results by School and Grade 2008". Retrieved February 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  109. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 4, 2011). "School And School District Information 2011 Guide to Western Pennsylvania Schools". 
  110. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 4, 2011). "School And School District Information 2011 Guide to Western Pennsylvania Schools". 
  111. ^ Office of First Lady (September 2, 2014). "Pennsylvania First Lady and Acting Secretary of Education Announce 35 Schools Statewide Implementing Dropout Program". 
  112. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, The Early Warning System, 2014
  113. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 4, 2015). "Trinity East Elementary School Fast Facts 2015". 
  114. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, School Performance Profile, Trinity East Elementary School Fast Facts, 2015
  115. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core Data – Trinity East Elementary School, 2013
  116. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Trinity East Elementary School, September 21, 2012
  117. ^ Pennsylvania Partnership for Children, Full-Day Kindergarten Enrollment, 2010
  118. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 1, 2015). "2015 PSSA School Level Data". 
  119. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 1, 2015). "2015 PSSA State Level Data". 
  120. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 6, 2014). "Trinity East Elementary School Academic Performance Data 2014". 
  121. ^ Pennsylvania Bureau of Special Education Services (2014). "Trinity Area School District Special Education Data Report LEA Performance on State Performance Plan (SPP) Targets". 
  122. ^ Pennsylvania Bureau of Special Education (January 31, 2011). "Trinity Area School District Special Education Data Report LEA Performance on State Performance Plan (SPP) Targets School Year 2008-2009" (PDF). 
  123. ^ "Bureau of Special Education". 
  124. ^ Gerald L. Zahorchak, D. Ed. (May 30, 2007). "House Education Committee Hearing on Governor's Proposed Increase for Accountability Block Grants Testimony for Gerald L. Zahorchak, D. Ed. Secretary, Pennsylvania Department of Education" (PDF). 
  125. ^ Trinity Area School District Administration (2010–2011). "Trinity Area School District Special Education Department - Annual Public Notice of Special Education Services". 
  126. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania Special Education Funding, 2010
  127. ^ Browne, Patrick., Senate Education Committee Hearing on Special Education Funding & Accountability testimony, November 1, 2011
  128. ^ Kintisch, Baruch (November 11, 2011). "Public Hearing: Pennsylvania Special Education Funding & Accountability Testimony". 
  129. ^ Amy Morton, Executive Deputy Secretary, Public Hearing: Special Education Funding & Accountability Testimony, Pennsylvania Department of Education, November 11, 2011
  130. ^ US Department of Education (January 25, 2013). "U.S. Department of Education Clarifies Schools' Obligation to Provide Equal Opportunity to Students with Disabilities to Participate in Extracurricular Athletics". 
  131. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (July 2010). "Special Education Funding from Pennsylvania State_2010-2011". 
  132. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Special Education Funding 2011-2012 Fiscal Year, 2011
  133. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Investing in PA kids, April 2012
  134. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Special Education funding report by LEA, July 2014
  135. ^ Special Education Funding Reform Commission (December 11, 2015). "Special Education Funding Reform Commission Report" (PDF). 
  136. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (July 2010). "Gifted Students as Percentage of Total Enrollment by School District/Charter School" (PDF). 
  137. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education and Pennsylvania School Board. "CHAPTER 16. Special Education For Gifted Students". Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  138. ^ Pennsylvania Office of Safe Schools. "Trinity Area School District School Safety Annual Report 2008 - 2009" (PDF). Retrieved February 8, 2011. 
  139. ^ "Pennsylvania Safe Schools Online Reports". February 2011. 
  140. ^ Trinity Area School District Administration (April 16, 2009). "Trinity Area School District Bullying/Cyberbullying Policy 249". 
  141. ^ "Regular Session 2007-2008 House Bill 1067, Act 61 Section 6 page 8". 
  142. ^ "Center for Safe Schools of Pennsylvania, Bullying Prevention advisory". Retrieved January 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  143. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Pennsylvania Academic Standards". 
  144. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly, Taxpayer Relief Act, Act 1 of the Special Session of 2006, June 27, 2006
  145. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Investing in Pennsylvania Students, 2013
  146. ^ "Trinity Area School District Payroll report 2013". OpenPA Gov.org. 2014. 
  147. ^ Times Tribune (June 16, 2013). "PA Teacher Profile Database 2011-12". 
  148. ^ Triblive News (2015). "Pennsylvania teacher salary search". 
  149. ^ Pennsylvania School Employees Retirement System (2014). "Your PSERS Benefits & Leaving Employment". 
  150. ^ American Enterprise Institute, (2011). "Assessing the Compensation of Public School Teachers". 
  151. ^ Pennsylvania School Board Association (February 27, 2015). "Pension, PSERS Background Basics". 
  152. ^ PSERS Board of Trustees (2015). "Fiscal Year 2015/2016 Employer Contribution Rate" (PDF). 
  153. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Investing in Pennsylvania Students, 2013
  154. ^ "Pa. Public School Salaries, 2009". Asbury Park Press. Retrieved February 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  155. ^ "Trinity Area School Payroll report". openpagov. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  156. ^ Teachers need to know enough is enough, PaDelcoTimes, April 20, 2010.
  157. ^ "Trinity Area School District Teachers Union Employment Contract 2011". 
  158. ^ "Legislature must act on educators' pension hole". The Patriot-News. February 21, 2010. 
  159. ^ Fenton, Jacob,. "Average classroom teacher salary in Washington County, 2006-07". The Morning Call. Retrieved March 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  160. ^ Fenton, Jacob., Pennsylvania School District Data: Will School Consolidation Save Money?, The Morning Call, Feb 2009
  161. ^ Pennsylvania School Board Association (2015). "Salaries, Five-Year Review of Average Annual Salaries (2014)". 
  162. ^ Pennsylvania School Board Association (October 2009). "Public School Salaries 11th Annual". 
  163. ^ Pennsylvania School Board Association (June 22, 2012). "School Management Salaries Report". School Leader News. 
  164. ^ "Per Pupil Spending in Pennsylvania Public Schools in 2008 Sort by Administrative Spending". 
  165. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Fund Balances by Local Education Agency 1997 to 2008". 
  166. ^ "TRINITY AREA SCHOOL DISTRICT WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT". January 2011. 
  167. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Revenue (October 2010). "Personal Income Tax Information". 
  168. ^ Pennsylvania Representative Todd Stephens (January 23, 2014). "LEEF Funding Chart 2014". 
  169. ^ Nathan Benefield and James Paul Senior Policy Analyst (December 3, 2014). "School Funding Reform & Weighted Student Funding" (PDF). 
  170. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly - Education Reform Commission (December 2014). "Basic Education Funding Commission Public Hearing Funding Issues related to Enrollment and Growth". 
  171. ^ Basic Education Funding Commission, Commission minutes, 2016
  172. ^ York Dispatch, Governor Wolf Signs Fair Funding Formula, June 2016
  173. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly (June 2016). "House Bill 1552, Act 35 of 2016". 
  174. ^ Jan Murphey (January 4, 2016). "Here's the payout your school district gets from the partial 2015-16 state budget". Pennlive.com. 
  175. ^ Jennifer Wakeman (January 4, 2016). "Harrisburg releases $3.3 billion in delayed funds". 
  176. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly (June 26, 2015). "Basic Education Funding Commission". 
  177. ^ Jan Murphy (January 6, 2016). "School funding distribution gives rise to new battle between Wolf, GOP lawmakers". PennLive.com. 
  178. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (January 2016). "Summary of State Appropriations for Education 2015-2016 Fiscal Year Education Budget". 
  179. ^ Jan Murphy (April 15, 2016). "House, Senate cast veto-proof majority votes on school funding bill". Pennlive.com. 
  180. ^ PDE, Ed Budget 2015-16, May 2016
  181. ^ Office of the Budget, Pennsylvania Total Operating Budget, March 2016
  182. ^ PDE (July 7, 2014). "Enacted Education Budget 2014-2015". 
  183. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014-15 Enacted Education Budget Fast Facts, July 14, 2014
  184. ^ Democrat Appropriations Committee, Report on Education funding by LEA, July 2, 2013
  185. ^ Sam Wood and Brian X. McCrone (January 29, 2014). "Montgomery County lawmaker proposes using Pa. horse racing funds for education". The Philadelphia Inquirer. 
  186. ^ Pennsylvania Office of the Budget, 2013-14 State Budget Highlights, 2013
  187. ^ Senator Jake Corman (June 28, 2012). "Pennsylvania Education funding by Local School District" (PDF). 
  188. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly Sen Jake Corman (June 29, 2012). "SB1466 of 2012 General Fund Appropriation". 
  189. ^ PA Senate Appropriations Committee (June 28, 2011). "School District 2011-12 funding Report". 
  190. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (June 30, 2011). "Basic Education Funding 2011-2012 Fiscal Year". 
  191. ^ Pennsylvania House Appropriations Committee (August 2010). "PA House Appropriations Committee Basic Education Funding-Printout2 2010-2011". 
  192. ^ Office of Budget, (February 2010). "Pennsylvania Budget Proposal,". 
  193. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 2009). "Basic Education Funding by School District 2009-10". 
  194. ^ "Pennsylvania Department of Education Report on Funding by school district". October 2009. 
  195. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Funding Report by LEA 2009.
  196. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Accountability Block Grant report 2010, Grantee list 2010". 
  197. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Accountability Block Grant Mid Year report". 
  198. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2013). "Passport for Learning Block Grant". 
  199. ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General (2008-12-22). "Special Performance Audit Classrooms For the Future grants" (PDF). 
  200. ^ Department of Environmental Protection (2014). "Environmental Education Grants". 
  201. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (April 22, 2013). "Governor Corbett Awards 92 Grants for Environmental Education and Stewardship". 
  202. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Science: It’s Elementary Grantees Students in 143 Schools Benefit from Intensive Science Curriculum, July 22, 2008
  203. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 23, 2012). "Pennsylvania Awards $36.1 Million to Strengthen Literacy Programs". 
  204. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Press Office (October 17, 2013). "Acting Secretary of Education Says Hybrid Learning Benefits Students; Highlights Success of First-Year Pilot Program". 
  205. ^ PSEA (2006). "Project 720 PDE Education Improvement Initiative Series" (PDF). 
  206. ^ Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Washington County ARRA FUNDING Report, February 2011
  207. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Press Release (January 2009). "Pennsylvania's 'Race to the Top' Fueled by Effective Reforms, Strong Local Support". 
  208. ^ Pennsylvania's 'Race to the Top' Fueled by Effective Reforms, Strong Local Support
  209. ^ U.S. Department of Education (March 29, 2010). "Race to the Top Fund,". 
  210. ^ PDE (2015). "TITLE II, PART A - TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL TRAINING & RECRUITING". 
  211. ^ PDE (2015). "Federal Programs". 
  212. ^ PDE, Title IIA egrants 2012-13, 2012
  213. ^ PDE, Title IIA egrants 2014-15, 2014
  214. ^ US Department of Education (September 15, 2004). "Title III — Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students". 
  215. ^ PDE, English As A Second Language (ESL), 2015
  216. ^ PDE (2015). "Title III Supplemental Program". 
  217. ^ PDE, Title III Grant Allocations 2014-15, 2014
  218. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Common Cents program - Making Every Dollar Count". Retrieved February 1, 2011. 
  219. ^ PDE (October 2015). "Finances RE Tax Rates 2014-15". 
  220. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (December 26, 2014). "Washington County real estate tax rates compared". 
  221. ^ Katie Colaneri (June 11, 2015). "New pipeline could mean tax bonanza for NJ towns, but for Pa.? Not so much". State Impact NPR.org. 
  222. ^ Penn State Extension (2012). "Marcellus Shale Gas Development: What Does It Mean for Pennsylvania Schools?". 
  223. ^ TIMOTHY PUKO (December 11, 2011). "Shale gas pipelines pose challenges to state's forests, wildlife". TribLive.com. 
  224. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education,. "Act 511 Tax Report, 2004". 
  225. ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General office - Bureau of Audits (February 2011). "A Special Performance Audit of the Pennsylvania State Tax Equalization Boards" (PDF). 
  226. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "Real Estate Tax Rates by School District 2014-15 Real Estate Mills". 
  227. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2013). "Real Estate Tax Rates by School District 2013-14 Real Estate Mills". 
  228. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Finances_Real Estate Tax Rates 2012-13, 2012
  229. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Real Estate Tax Millage by School District,". 
  230. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Finances_Real Estate Tax Rates 2010-11, 2010
  231. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Financial Elements Reports 2008-09 Real Estate Mills, 2009
  232. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Real Estate Tax Millage by School District, 2008
  233. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Real Estate Tax Millage by School District, 2006
  234. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Real Estate Tax Millage by School District, 2005
  235. ^ Tax-rates.org., The 2015 Tax Resource County Property Taxes 2014, 2015
  236. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania School Finances - Summaries of Annual Financial Report Data 2010-11, 2011
  237. ^ New Census Data on Property Taxes on Homeowners, Tax Foundation, September 22, 2009
  238. ^ Tax Foundation, The facts on Pennsylvania’s Tax Climate, January 2015
  239. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010-11 Act 1 of 2006 Referendum Exception Guidelines
  240. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 the Taxpayer Relief Act information" (PDF). 
  241. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2010). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 School District Adjusted Index for 2006-2007 through 2011-2012". 
  242. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2012-2013 School District Adjusted Index, September 2011
  243. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2013-2014 School District Adjusted Index, September 2012
  244. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014-2015 School District Adjusted Index, September 2013
  245. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2015-2016 School District Adjusted Index, September 2014
  246. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 5, 2015). "2016-2017 School District Adjusted Index,". 
  247. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2015). "Property Tax Relief". 
  248. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2016). "Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2016-2017" (PDF). 
  249. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2015). "Taxpayer Relief Act Special Session Act 1 of 2006 Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2015-2016" (PDF). 
  250. ^ Pennsylvania School Employees, Retirement System, PSERS Chart showing payment mandates 2007-2020, 2014
  251. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 30, 2014). "Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2014-2015". 
  252. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2013-2014, April 2013
  253. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2012-2013, March 30, 2012
  254. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 the Taxpayer Relief Act information". 
  255. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2011). "Report on Exceptions". 
  256. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2010). "Pennsylvania SSAct1_Act1 Exceptions Report 2010-2011 April 2010". 
  257. ^ Scarcella, Frank & Pursell, Tricia (May 25, 2010). "Local school tax assessments exceed state averages". The Daily Item. 
  258. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2009). "Estimated Tax Relief Per Homestead and Farmstead May 1, 2009" (PDF). 
  259. ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General Office, (2010-02-23). "Special Report Pennsylvania Property Tax Relief,". 
  260. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, (May 2010). "Tax Relief per Homestead 5-1-10. Report". 
  261. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Property Tax/Rent Rebate Program". 
  262. ^ Trinity Area School Board. "Extracurricular Activities Policy 122". 
  263. ^ Trinity Area School Board. "Interscholastic Athletics Policy 123". 
  264. ^ Home-Schooled, Charter School Children Can Participate in School District Extracurricular Activities, Pennsylvania Office of the Governor Press Release, November 10, 2005
  265. ^ Trinity Area School Board. "Extracurricular Participation By Home Education Students Policy 137". 
  266. ^ "Athletic Department Investigation Trinity Area School District" (PDF). April 2011.