Undocumented immigrant students in the United States

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Undocumented students are school-aged immigrants who entered the United States without inspection or overstayed their visas and are present in the United States with or without their parents.[1] They face unique legal uncertainties and limitations within the United States educational system. These students are often called the 1.5 generation, as they have spent a majority of their lives in the United States. Although some 1.5 generation students find their way to legal status, many are undocumented. [2]

Undocumented students may not know how to navigate the higher education system in their state and often leads to students not attending college. Undocumented students might assume that it is out of their financial means or not available to them due to their residency status. This leaves undocumented students in a vulnerable place because they are not gaining the educational experience and are not eligible for legal work.[3] According to the US: The Human Rights of Dreamers, Also that Undocumented students should be secured while they live in the United States. The only way the child entered the United States is by their parents. Some people believe they shouldn't be penalized for their parents actions. Others believe they shouldn't be allowed to benefit from the illegal actions of their parents. Also there are not a lot of immigrants eligible for the Dream Act. [4] According to Undocumented Undergraduates and the Liminal States of Immigration Reform, Undocumented students still have a lot of challenges while attending college in the United States. A lot of undocumented students have issues with certain people they can trust within their community. Based on their status of being considered an alien in the United States they feel secluded. Undocumented immigrants feel as though they don't belong in the United States that because of how people treat them. [5]

Undocumented immigrants, particularly students, are a difficult subgroup of the population to research; there is not much current statistical data available. As a result of their precarious legal and social situation, these people are hesitant to identify themselves as being unauthorized, and the process of estimating statistics and drawing conclusions can be lengthy and cumbersome. While exact numbers are not known, there has been an increased emphasis on the challenges facing undocumented students nationwide.[6]

Demographics[edit]

It is difficult to determine national statistics for the demographic makeup of undocumented students. However, it can be inferred that statistics for undocumented students would be very closely related to those for the unauthorized immigrant population as a whole. Since 2014, approximately 11.1 million such immigrants live in the United States, which has seen only a small increase since 2007.[7] Approximately 17%, roughly two million, of these immigrants are under the age of 18,[8] about 65 thousand graduate from high school each year, and only 5-10% of them continue to higher education.[3]

While the undocumented student population comes from all over the world, a majority come from Mexico and other Central American countries, with approximately 6.7 million came from Mexico.[7] The second-largest sending region is Asia. In 2012, the Philippine undocumented population in the U.S. consisted of approximately 310,000 people and there were 260,000 such immigrants from India. Although often left out of the conversation, Asian and Pacific Islanders are a significant population in the undocumented community. The cultural expectations of immigrants in these communities often influence a more silenced and hidden existence than other cultures. There tends to be a heavier stigma against those who are undocumented, even within the culture.[9]

Legislation affecting undocumented students[edit]

Plyler v. Doe[edit]

In the United States, children are given the right to an elementary and secondary education (K-12) regardless of their immigration status.

Plyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202 (1982), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down a state statute denying funding for education to undocumented immigrant children. The case simultaneously struck down a municipal school district's attempt to charge such immigrants an annual $1,000 tuition fee to compensate for state funding.[1] The Court found that where states limit the rights afforded to people (specifically children) based on their status as immigrants, this limitation must be examined under an intermediate scrutiny standard to determine whether it furthers a substantial goal of the State.

Prior to 1975, all students in Texas were able to attend public elementary and secondary school. The state government provided funding to schools based on the number of students enrolled. In May 1975, the state legislature amended the Texas Education Code to provide that only U.S. citizens or lawfully admitted noncitizens would be counted for financial aid purposes.[10] Schools were given the option to allow or reject undocumented students and to charge tuition if they chose to accept them. School officials in Tyler, Texas, under the direction of Superintendent James Plyler, began charging $1,000 annual tuition to all undocumented students—about 60 from a student body of 1,600.[11] In September 1977, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF) filed a class action on behalf of sixteen Mexican undocumented students of the Tyler district.

The trial court found that the Texas law violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution because it amounted to a total deprivation of education without a rational basis.[12] The court rejected the state’s arguments regarding the cost of educating undocumented children, finding that the federal government largely subsidized the additional costs that the education of these children entailed and that “it is not sufficient justification that a law saves money.”[12]

In order to comply with Plyler, education policy analysts have suggested that schools may not:

  • deny admission to a student on the basis of undocumented status;
  • treat a student fundamentally differently from others when determining residency;
  • engage in practices that frighten undocumented students and their families away from school access;
  • require students or parents to disclose or document immigration status;
  • make inquiries of students or parents that may expose their undocumented status;
  • require Social Security numbers from any student.[13]

Plyler does not extend to postsecondary education, but at least guarantees undocumented students the opportunity to receive a high school degree.

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)[edit]

In June 2012, President Obama and his administration presented an executive order for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) regarding young people who came to the United States as children—the 1.5 generation—and currently reside as unauthorized immigrants. This order provides temporary relief from immigration enforcement and deportation proceedings, as well as the authorization to work.[14] In Janet Napolitano’s memorandum to the U.S. Customs and Border Patrol, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the Secretary of Homeland Security stated that immigration laws should be enforced sensibly and with consideration to the individual situation. In the case for these young people living in the U.S, she stated that they had no intent on breaking any law and should have the opportunity to be productive people in this country.[15]

On June 15, 2012, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) announced their plan to postpone removal actions against the individuals who meet the criteria set under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) plan.

Individuals may request DACA if they meet the following requirements:[16]

1. Under the age of 31 as of June 15, 2012 (at least 15 years or older at the time of application);

2. Came to the United States at the age of 16;

3. Have continuously lived in the United States since June 15, 2007, up to the present time;

4. Were physically present in the United States on June 15, 2012, and at the time of making your request for consideration of deferred action with USCIS;

5. Had no lawful status on June 15, 2012;

6. Are currently in school, have graduated or obtained a certificate of completion from high school, have obtained a general education development (GED) certificate, or are an honorably discharged veteran of the Coast Guard or Armed Forces of the United States; and

7. Have not been convicted of a felony, significant misdemeanor, or three or more other misdemeanors, and do not otherwise pose a threat to national security or public safety.

Deferred action protection lasts for two years and individuals can thereafter request a renewal.

According to the Migration Policy Institute, approximately two million people are eligible for the DACA program, as the programs rules currently stand.[17] In 2014 President Obama announced an expansion of DACA; removing the maximum age limit, changing the entry date to 2010, and extending the deferment period to three years.[17] This extended program could potentially allow an additional 300 thousand people eligibility.[18] As of 2016, the expansion was placed on hold due to a court injunction, in United States v. Texas.[16]

DACA is sometimes seen as legislation that provides a pathway to citizenship or as a way of receiving lawful immigration status. Neither is true, the deferment only provides the qualified recipients to have a lawful presence, meaning the authorities cannot force them to leave the country although they still lack legal immigration status. DACA statuses can be terminated or not renewed based on the discretion of DHS, as it is not a law. DACA is a presidential executive authority, which also means that it can change based on future presidents. DACA, therefore, creates open space for undocumented students to qualify for postsecondary education benefits.[18]

Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA)[edit]

In 1996, Congress approved the Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA) to improve immigration law in the United States. Section 505 of IIRIRA prohibits public higher education institutions from giving those who are unlawfully present in the United States postsecondary education benefits, on the basis of residency in a State, that are not being given to U.S. citizens or nationals.[19]

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA)[edit]

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) was President Bill Clinton’s major welfare reform. PRWORA is most known for the creation of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Family (TANF) program. Additionally, PRWORA set the standards for how courts and institutions determined the eligibility of federal, state, and local benefits and services.[20] The reform states those who are not “qualified aliens” are ineligible for federal public benefits. The act also gives states the discretionary power to determine the tuition rates publicly funded schools and the authority to provide state financial aid. If states do not pass specific legislation regarding these matters then federal legislation superseded and inherently prohibits state financial aid for unauthorized immigrants.[18]

DREAM Act[edit]

The Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act is a federal bill that would permit states to determine state residency for higher education or military purposes.[21] This bill was first introduced in the Senate on August 1, 2001, and was most recently re-introduced in Congress on March 26, 2009. A Senate filibuster blocked it on December 18, 2010.[21] It would provide a mechanism for undocumented students of good moral character to become legal permanent residents. The DREAM Act initially allowed beneficiaries to qualify for federal student aid but was changed in the 2010 version of the bill. In order to be eligible, individuals must have come to the U.S. as children (under the age of 16), graduated from a U.S. high school and be a long-term resident (at least 5 years). An age cap of 35 was also set. The latest version of the DREAM Act does not grant legal immigrant status to anyone for at least two years. Previous versions of the Act would have immediately granted legal immigrant status to eligible individuals. Many other limitations were also included in this latest version, among them the removal of access to healthcare benefits and limits to chain migration.

Higher education[edit]

The Pew Hispanic Center estimates that 1.5 million undocumented students currently reside in the United States.[22] Of these students, approximately 765,000 arrived in the United States before turning sixteen.[23] It is also estimated that there were 360,000 undocumented high school graduates between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four in the United States in 2006.[23] However, it is estimated that each year only 5 to 10 percent of undocumented high-school graduates—about 65,000 nationwide—are eligible to attend college.[24] In 2005, only about 50,000 undocumented students enrolled in U.S. colleges and universities.[25] Of these college students, 18,000 were enrolled in California community colleges in the 2005-2006 school year as a result of financial accessibility.[25] According to Roberto Gonzalez, Professor of Sociology at the University of Washington, "Given the opportunity to receive additional education and move into better-paying jobs, undocumented students would pay more in taxes and have more money to spend and invest in the U.S. economy."

Admission & enrollment[edit]

There is no federal law that prohibits the admission of undocumented immigrants to U.S. colleges and universities, public or private, nor does federal law require students to prove citizenship in order to enter U.S. institutions of higher education.[26] However, every institution has its own policies on admitting undocumented students. For example, following a 2003 recommendation by the state attorney general, many 4-year state colleges in Virginia require applicants to submit proof of citizenship or legal residency, and refuse admission to students without documentation.[26] This policy is not, however, a state law. South Carolina and Alabama, do not allow undocumented students to apply to public universities[27]

Tuition and financial aid[edit]

As of 2015, there were 11 million unauthorized immigrants in the United States, a small decline from the Pew Research Center’s estimate of 11.3 million for 2009.[28] In 2014, about 3.9 million students in kindergarten through 12th grade in U.S. public and private schools were children of unauthorized immigrants. While 3.2 million of this population were U.S. born, approximately 725,000 or 1.3% were unauthorized students themselves and potentially not receiving the financial resources they need to pursue higher education in the United States.[29]

Programs like DACA, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, creates open space for undocumented students to qualify for postsecondary education benefits discussed in policies like IIRIRA. The language in PRWORA, still bars DACA recipients to receive public benefits since they are not “qualified aliens.” The language in both PRWORA and IIRIRA are vague enough that they allow states to decide how to address tuition rates and state financial aid for their students. Although many states use these statutes as the reason to deny federal and state financial aid many others argue that the definition of public benefits does not include offering in-state tuition to undocumented students.[18]

There is no federal or state law that prohibits the admission of these immigrants to U.S. colleges and universities, but instead, nonpermanent residents and undocumented students are treated differently from one state to the next, resulting in no cohesive process and potential confusion for undocumented students.[30] Research has found that immigrant students lack information about financing college and are thus less likely to apply for and take advantage of student loans.[31] With access to the necessary information, support, and financial resources, however, higher education – and the opportunities that come with it – is certainly a viable option for undocumented students.[32]

According to the uLEAD Network,[33] as of 2017, there are 16 states that offer in-state tuition rates to undocumented students who meet specific criteria, with several of these offering state-funded financial aid as well:

State Policy In-State Tuition Eligibility Requirements Additional Notes
California AB540

AB130 & AB131 (see additional notes)

  • Must have attended a California high school for at least three academic years
  • Must have graduated from a California high school, attained a G.E.D., or received a passing mark on the California High School Proficiency Exam (CHSPE)
  • Must enroll at an accredited institution of public higher education in California
  • Must file“Non-Resident Tuition Exemption” Affidavit with the school and have filed or will file an application to legalize their immigration status as soon as possible
Per AB130 & 131, students who qualify for in-state tuition under AB540 are also eligible for state-funded financial aid.
Colorado SB33
  • Must have attended a public or private high school in Colorado for at least three years immediately preceding graduation
  • Must have been admitted to or already attend a public college or university in Colorado within 12 months of graduating or completing a GED
  • Must sign affidavit stating that they have applied for lawful presence or will apply as soon as they are able
Connecticut H6390
  • Must be a permanent resident in Connecticut
  • Must have attended at least two years of high school in the state of Connecticut
  • Graduated from a high school or received the equivalent of a high school diploma in Connecticut
  • Register as an entering student, or be enrolled at a public university in Connecticut
  • Must file an affidavit with the institution of higher education stating that the student has filed an application for legal immigration status, or will file an application when eligible to do so
Florida HB851
  • Attended a Florida secondary school for 3 consecutive years immediately before graduating from a Florida high school
  • Applied for enrollment in an institution of higher education within 24 months after high school graduation
  • Submitted an official Florida high school transcript as evidence of attendance and graduation
Illinois HB60
  • Resided with his or her parent or guardian while attending a public or private high school in Illinois
  • Graduated from a public or private high school or received the equivalent of a high school diploma in Illinois
  • Attended school in Illinois for at least 3 years as of the date of graduating from high school or receiving the equivalent of a high school diploma
  • Provides the University with an affidavit stating that the individual will file an application to become a permanent resident of the United States at the earliest opportunity the individual is eligible to do so
Kansas HB2145
  • Attended an accredited Kansas high school for at least three years
  • Graduated from either an accredited Kansas high school or earned a general educational development (GED) certificate issued within Kansas
  • Has filed an affidavit stating he/she will apply for legal residency when eligible
Maryland S167 / H470 Students must first attend a community college in order to be eligible for in-state tuition at a four-year institution. Eligibility requirements for receiving in-state tuition at a community college:
  • Must have attended a secondary school in Maryland for at least three years
  • Must have graduated from a high school in Maryland or received the equivalent of a high school diploma in Maryland
  • Must provide documentation that the individual or the individual’s parent or legal guardian has filed a Maryland income tax return annually for the three years while the individual attended a high school in the State, during any period between high school graduation and registration at a community college, and during the period of attendance at the community college
  • Must register at a community college within four years of high school graduation

To then be eligible to receive in-state tuition at a four-year college, the student:

  • Must have met the requirements for an exemption from paying the out-of-state tuition rate at a community college
  • Must have attained an associate’s degree or achieved 60 credits at a community college in Maryland
  • Must provide the institution a copy of the affidavit stating that the individual will file an application to become a permanent resident within 30 days after becoming eligible to do so
  • Must provide documentation that the individual or the individual’s parent or legal guardian has filed a Maryland income tax return annually while the individual attended a community college, during any period between graduation from or achieving 60 credits at a community college and registration at a public four-year institution, and during the period of attendance at an institution
  • Must register at a public four-year institution within four years of graduating from or achieving 60 credits at a community college
Minnesota SF1236[34]
  • Attended a Minnesota high school for at least 3 years
  • Graduated from a Minnesota high school or earned a GED in Minnesota
  • Registered with the U.S. Selective Service (applies only to males 18 to 25 years old)
  • Provide documentation to show they have applied for lawful immigration status but only if a federal process exists for a student to do so (does not include applying for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals). There is currently not a federal process in place, so this documentation is not currently required.
Students who qualify for in-state tuition under SF1236 are also eligible for state-funded financial aid.
Nebraska LB239
  • Reside in Nebraska for at least three years prior to high school graduation/obtaining a GED
  • Graduate from a Nebraska public or private high school or obtain a GED
  • Live with a parent or guardian while attending high school
  • Provide an affidavit stating intention to become a permanent resident at their earliest opportunity. If the parent ceases to reside in Nebraska, the student can retain resident status if the student has a bona fide intention to reside in Nebraska
New Jersey SB2479
  • Attend high school in New Jersey for three or more years
  • Graduate from a high school in New Jersey or receive the equivalent of a high school diploma
  • File an affidavit with the institution of higher education stating that the student has filed an application to legalize his or her immigration status or will file an application as soon as eligible to do so
  • Meet the Department of Homeland Security's eligibility criteria and has applied for or received Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) status
New Mexico SB582

SB82 (see additional notes)

  • Attended New Mexico middle or high school for at least one year
  • Graduated from a high school or received their GED in the state of New Mexico
Per SB82, students who qualify for in-state tuition under SB582 are also eligible for state-funded financial aid.
New York SB7784
  • Attend at least two years of high school in New York
  • Graduate from a New York high school or receive GED
  • Apply for attendance at an institution within 5 years of receiving a diploma
  • Show proof of residence
  • File affidavit declaring that you will file for legal status when able
Oregon HB2787
  • Demonstrate three years of attendance at an Oregon primary and secondary school prior to receiving a high school diploma or equivalent
  • Enroll in a public university in Oregon within three years of earning a high school diploma or equivalent in Oregon
  • Shows intention to become a citizen or lawful permanent resident in the United States
Students who qualify for in-state tuition under HB2787 are also eligible for state-funded financial aid.
Texas SB1528[35]
  • Graduate from a public or private high school, or receive a GED, in Texas
  • Reside in Texas for at least the 3 years leading up to high school graduation or receiving a GED
  • Reside in Texas for the 12 consecutive months right before the semester the student is enrolling in college
  • Provide the institution an affidavit stating that they will file an application to become a U.S. permanent resident as soon as they are eligible to do so
Students who qualify for in-state tuition under SB1528 are also eligible for state-funded financial aid.
Utah HB144
  • Must have attended high school in Utah for three or more years
  • Must have graduated from a high school in Utah or received the equivalent of a high school diploma in Utah
  • Must file an affidavit with the institution of higher education stating that the student has filed an application to legalize his immigration status, or will file an application as soon as possible
Washington HB1079
  • Earned a diploma or equivalent (GED) from a Washington high school
  • Resided in Washington for at least three consecutive years as of the date the person received a diploma or GED
  • Continually lived in Washington since receiving a diploma or GED
  • Filed an affidavit verifying that he or she qualifies to pay resident tuition and will seek legal permanent residency when legally permitted to do so
Per SB6523, students who qualify for in-state tuition under HB1079 are also eligible for state-funded financial aid.

In addition to these 16 states, Hawaii, Michigan, Oklahoma, and Rhode Island allow this through the school system, their Board of Regents. Virginia only allows in-state tuition for DACA students.[36]

While some states opt to pass their own legislation allowing in-state tuition for undocumented students, it does not fully bridge the gap for financial aid. Some states, like Georgia, have worked against education for undocumented students by forbidding enrollment in some colleges.[37]

Outside of the aforementioned states offering state financial aid, undocumented students are not eligible for federal financial aid,[38] which makes the cost of tuition and fees an even greater obstacle to higher education. Undocumented students must rely primarily on private scholarships as a source of funding for their postsecondary education. There are a few private scholarships that do not require the student to be a U.S. citizen or resident or have a social security number in order to apply. The Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF) maintains the most comprehensive listing of such scholarships.[38]

Private colleges and universities set their own financial aid policies. Some offer financial aid in the form of grants and scholarships to undocumented students.[38]

Additional barriers[edit]

Understanding how to navigate the higher education labyrinth is a learned social practice, a skill acquired through social networks, parent understanding, and access to the information. The opportunities to learn about college access is inequitably taught to undocumented students.[39] Undocumented students face many challenges in their pre-collegiate years that can inhibit their knowledge to access to higher education in the future. Most undocumented students come from working class or working poor families, which often forces them to live in communities where they become vulnerable to crimes, poor housing conditions, high unemployment, and underperforming schools[39] Many of the schools they attend face high teacher turnover, overcrowding, and inadequate teacher preparation. Many of the students are placed into language development courses, which often do not provide the rigorous coursework needed for college preparation.[39] These students also may struggle with their schoolwork due to the discontinuity in their education. Some students arrive in the United States after attending schools in their country of birth. Adjusting to the education system in the United States can be a challenge for students. Some may be behind because their previous schools were not teaching the same curriculum or if their schools were ahead of the curriculum, students might lose interest in their new schools. Undocumented students can also struggle with their need to contribute money to their household. Some students work as migrant farmers alongside their parents, this economic need can set them back in their education and in their path to understanding the steps to higher education.[39] All of these things can inhibit undocumented students from successfully preparing for higher education.

Another barrier undocumented students face in their access to higher education is the lack of resources and adequate support from school professionals. Many school professionals—teachers, counselors, other personnel—are not always aware of their state’s policies regarding admission, tuition and financial aid for undocumented students. Some school professionals are even unaware which students on their campus are undocumented. School professionals, often, do not receive training about policies that affect students and some have acknowledged that they only learned because of interactions with students or what they have learned through the media.[40] Some undocumented students, who have been surveyed regarding their educational experience, claimed to feel as if they “lucked out,” having someone to mentor them in college access.[40] Unfortunately, not all students feel this way. Although some students do acknowledge having an influential teacher or college counselor, many students feel unsupported or feel as they were given incorrect information.[41]

Having college access information available to support undocumented students is not only a tool that undocumented students can use for themselves, it is information that they can then pass down to others. Many parents of undocumented students do not have the knowledge to help their child pursue higher education, but these families have strong family networks, and with accurate information, students will then be able to share it with the younger children in their networks. If community groups and school professionals reach out to undocumented students in ways that work within their culture, these students can have in increased chance of attending higher education.[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maria Pabon Lopez, Gerardo R. Lopez (2010). Persistent Inequality: Temporary Realities in the Education of Undocumented Latina/o Students. New York: Routledge. p. 2. 
  2. ^ Abrego, Leisy Janet (2006-10-18). ""I Can't Go to College Because I Don't Have Papers": Incorporation Patterns Of Latino Undocumented Youth". Latino Studies. 4 (3): 212–231. doi:10.1057/palgrave.lst.8600200. ISSN 1476-3435. 
  3. ^ a b Ibarra, Hugo; Sherman, Ross (2012). "Higher Education Opportunities for Undocumented Students in the United States: What are the Policy Implications for Educators and Legislators". JEP: eJournal of Education Policy. 
  4. ^ "US: The Human Rights of "Dreamers"". Human Rights Watch. 2011-07-01. Retrieved 2017-12-06. 
  5. ^ Teranishi, Robert (2014). "In the Shadows of the Ivory Tower: Undocumented Unddergraduates tionand the Liminal States of Immigration Reform" (PDF). 
  6. ^ Covington, Brett (2009). "Is Postsecondary Access for Undocumented Immigrants an Important Right? How the United States and Europe Differ". Georgetown Immigration Law Journal. 
  7. ^ a b Baker, Bryan; Rytina, Nancy (2013). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012 (PDF). Office of Immigration Statistics, Policy Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 
  8. ^ Chen, Edith Wen-Chu (2010). Encyclopedia of Asian American Issues Today. ABC-CLIO. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-313-34751-1. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  9. ^ Gonzales, Roberto (2009). Young Lives on Hold: The College Dreams of Undocumented Students (PDF). College Board Advocacy. 
  10. ^ Lopez, Lopez 2010, p. 16.
  11. ^ Doe v. Plyler, 458 E.D. Tex. 575 (1978).
  12. ^ a b Doe v. Plyer, 458 E.D. Tex. 585 (1978).
  13. ^ Lopez, Lopez 2010, p. 40.
  14. ^ Obama, B. (2012). Remarks by the President on immigration. Rose Garden, White House, Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/06/15/remarks-president-immigration
  15. ^ Napolitano, J. (2012). Exercising Prosecutorial Discretion with Respect to Individuals Who Came to the United States as Children.
  16. ^ a b Department of Homeland Security. (2016). Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA).
  17. ^ a b Hooker, Sarah, Margie McHugh, and Angelo Mathay (2015). Lessons from the Local Level: DACA’s Implementation and Impact on Education and Training Success. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.
  18. ^ a b c d Adams, Angela; Boyne, Kerry S. (2015-04-25). "Access to Higher Education for Undocumented and "Dacamented" Students: The Current State of Affairs". Indiana International & Comparative Law Review. 25 (1): 47–62. doi:10.18060/7909.0004. ISSN 2169-3226. 
  19. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-206, 110 Stat. 3009.
  20. ^ Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-193, 110 Stat. 2105.
  21. ^ a b "Bill Summary and Status 111th Congress (2009-2010) S. 3992". 
  22. ^ Passel, Cohn 2009, p. ii.
  23. ^ a b Jeanne Batalova, Michael Fix (Oct 2006). "New Estimates of Unauthorized Youth Eligible for Legal Status under the DREAM Act" (PDF). Migration Policy Institute Immigration Backgrounder (1). 
  24. ^ Passel, Jeffrey S. (Oct 2003). "Further demographics information relating to DREAM Act" (PDF). Urban Institute. 
  25. ^ a b Gonzales, Roberto (Oct 2007). "Wasted Talent and Broken Dreams: The Lost Potential of Undocumented Students". 5 IN FOCUS. Immigration Policy Center (13). 
  26. ^ a b "Advising Undocumented Students". The College Board. 
  27. ^ "States make their own tuition rules for undocumented students". 
  28. ^ Krogstad, J.M., Passel, J.S., & Cohn, D. (2017, April 27). 5 facts about illegal immigration in the U.S. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/27/5-facts-about-illegal-immigration-in-the-u-s/
  29. ^ Passel, J.S., & Cohn, D. (2016, November 17). Children of unauthorized immigrants represent rising share of K-12 students. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/11/17/children-of-unauthorized-immigrants-represent-rising-share-of-k-12-students/
  30. ^ Suarez-Orozco, C., Yoshikawa, Teranishi, & Suarez-Orozco, M. (2011). Growing up in the shadows: the developmental implications of unauthorized status. Harvard Educational Review, 81(3), pp. 438-472. Retrieved from http://oppenheimer.mcgill.ca/IMG/pdf/Growing_up.pdf
  31. ^ National Center for Education Statistics [NCES]. (2006). Profile of undergraduates in U.S. postsecondary education institutions 2003–04 with a special analysis of community college students. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006184_rev.pdf
  32. ^ Abrego, L. J. (2006). I can’t go to college because I don’t have papers: Incorporation patterns of Latino undocumented youth. Latino Studies, 4, 212–231. Retrieved from http://www.williamperezphd.com/articles/abrego-2006.pdf
  33. ^ National Map. (n.d.) Retrieved August 8, 2017 from http://uleadnet.org/
  34. ^ Minnesota Dream Act. (n.d.) Retrieved August 8, 2017 from http://www.ohe.state.mn.us/mPg.cfm?pageID=2056
  35. ^ What Does It Mean To Be Undocumented?. Retrieved August 8, 2017 from https://world.utexas.edu/undocumented/resources/understanding
  36. ^ National Conference of State Legislatures. (2015). Undocumented student tuition: Overview. http://www.ncsl.org/research/education/undocumented-student-tuition-overview.aspx
  37. ^ Perez, Zenen. "Removing Barriers to Higher Education for Undocumented Students". Scribd. Center for American Progress. Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
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