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quaker stuff[edit]

"unprogrammed" Quaker tradition


The Friends' School entrance and buildings, 1948.

The Friends' School opened at 60-62 Warwick Street, Hobart (the building still stands) on 31 January 1887 under the control of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). It was opened by Samuel Clemes. The initial enrolment of 33 expanded so rapidly that the School moved to its present site in Commercial Road on 28 January, 1889, a move made possible by the generous loan of $A4,000 from Hobart Baptists. The first headmaster was Samuel Clemes, considered to be a remarkable reformer in education for his belief in co-education. In 1900 he resigned and set up his own family school, Leslie House, (later renamed Clemes College) in Pirie Street and then at Boa Vista, Argyle Street, where Morris Friends' Primary Years (Junior School) and Clemes (Years 11-12) are now located. Clemes College and The Friends' School came together in 1946.

1923 marked the beginning of a new era in the School's history. On 28 September, the control of the school passed from London Quakers to a committee in Hobart and a week later Ernest Unwin arrived, under whose leadership the School made remarkable progress. In this period the distinctive appearance of the School changed - with the addition of the front portico, the Hodgkin Hall, the original science and art block and the boys' boarding wing. No further building programmes were undertaken until 1955 when the second period of expansion began with the opening of the Preparatory School in 1955 followed by the Sports Ground in 1958. Building on the Commercial Road site began in 1962 with the opening of the Unwin Memorial Science and Art block, continued in the 70s with the Library, the Asten Theatre, additional science facilities and in the 80s with the W.N. Oats Sports Centre. The Clemes Memorial Library in the Junior School was erected from the old Clemes Assembly Hall in 1986.

Despite being a Quaker school, there are no more than 10 Quaker teachers at the school, and barely any of the students are actually Quakers. However students are still encouraged to participate in the Quaker activities, such as year group Gatherings held weekly.

general stuff for physician[edit]

Life is short, and Art long;
the crisis fleeting; experience perilous, and decision difficult.
The physician must not only be prepared to do what is right himself,
but also to make the patient, the attendants, and externals cooperate.
— First aphorism of Hippocrates. See the Hippocratic Corpus online (translated by Francis Adams)



limk to dalhousie

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View tions and aphorisms, which Maimonides considered. “useful to any many desirous of preserving his health and administering to the sick” (Rosner, 1994). The ... - Similar by F Rosner - 2002 - Cited by 5 - Related articles

The Oath of Maimonides is a document about the medical calling and recited as a substitute for the Oath of Hippocrates. The Oath is not to be confused with a more lengthy Prayer of Maimonides. These documents may not have been written by Maimonides, but later.[1] The Prayer appeared first in print in 1793 and has been attributed to Marcus Herz, a German physician, pupil of Immanual Kant.[2]

ref to the medical work of maimonides [1]

Biomedicine "formulates the human body and disease in a culturally distinctive pattern", and is a pattern learnt by medical students.[3] Within biomedicine, the medical model is a term for the "set of procedures in which all doctors are trained".[4]

This set includes complaint, history, physical examination, any medical tests that may be needed, and then the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis with and without treatment

kid's hospital stuff[edit]

In Europe, a number of foundling hospitals were founded in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries for destitute (usually illegitimate) children; the word hospital in this context may be better translated as hospice. Examples of these are London's Foundling Hospital, founded in 1739 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram (which still survives as the Thomas Coram Foundation for Children), and the even older Hospice des Enfants-Trouvés (1674-1838) in Paris. There was a gradual move to found separate institutions specifically for ill children, partly to avoid exposing them to adults adult hospitals. [5]

In the Western world, the first generally accepted paediatric hospital is the Hôpital des Enfants Malades (French = Hospital for sick children), opened in Paris in June 1802, on the site of a previous orphanage.[6] From its beginning, this famous hospital hospital accepted patients up to the age of fifteen years,[5] and continues to this day as the paediatric division of the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital created in 1920 by merger with the physically contiguous Necker Hospital, founded in 1778 for adults.

The Foundling Hospital still has a legacy on the original site. Seven acres (28,000 m²) of it were purchased for use as a playground for children with financial support from the newspaper proprietor Lord Rothermere. This area is often used by children who are in- or out-patients at the nearby Great Ormond Street Hospital, and is owned by a separate charity called Coram's Fields. The Foundling Hospital itself bought back 2.5 acres (10,000 m²) of land in 1937 and built a new headquarters and a children's centre on the site. Although smaller, the building is in a similar style to the original Foundling Hospital and important aspects of the interior architecture were recreated there. It now houses the Foundling Museum, an independent charity, where the art collection can be seen.[7] The original charity still exists as one of London's largest children's charities, the (now using the working name Coram) and operates in adjacent buildings, constructed in the 1950s.

1802-1901 : le siècle de la création des hôpitaux pédiatriques à Paris 1802 : Création du premier hôpital dédié à l'enfance 1854 : l'hôpital Sainte-Eugénie La vocation hospitalière de l'hospice des Enfants-Assistés L'hôpital Bretonneau L'hôpital Trousseau L'hôpital Herold

1802 : Création du premier hôpital dédié à l'enfance Un contexte de réorganisation hospitalière L'hôpital des Enfants-Malades est une création du Conseil général des Hospices, instauré en janvier 1801 pour gérer l'ensemble des structures sanitaires et sociales de la capitale. Dans le but de réorganiser les secours hospitaliers, le Conseil propose une classification nouvelle fondée sur la distinction entre hôpitaux communs et hôpitaux spéciaux et annonce la création d'un établissement "pour les enfants des deux sexes âgés de moins de quinze ans" (arrêté du 4 décembre 1801). L'hôpital des Enfants-Malades, officialisé par l'arrêté du 18 floréal an 10 (8 mai 1802), ouvre au mois de juin 1802.

Entrée de l'hôpital des Enfants-Malades © Photothèque de l'AP-HP De l'Enfant-Jésus aux Enfants-Malades Le nouvel hôpital des Enfants-Malades est installé dans l'ancienne Maison de l'Enfant-Jésus, fondée en 1724 par le curé de la paroisse Saint-Sulpice qui y organisa un pensionnat et un ouvroir (atelier de charité). Un décret de la Convention (6 novembre 1794) ordonne la fermeture de l'établissement, qui rouvre un an plus tard avec une nouvelle mission : sous le nom de Maison nationale des Orphelines, il accueille les petites orphelines parisiennes, les garçons étant accueillis à l'hospice du faubourg Saint-Antoine.

Pourquoi un hôpital spécial pour les enfants ? La "séparation des enfants d'avec les adultes" est surtout motivée par des principes moraux : il s'agit d'éviter que les enfants hospitalisés dans les services d'adultes soient corrompus. Sur le plan médical, le regroupement en un même lieu des enfants malades présente également un grand avantage car il favorise l'étude des pathologies de l'enfance.

1854 : l'hôpital Sainte-Eugénie

La cour d'honneur de l'ancien hôpital Trousseau, faubourg Saint-Antoine © AP-HP Une création impériale Le 16 mars 1854, l'empereur Napoléon III et l'impératrice Eugénie inaugurent l'hôpital Sainte-Eugénie au faubourg Saint-Antoine. Le nouvel établissement est aménagé dans les locaux de l'ancien hospice des Enfants-Trouvés (1674-1838), devenu ensuite un hôpital pour adultes sous le nom de Sainte-Marguerite (1839-1854). Au moment de sa création, l'hôpital compte 425 lits de médecine et de chirurgie. Comme l'hôpital des Enfants-Malades, qu'il a pour but de suppléer, il est réservé aux enfants malades des deux sexes âgés de 2 à 15 ans.

De Sainte-Eugénie à Trousseau A la chute du Second Empire, en 1870, les révolutionnaires ôtent le panneau Sainte-Eugénie apposé à l'entrée de l'hôpital. Mais il faut attendre 1880 pour que l'hôpital soit officiellement rebaptisé : il devient alors l'hôpital Trousseau, du nom du médecin tourangeau (1801-1867).

La vocation hospitalière de l'hospice des Enfants-Assistés

Entrée de l'hospice des Enfants-Assistés © Archives de l'AP-HP L'hospice des Enfants-Assistés, installé depuis 1814 rue d'Enfer, n'a pas au 19e siècle de mission hospitalière au sens strict du terme. Hospice dépositaire du service département de l'Enfance assistée, il est chargé d'accueillir les enfants en attente de placement nourricier. Pourtant, au cours du dernier tiers du 19e siècle, la vocation médicale de l'hospice ne cesse de s'affirmer. Les infirmeries de l'hospice fonctionnent comme de véritables services hospitaliers, avec un personnel médical spécifiquement chargé de la surveillance médicale des enfants. Les travaux de Marie-Jules Parrot (médecin chef de l'hospice de 1867 à 1883) sur les pathologies du premier âge lui valent d'être le premier titulaire de la chaire de clinique des maladies de l'enfance, inaugurée aux Enfants-Assistés le 4 décembre 1879. Dans les années 1880-1890, les infirmeries de l'hospice commencent à accueillir des malades du dehors, recrutés essentiellement par l'intermédiaire des consultations externes. La fonction médicale de l'hospice est symbolisée par la création d'un pavillon de chirurgie en 1893 et d'un pavillon de médecine en 1897.

La réforme de l'hospitalisation des enfants à la fin du 19e siècle

Un pavillon d'isolement dans l'ancien hôpital Trousseau © AP-HP Des conditions d'hospitalisation critiquées Les conditions dans lesquelles les enfants sont hébergés dans les hôpitaux pédiatriques font l'objet de critiques sévères. Ces grands établissement hébergent chacun en moyenne 600 enfants et ne proposent pas de solutions satisfaisantes pour l'isolement des malades par pathologie infectieuse. Sous l'effet de la diffusion des principes pasteuriens, des pavillons spéciaux ont pourtant été édifiés durant les années 1880 pour les maladies contagieuses comme la diphtérie, la scarlatine ou la rougeole. Malgré ces mesures, les épidémies continuent de ravager les services pédiatriques et les taux de mortalité infantile restent très élevés : plus de 20% des enfants hospitalisés meurent à Trousseau au début des années 1890. Tous les milieux de santé parisiens réclament la démolition de ce vieil hôpital vétuste.

Une meilleure répartition dans Paris Comment répartir le plus justement possible les hôpitaux pédiatriques dans Paris ? Dans un mémoire de juillet 1895, le préfet de la Seine constate que seuls six arrondissements peuvent être considérés comme bénéficiant de moyens directs d'hospitalisation pour l'enfance malade : les 6e, 7e et 15e avec l'hôpital des Enfants-Malades et les 4e, 11e et 12e avec Trousseau. Cette situation conforte l'idée qu'il faut créer des petits hôpitaux dans les quartiers et de les doter de véritables dispensaires pour proposer des services de consultations externes à la population environnante.

La désaffectation de l'ancien Trousseau C'est à l'occasion d'une opération de voirie autour de la gare de Lyon que l'Assistance publique décide en 1895 de désaffecter l'hôpital Trousseau et de le remplacer par trois établissements plus petits de deux cents lits environ chacun. Deux sites nouveaux sont retenus : l'un rue Michel-Bizot (à proximité de la place Daumesnil, dans le 12e arrondissement), l'autre dans le quartier des Grandes-Carrières (18e arrondissement). Pour le troisième établissement, il est décidé d'utiliser les terrains de l'hôpital Herold, place du Danube (19e arrondissement), édifié en 1892 au moment de l'épidémie de choléra.

BBC News front page


pour les enfants des deux sexes âgés de moins de quinze ans



Empty citation (help) 








First aphorism of Hippocrates. See the Hippocratic Corpus online (translated by Francis Adams)

In considering these alternate traditions that differ from biomedicine (see above), medical anthropologists emphasize that all ways of thinking about health and disease have a significant cultural content, including conventional western medicine.[3][13][15]

ref re primitieve medicine: [16]

ref re biomedicine sociology [17]


Rod of Asclepius
The ancient Greek symbol today associated with medicine the world over: the rod of Asclepius with its encoiled serpent. The World Health Organization, the Royal Society of Medicine, the American Medical and Osteopathic Associations, the British and the Australian Medical Associations are some of the bodies that incorporate it in their insignia.

Differences between adult and pediatric medicine[edit]

Pediatrics differs from adult medicine in many respects. The obvious body size differences are paralleled by maturational changes. The smaller body of an infant or neonate is substantially different physiologically from that of an adult. Congenital defects, genetic variance, and developmental issues are of greater concern to pediatricians than they often are to adult physicians.

Many inherited diseases are more often treated by pediatricians than by adult physicians because only recently did the majority of these patients survive into adulthood. Well-known example are the thalassemias, sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis. Issues revolving around infectious diseases and immunizations are also dealt with primarily by pediatricians.

Childhood is the period of greatest growth, development and maturation of the various organ systems in the body. Years of training and experience (above and beyond basic medical training) goes into recognizing the difference between normal variants and what is actually pathological.

Treating a child is not like treating a miniature adult. A major difference between pediatrics and adult medicine is that children are minors and, in most jurisdictions, cannot make decisions for themselves. The issues of guardianship, privacy, legal responsibility and informed consent must always be considered in every pediatric procedure. In a sense, pediatricians often have to treat the parents and sometimes, the family, rather than just the child. Adolescents are in their own legal class, having rights to their own health care decisions in certain circumstances only, though this is in legal flux and varies by region.

Following completion of entry-level training, newly graduated medical practitioners are often required to undertake a period of supervised practice before full registration is granted, typically one or two years. This may be referred to as "internship" or "conditional registration".

Medical practitioners hold a medical degree specific to the university from which they graduated. This degree qualifies the medical practitioner to become licensed or registered under the laws of that particular country, and sometimes of several countries, subject to requirements for internship or conditional registration.


  1. ^ a b Julia Bess Frank (1981). "Moses Maimonides: Rabbi of Medicine" (PDF). The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 54: 79–88. 
  2. ^ Oath and Prayer of Maimonides
  3. ^ a b Good, Byron J (1994). Medicine, rationality, and experience: an anthropological perspective (based on the Lewis Henry Morgan Lectures, at the University of Rochester, NY, in March 1990). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 65, 65–87. ISBN 0-521-42576-X (pbk) Check |isbn= value: invalid character (help). 
  4. ^ Laing, R.D. (1971). The politics of the family and other essays. London: Tavistock Publications. 
  5. ^ a b c offical history site (in French) of nineteenth century paediatric hospitals in Paris Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Paris19" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  6. ^ Ballbriga, Angel (1991). "'One century of pediatrics in Europe (section: development of pediatric hospitals in Europe)'". In Nichols, Burford L. et al. (eds). History of Paediatrics 1850–1950. Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. 22. New York, NY: Raven Press. pp. 6–8. ISBN 0-88167-695-0. 
  7. ^ Charity Commission. The Foundling Museum, registered charity no. 1071167. 
  8. ^ Ballbriga, Angel (1991). "'One century of pediatrics in Europe (section: development of pediatric hospitals in Europe)'". In Nichols, Burford L. et al. (eds). History of Paediatrics 1850–1950. Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. 22. New York, NY: Raven Press. pp. 6–8. ISBN 0-88167-695-0. 
  9. ^ Laplane, Robert (1991). "'French paediatrics'". In Nichols, Burford L. et al. (eds). History of Paediatrics 1850–1950. Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. 22. New York, NY: Raven Press. pp. 39–48. ISBN 0-88167-695-0. 
  10. ^ a b Brown, Lesley (2002). The New shorter Oxford English dictionary on historical principles. Oxford [Eng.]: Clarendon. ISBN 0198612710. 
  11. ^ Kuo Y.-F.; et al. (2009). "Growth in the care of older patients by hospitalists in the United States". N Engl J Med. 360 (11): 1102–1112. 
  12. ^ Engel G. L. (1977). "The neeed for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine". Science. 196: 129–136. 
  13. ^ a b A. D. Gaines, R.A. Hahn, ed. (1985). "Chapter1: Introduction (by editors)". Physicians of western medicine. Dordrecht (Netherlands): D. Reidel. pp. 3–22. ISBN 90-277-1790-7. 
  14. ^ Osler, Sir William (1902). "Chauvanism in medicine: address to the Canadian Medical Association, Montreal (17 September 1902)". The Montreal Medical Journal. XXXI. 
  15. ^ Joralemon, DonaldJ (1999). "chapter 1: What's so cultural about disease?". Exploring medical anthropology. Needham Heights, MA, USA: Allyn and Bacon. pp. 1–15. ISBN 0-205-27006-9 (pbk) Check |isbn= value: invalid character (help). 
  16. ^ Galdston, Iago, ed. (1963). "Part 1: Medicine and primitive man (5 chapters); Part 2: Medical man and medicine man in three North American Indian societies (3 chapters)". Man's image in medicine and anthropology: Monograph IV, Institute of social and historical medicine, New York Academy of Medicine. New York: International Universities Press. pp. 43–334. 
  17. ^ Galdston, Iago, ed. (1963). "Part V: Culture and the practice of modern medicine (2 chapters)". Man's image in medicine and anthropology: Monograph IV, Institute of social and historical medicine, New York Academy of Medicine. New York: International Universities Press. pp. 477–520.