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Exceptional newcomer.jpg The Exceptional Newcomer Award
For jumping right into the Wikipedian fray and making excellent contributions in contentious places, I, Gimme danger, hereby award Dakinijones this token of the community's appreciation. Gimme danger (talk) 08:19, 25 June 2008 (UTC)

Award of a Barnstar[edit]

Barnstar of Diligence.png The Barnstar of Diligence
The Barnstar of Diligence is hereby awarded in recognition of extraordinary scrutiny, precision, and community service, especially in regard to article improvement.

Awarded by PhilKnight (talk) 18:43, 19 January 2009 (UTC)

Study Notes[edit]

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Simhamukha ( sanskrit: Simhaṃukhã) or Senge Dongma (Tibetan: Seng-gdong-ma) is a female Buddha, a fully-enlightened being in the Vajrayana practice path as a yidam or meditational deity.

Origin and Lineage[edit]

Simhamukha first began to appear in Buddhist practice in India during the rise of the Tantric movement. According to Miranda Shaw there was "considerable mutual influence" between the Hindu and Buddhist tantric groups with the closest Hindu cultural parallels to this lion-headed Buddha being found in the Kaula strand of Hindu tantra where animal-headed yoginis appear in the mandala retinues of Kali and Bhairava. In Orissa and Madhya Pradesh archaeological remains from the 9th to 11th Centuries depict these lion, tiger, boar, snake and bird-headed dakinis. [1]

Simhamukha is viewed as a dakini form of Padmasambhava, the founder of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism. [2]


Simhamukha is usually a dark blue figure although she also appears in a red form.[3] She is similar to Vajravarahi, or the "diamond sow", in appearance and ornaments.[4] Like her, she has a curved knife in her right hand and a skullcap or kapala in her left, however her face is that of a lion, whereas Vajravarahi's face is human, with a sow's head appearing over her right ear.

Simhamukha is a wrathful deity.


The practice of Simhamukha was founded by Jetsunma Lochen.[5]


  1. ^ Miranda, Shaw (2006). Buddhist goddesses of India. Princeton University Press. p. 426. ISBN 0691127581. 
  2. ^ Staff. "Simhamukha". Sakyadita. Retrieved 27 May 2010. 
  3. ^ Miranda, Shaw (2006). Buddhist goddesses of India. Princeton University Press. p. 426. ISBN 0691127581. 
  4. ^ Staff. "Simhamukha". Sakyadita. Retrieved 27 May 2010. 
  5. ^ Staff. "Simhamukha". Sakyadita. Retrieved 27 May 2010.