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An electron left right oscillation through a proton

Animated Physics - a computer model of Matter and Energy - Abstract[edit]

Computer modeling and animation software requires that a position of electrons and protons be fixed in space and obey rules that determine where things will be over time. Animated Physics is a representation of nature such that there are no known conflicts with the properties of the real world.

This model of matter and energy assumes a world made up of tiny electrons and large empty proton shells. Using the Shell theorem as support, a world is modelled where the electrons do not feel an attraction to the proton once inside the proton shell. Since neither the proton nor the electron are point charges, we do not see any effects of an uncertainty principle and are able to track particle positions, velocities and forces with as much accuracy as is desired. The Pauli exclusion principle is a natural conseqence of this model as the charge force limits the number of electrons in the various energy orbitals.

Fundamental Particles of Animated Physics[edit]

  1. Electrons - 3 femtometer radius with a negative charge.
  2. Proton Shells - 53000 femtometer radius empty shell with a positive charge.
  3. Neutron Shells - 53000 femtometer radius empty shell with no charge.
  4. Photons - Long (length depends on energy) skinny rays of energy that travel at the speed of light.

Protons and Neutrons have a mass that is 1836 times the mass of the electron. Shells can float through each other and electrons can fly through or in and out of a proton shell. Photons have no mass.

The Nature of Matter[edit]

Electromagnetic Forces (electrons and protons)[edit]

  1. Repulsive force between electrons is inversely proportional to the squared distance between them.
  2. Repulsive force between protons is inversely proportional to the squared distance between them.
  3. Electrons and protons are attracted inversely proportional to the squared distance between them if the electron is outside the proton shell. The electron feels no force from the proton while it is inside the proton.

These simulations are stable electron/proton orbits with 53 pm proton radius and a frame rate of 10 AttoSeconds/frame. First is an electron orbiting a proton with enough energy that it gets a reasonable orbit. The second simulation shows a lower energy electron completely trapped within the proton. The third simulation shows the kind of orbits you get with more objects (two electons and one proton).

Protonelectronoribit.gif
Electron orbiting proton (9.0ev)
Protonelectrontrapped.gif
Electron trapped in proton (1.2ev)
Proton2electrontrapped.gif
Two electrons one proton (2.0ev)

These same forces produce electron clouds when viewed every 200 attoseconds over 30 frames.

Electron9ev.png Electron1ev.png Electron2ev2.png

Forms of Hydrogen[edit]

With this model, electrons tend to get trapped inside protons since coulomb forces come into play should the electron get out. The construction of the stable forms of hydrogen demonstrate the principles of chemical bonding. In H2+, two protons are held together by one electron trapped within each proton. In H-, two electrons are trapped on either edge of one proton. Two neutral hydrogen atoms are naturally attracted to each other and can form two different stable forms - Ortho and Para.

Larger atoms and more charge[edit]

Larger atoms are constructed with layers of proton shells separated by neutron shells. The charge of the atom will depend on how many proton shells and the weight is the sum of the number of proton and neutron shells. Proton shells must be separated by neutron shells.

For more detail visit Understanding Nuclear Forces.

Ionization Energies[edit]

Ionization energy is the amount of effort it takes to seperate an electron from a molecule. Consider hydrogen. The proton can hold an extra electron in the first energy shell but not very tightly. Helium cannot hold a third electron so it will form very view bonds with other molecules. Lithium with one electron in the second level is very likely to draw another electron into its second level (and bond easily) as there is a net energy savings. All values are in kJ/mol.

Ionize1.PNG Ionize2.PNG Ionize3.PNG Ionize4.PNG
Hydrogen 1312 75 - -
Helium 5250 2372 - -
Lithium 11815 7298 520 60
Beryllium 21006 14849 1757 899

The 3-D structure of the valance electrons start to become very important. Lithium forms into a soft material whereas beryllium forms a structured hard metal.

Hydrogen and Carbon Bonding[edit]

Marking orbitals (most likely location of electrons) and holes in these orbitals (most likely location to attract an electron) allows all matter to be constructed in its proper form and properties studied. Bonds are constructed by balancing the attraction of the electrons and holes against forces pushing the protons apart.

For more detail visit Constructing Organic Molecules in 3-D.

The Nature of Energy[edit]

Electromagnetic Energy (photons and electrons)[edit]

Red photon in one dimension at femtometer distance scale
  1. Photons are created in the process of electrons moving from one energy state to another and retain an image of the spin of the electron that created it in the photons polarity.
  2. The length of a photon is inversely proportional to its energy and travels at the speed of light.
  3. A photon hitting a low energy electron will wrap itself up on an electron through electron spin. In effect, the photon spins around the electron at the speed of light.
  4. A photon hitting a high energy electron can cause a second "stimulated" photon to unwrap from the electron creating a duplicate of itself.

The two images below show a photon emission event on the left, bringing a moving electron to a halt. On the right, a photon capture event knocks an electron out of its orbital.

Photon emission Photon capture

Discrete energy levels - The hydrogen spectrum[edit]

State
change
Pictorial Initial  Final   Emission description
1-2 He-1.PNG 13.6 3.4 Ultraviolet 10.2 Evolt
1-3 He-2.PNG 13.6 1.5 Ultraviolet 12.1 Evolt
2-3 H1-2.PNG 3.4 1.5 Red Light 1.9 Evolt
2-4 H1-3.PNG 3.4 0.85 Green Light 2.55 Evolt
2-5 H1-4.PNG 3.4 0.54 Blue Light 2.86 Evolt
3-4 H2-3.PNG 1.5 0.85 Infrared (heat) 0.65 Evolt

Photon emissions occur when an electron goes from one energy level to another. The most common emissions for Hydrogen are shown on the right. The emissions depend on the density (pressure), amount of movement (temperature) and the percentage of protons to electrons in the sample.

In the top example, the free electrons spin energy is assumed to be 13.6 evolts. The maximum spin energy that can exist inside the proton shell is 3.4 evolts resulting in a photon of 10.2 evolts being emitted. To preserve momentum, the electron is slowed due to this event and may in fact become trapped within the hydrogen proton.

Emissions mostly occur at discrete values if the electrons have enough time to move around to minimize the energy. Emissions actually occur at many different energy levels as electrons do not always have enough time.

Photon creation and destruction[edit]

The polarization of the photon remains an image of the original spin of the electron. The photon emission events conserve both angular momentum and total energy. Photons can be absorbed by electrons with low spin or can stimulate an emission of an identical photon if it encounters an electron with a high spin.

What a photon looks like[edit]

Ultraviolet Photon
Blue Photon
Green Photon
Red Photon
Infrared Photon

The atomic spectrum is built using photons. Photons can have different energies and polarizations. The photon images on the right, enlarge the polarization to allow both polarization and length (or crest of one wavelength) to be shown in the same image. The ultraviolet photon contains 10.2 Evolts of energy and is shown 61 nanometers in length (the crest of one 122 nanometer wavelength). The wavy polarization is only 3 femtometers high.

If the electron passes from one energy level to a lower one, if it has sufficient spin, it will emit a photon (ray of light). This photon will have the same energy as the difference in energy of the 2 orbitals the electron just passed through. The length of the photon (color) is related to this energy difference via the Planck constant.

See Also[edit]

Related[edit]