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African drama is a tradition that has unique themes and forms with sources in African rituals, languages, gestures and folklores. It links up with the traditional popular African theatre with its combination of dance, music, and action.


The question whether in precolonial Africa "real drama" has existed is one of those typical examples of western ethnocentric thinking.[1] Several Europeans have denied the existence of African drama, before the arrival of the colonizer. Meanwhile, Africans deployed a more complex and mixed set of literacies. Cornevin even dedicates his book on African drama to the father or the "bon oncle" of African drama, Charles Béart, director of the Ecole Supérieure of Bingerville in the thirties in colonial French West Africa. [2].

In his book The Intercultural Performance Reader, Patrice Pavis cites three general theses in relation to the question of the existence of an "African drama".[3] He invokes the thesis of non-existence of such drama. This thesis is then modified and revised as other theses emerged. One of the new emerging ones, he cites the undeveloped nature of an African drama compared with European and Asian ones. He later defines a third thesis as being a subsumation of the first two while using a one-sided empirical apprehension of the Western cultural impact on Africa.

It would be absolutely incorrect to treat traditional drama-forms as one thing and the so-called modern drama as another thing.

It is worth noting that drama of the African continent is often viewed from a rather general perspective. It is often broadly referred to as African drama. However, drama is usually not only culture-specific but it is also region and country-specific.[4]


each of these types of drama has its own distinctive characteristics which clearly differentiate it from the other types.

The idea of myth as a genre is difficult to define and most controversial.

Traditional Stories about common people, wise and foolish people, happy and unhappy people, exist in great abundance in Africa.

Another literary genre of oral tradition is the epic.

There are also a great many traditional stories about animals.

The last genre to be dealt with here is he farce. the short comic play, which existed also in the African tradition before the arrival of the Europeans. Its form is quite special. The farce is played by different actors, each of whom represents a well-known type of the village-life. Hunters, warriors or farmers play the principal part.

Ritual drama[edit]

Also known as Sacred dramas. They are in turn sub-divided into ancestral or myth plays, masquerades or plays by age groups and cults, rituals, etc.

Secular dramas[edit]

Secular dramas on the other hand, are distinct from sacred dramas and include sub-types such as civic dramas, dance or song dramas, etc.

Egyptian drama[edit]

South African drama[edit]

Notable African dramatists[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  • Conteh-Morgan, John (2004). Theatre and Drama in Francophone Africa: A Critical Introduction. Indiana University Press. pp. 288 pages. ISBN 0-2532-1701-6.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help) (a collection of essays and studies of major dramatic authors)
  • Jeyifo, Biodun (2002). Modern African Drama. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 608 pages. ISBN 0-393-97529-0.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help) (a collection of modern African drama in many languages)
  • Losambe, Lokangaka (2001). Pre-Colonial and Post-Colonial Drama and Theatre in Africa. Africa World Press. pp. 155 pages. ISBN 0-8654-3967-2.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help) (essays that examine drama and theatre in Africa in pre and post-colonial aspects)
  • Conteh-Morgan, John (1994). Theatre and Drama in Francophone Africa: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 243 pages. ISBN 0-5214-3453-X.  (French language African literary drama)
  • Etherton, Michael (1983). The development of African drama. Holmes & Meier Publishers. pp. 368 pages. ISBN 0-8419-0812-5.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help) (a collection of essays and studies of major dramatic authors)
  • Graham-White, Anthony (March 1976) The Drama of Black Africa. Educational Theatre Journal, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 140-141. doi 10.2307/3205990
  • Jones, Eldred, D., (1977) Steps towards the evaluation on African drama. (series African Perspectives).

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ Origin and Forms of Drama in the African Context - by Mineke Schipper-de Leeuw
  2. ^ Cornevin 1970: 52 ff.
  3. ^ Pavis, Patrice, The Intercultural Performance Reader (1996), ISBN 0-4150-8154-8, pp. 153-154
  4. ^ Some Considerations in the Translation of African Drama - Joseph Che Suh

[[Category:Drama]] [[Category:African literature]]

Operation Brassard was the name of the military invasion and capture of the island of Elba located at the west coast of Italy in June 17, 1944 during World War II. It occurred ten days after the invasion of Normandy codenamed Operation Overlord.

The operation was scheduled on May 25 but was postponed to give French troops more time.[1]

Rear Admiral Admiral Troubridge Jean de Lattre de Tassigny Admiral Cunningham


The initial plan was that this operation would be undertaken by the "French 'B' army", which became the First army later on, under the command of General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny. His forces consisted of the 9th Colonial infantry division, a battalion of French commandos and a battalion of Moroccan Goumiers.[2]

External links[edit]

  • []


References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ Tomblin, Barbara. With utmost spirit: Allied naval operations in the Mediterranean, 1942-1945. University Press of Kentucky. pp. pp. 379–380. ISBN 0-8131-2338-0. 
  2. ^ Operation Brassard The Invasion Of Elba by Bill McGrann


[[Category:World War II operations and battles of Europe]]

References and notes[edit]


[[Category:Languages of Africa]] [[Category:Languages of Uganda]] [[Category:Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo]]