Valley Railway

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Valley Railway
HeadquartersCleveland, Ohio, U.S.
Dates of operationAugust 21, 1871 (1871-08-21)–June 1915 (1915-06)
SuccessorBaltimore and Ohio Railroad
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Length75.47 miles (121.46 km)[1]

The Valley Railway was a shortline railroad which operated between the city of Cleveland and small town of Zoarville in the state of Ohio in the United States. The railroad was founded in 1871, but the first segment of track did not open until 1880 and the line was not completed until 1884. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) obtained a controlling interest in the Valley Railway in 1890. The railroad went bankrupt in 1895, at which time it was reorganized as The Cleveland Terminal and Valley Railroad Company (CT&V). The B&O took over operation of the CT&V in 1909, and the company was merged with the B&O in 1915.

Traffic on the road declined significantly after the 1920s. CSX, the B&O's successor, abandoned a third of the line in 1984. This portion was acquired by the National Park Service in 1987, and the Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad operates on it seasonally. CSX sold about 12 miles (19 km) of track south of Canton to the Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway in 1992, and 24 miles (39 km) the track between Akron and Canton to Akron's METRO Regional Transit Authority in 2000. CSX continues some freight operations on the remaining track, which is referred to as the Cleveland, Terminal and Valley Subdivision.

The Valley Railway Historic District (a National Register of Historic Places site) encompasses the former Valley Railway from Independence to Akron. The railway also passes through or is adjacent to a number of other sites listed on the National Register.

Founding the company[edit]

David L. King

The goal of the Valley Railway was to link the industrial centers of Cleveland and Akron, Ohio, with the coal fields of Stark and Tuscarawas counties.[2][3]

The genesis of the railroad is somewhat unclear, however.

Possible antecedent efforts[edit]

Railway historians Sam Tamburro and Juliet Galonska have written that David L. King, a wealthy attorney in Akron, obtained a state charter for an "Akron and Canton Railway" in 1869.[a] This charter was turned over to the Valley Railway in 1871.[2] Ohio state historian Simeon D. Fess, however, mentions no charter for the Akron & Canton effort. Rather, he says Akron and Canton residents attempted to persuade the B&O to build a line between those two cities. They raised $300,000 ($6,900,000 in 2022 dollars) in 1870 for the purchase of land and for construction. But when the railroad declined to build the line, the citizen-investors turned this money over to the Valley Railway in 1871.[9]

Akron area historian Samuel A. Lane also discusses the fundraising attempt. He notes that King was a primary backer of the effort, but mentions no charter. Lane says the effort to build a railroad ended in the spring of 1871 for reasons which were unclear. The idea, however, gave rise to the Valley Railway.[10] Canton railroad historian Craig Sanders also claims that area residents obtained a state charter for the Akron & Canton. However, Sanders says the line began construction 1873, and then ran out of funds. The route must have been different from the Valley Railway's route, as Sanders says both were being built in 1873.[11][b]

Formation of the Valley Railway[edit]

Whether there were antecedent roads or not, the Valley Railway Company was incorporated in the state of Ohio on August 21, 1871.[10][13] The incorporators consisted of Henry Chisholm, co-founder and primary investor in the Cleveland Rolling Mill (a steel mill); James Farmer, president of the Ohio National Bank; Samuel Augustus Fuller, founder of the Union Iron Works (a Cleveland iron foundry); David L. King; Nathan P. Payne, a Cleveland coal dealer; and Warrick B. Price, Midwestern real estate developer and former secretary and treasurer of the Milwaukee and Beloit Railroad and the Aetna Iron and Nail Company.[14] The state-issued charter permitted the railroad to construct a line from the city of Cleveland on the shore of Lake Erie south-southeast to the village of Bowerston, Ohio.[13]

The sale of Valley Railway stock began in January 1872. The intent was to sell $150,000 ($3,700,000 in 2022 dollars) in stock in both Akron and Canton, and $500,000 ($12,200,000 in 2022 dollars) in stock in Cleveland.[15] King, the chief organizer of the corporation,[16] raised $191,700 ($4,400,000 in 2022 dollars) from Akron area investors.[10] Sales fell far short in Cleveland,[15] even after the Cleveland Rolling Mill bought $50,000 ($1,200,000 in 2022 dollars) worth of stock.[17]

The company was finally organized on April 24, 1872.[10] Its directors were Farmer, King, and Payne, as well as George Cook (Akron-based director of agricultural implement manufacturer Aultman Miller & Co., and director of the First National Bank of Akron), James A. Saxton (Canton-based founder of the Stark County Bank), John Frederick Seiberling (Akron-based agricultural implement manufacturer), and Andros B. Stone (co-owner of the Cleveland Rolling Mill).[18] The newly-constituted board on May 6 elected Farmer president, King vice president, and incorporator Warrick Price the secretary and treasurer.[19]

Constructing the Valley Railway[edit]

The board of directors appointed P.H. Dudley, engineer for the city of Akron, as chief engineer of the Valley Railway.[20] Because the intent of the railroad was to carry very heavy loads of coal to Akron and Cleveland, the board of directors mandated that the route follow a downhill grade between the two cities and that track curves be extremely wide and easy.[21] The board contemplated building a narrow-gauge railway because it would be cheaper. Pressured by King, the board instead opted for the more expensive standard gauge in order to better link with other railroads.[15]

Initial construction efforts[edit]

Stock certificate of the Valley Railway

The route was surveyed and land purchased during 1872. On February 3, 1873, the railway contracted with Arthur L. Conger and Nicholas E. Vansickle (both of Akron) to build the railroad.[15] Ground was broken in Springfield Township in Summit County in March 1873.[20] The work initially proceeded very swiftly. By mid-August, two-thirds of the line had been graded[20] (from Canton north almost to Cleveland),[9] contracts for all the bridges had been let, and some bridges had even been partially completed.[20] A financial panic hit in September 1873, creating worldwide economic havoc. The Panic of 1873 forced the railroad to indefinitely suspend construction[9] on May 14, 1874.[15]

By fall 1874, the railroad had run out of money and incurred debts of $150,000 ($1,300,000 in 2022 dollars). To resolve the impasse and get construction going again, David L. King agreed to accept the position of president of the railway. He demanded, however, that the members of the board of directors personally assume financial responsibility for paying off the company's liabilities. The board agreed, and King was elected on September 25, 1874.[20] To raise funds for construction, King traveled to Europe in February 1875, but failed to sell any bonds.[22] Two years passed before King was able to interest bankers and investors in Cleveland and New York City to purchase the $6.5 million ($178,600,000 in 2022 dollars) in bonds the railroad needed to complete work.[20]

Walsh & Moynahan, new contractors, were hired, and work resumed on August 7, 1878.[23] Once grading was complete, track began to be laid. The first rail was laid near Old Forge in Akron (near the present-day intersection of N. Arlington Street and North Street)[24] on October 26, 1878. From Akron, rails were laid north toward Cleveland and south toward Canton; in Cleveland, the company began laying rails south to meet the line coming up from Akron.[20]

Completing the line to Canton[edit]

Work was once again suspended on January 25, 1879,[20] in a dispute over the quality of work provided by Walsh & Moynahan.[23] A new contractor, the firm of Strong & Carey, was hired, and work resumed on June 3, 1879.[20] When the Valley ran low on cash again, the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway (LS&MS) loaned it about $250,000 ($7,900,000 in 2022 dollars) to finish the track.[25][c]

The 57-mile (92 km) line[23] between Cleveland and Canton was completed on October 27, 1879.[26] The first train (which carried important businessmen, civic leaders, clergy, industrialists, and politicians) ran on the line on January 28, 1880.[11][20] Regular freight and passenger traffic began running on February 2, 1880.[3][20]

Completing the line to Bowerston[edit]

Work on the remainder of the railroad slowed appreciably. The Valley Railway crossed the Pennsylvania Railroad's Fort Wayne Line in Canton,[27] and followed the valleys of various streams and creeks to reach Mineral City, Ohio,[28] which it did on July 15, 1882.[11] There, it crossed the Pennsylvania Railroad's Tuscarawas Branch.[29] It reached Valley Junction (Zoarville, Ohio) a few months later.[23] Track work beyond Valley Junction was delayed because the Valley Railway had yet to negotiate trackage rights with the Wheeling and Lake Erie Railroad (W&LE). An agreement was finally reached in late 1882, and became effective January 1, 1883.[11] The remainder of the line was completed swiftly, and in 1884 the Valley Railway between Bowerston and Valley Junction was completed—linking the Valley Railway with the W&LE and points east.[20]

At the time of its completion, the Valley Railway had 75 miles (121 km) of main line track, 19 miles (31 km) of branch track, 35 miles (56 km) of siding, and a 2-mile (3.2 km) spur from Mineral City to a nearby Sieberling-owned coal mine.[30] It linked northeast Ohio's three largest cities, creating a regional transportation corridor.[31]

Valley Railway operational history[edit]

Restored Brecksville station on the Valley Railway in 2018


The Valley Railway originally built 16 depots.[23] North to south, these were located at:

In 1884, Akron granted permission for the Valley to build a spur into the heart of the city. On this spur the railroad built a new, larger passenger depot at the intersection of Canal and West Market Streets in 1887.[43] The railroad continued to use the old station at Howard and Ridge Streets until 1971.[39]

Track bed lawsuit[edit]

A portion of the Valley Railway's route followed the bed of the abandoned Ohio and Erie Canal.[15] The canal bed was originally owned by the state of Ohio. The railroad asked the Cleveland City Council if it would lease the canal bed to the company, and the council agreed to do so on March 24, 1879.[44] On October 31, 1879, pursuant to previously enacted state law, Governor Richard M. Bishop transferred title to that portion of the canal within the city limits to the city of Cleveland. On November 4, 1879, the city formally leased the canal bed to the Valley Railway[45] for 99 years.[15] Although the value of the land was estimated to be $280,000 ($7,200,000 in 2022 dollars), the city agreed to a one-time payment of $265,000 ($6,900,000 in 2022 dollars), payable in Valley Railway corporate bonds.[45] The railway filled the canal with ballast to create the track bed.[15]

The state of Ohio was displeased that the city had leased the canal bed, and challenged the lease in 1879. A special joint committee was appointed by the Ohio Senate that year to examine the issue, but concluded that the city properly held title to the canal bed and could do with it as it wished. The joint committee's report was subsequently adopted by the Ohio Senate.[45] This did not put an end to the dispute. In late 1895, Ohio Attorney General John K. Richards announced that, in his opinion, the lease to the railroad was illegal. The state then sued to recover the canal bed and evict the railroad.[46] The state legislature adopted a resolution later that year in which it expressed its opinion that the transfer of title to the city had been proper under state law.[47]

Discussions among the city, state, and Valley Railway continued until 1908. That year, an appraiser once more found in favor of the railway. Frustrated, the state attorney general filed a motion in state district court in early March 1908 demanding title to the canal bed.[48] In October of that year, the railway filed a demurrer in the case.[49] The case dragged on into 1910. The 1896 legislative resolution became an issue before the courts, with the state attorney general arguing that a resolution was inadequate to affirm the city's title to the canal bed. Only a bill could have confirmed title, the state argued in March 1910.[47] The district court held for the state of Ohio. The railway appealed, and an appellate court held for the state of Ohio. The railway appealed to the Supreme Court of Ohio.[50] In late January 1912, the Supreme Court of Ohio held in favor of the railway.[51][52]

Baltimore and Ohio takeover[edit]

The B&O took majority ownership in the Valley Railway in 1889.

The Valley Railroad found itself in tight competition with the Connotton Valley Railway,[36] which opened in January 1882[53][g] and had a similar route into the Tuscarawas County coal fields. Yet, coal was the key to the Valley's financial success: By 1888, 75 percent of the Valley Railway's income came from freight, and 40 percent of its freight tonnage was coal.[36]

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) wanted to gain access to Cleveland, but lacked a route of its own into the city.[3] In the spring of 1889, Taintor & Holt, a New York City investment firm, began buying up the Valley Railroad's stock on behalf of the B&O. The firm turned this stock over to the B&O in the fall of 1889.[20] With the assistance of Valley board member Sylvester T. Everett and Valley president Jeptha Wade, the B&O obtained majority ownership of the Valley Railroad in late 1889. At the board of directors meeting on January 8, 1890, the B&O installed three of its own candidates on the Valley's board of directors. Wade resigned as president, and the new board elected Thomas M. King (a B&O official from Baltimore) president in his place.[55] Sylvester Everett was elected the railroad's new vice president.[56]

1895 bankruptcy[edit]

The Valley Railway was financially successful. In its first decade, the railroad's main cargoes were coal, copper ore, iron ore, lime, sand, and stone, but it carried much less agricultural produce than had been estimated.[23] By 1892, four trains a day ran the entire length of the railroad, with two additional trains running each day between Cleveland and Akron.[20]

Worldwide financial difficulties led to the Valley Railway's collapse in 1892. They began with the Baring crisis in the United Kingdom, a banking panic which spread to the United States and caused a major recession in 1891. The Valley Railway went into receivership in 1892.[56][57] The railroad might have recovered, but the Panic of 1893 led to another significant downturn in both passengers and freight traffic.[11] The railroad tried to build revenue by constructing a 3-mile (4.8 km) branch from the main line at Willow (Old Brecksville Road) along Mill Creek to E. 76th Street, and then E. 76th Street and Jones Road to Broadway Avenue. This track was intended to serve the old Newburgh area's steel industry, and became known as the Newburgh Branch.[58][h]

Expansion proved unsuccessful. The Valley Railway had been the primary means of travel from Canton to Akron to Cleveland, but in 1895 the Northern Ohio Interurban Railroad opened.[56] This inexpensive light rail service effectively destroyed the Valley Railway's passenger traffic between Cleveland and Akron,[59] eliminating a major source of the company's revenue. The Valley defaulted on its bills and interest payments and went into full bankruptcy on August 2, 1895.[60]

The company was reorganized as the Cleveland Terminal and Valley Railroad (CT&V) on October 3, 1895.[11] As part of the reorganization, the Valley transferred property worth about $250,000 ($8,800,000 in 2022 dollars) to the LS&MS as payment for the 1879 loan.[25]

Cleveland, Terminal and Valley Railway[edit]

New Cleveland passenger and freight facilities[edit]

New 1896 freight depot
1896 Riverbed St. freight dock, with McMyler rotary coal hoist
New 1898 passenger depot

In February 1896, the CT&V announced it would construct new, larger freight and passenger facilities in Cleveland to accommodate the increased business it was doing in the city. The existing passenger depot at the foot of Seneca Street (now W. 3rd Street) would be demolished and a 500-foot (150 m) long, 125-foot (38 m) deep, two-story station[32] built on the same spot.[61] A 700-foot (210 m) long train shed, parallel to the rear of the depot, would also be built. A trestle would bring the trains up to the level of the station and train shed. The CT&V also acquired 2,500 feet (760 m) of riverfront[32] along Columbus Road, south of Center Street.[62] The company said it would build a second freight station and extensive new docks there,[32] complete with McMyler[63] rotary car dumpers. To connect the new freight station and docks with the main tracks, the railway asked the city to close Lime Street. The total cost of the project was estimated at $500,000 ($17,600,000 in 2022 dollars).[32] The freight station, which also featured derricks to assist with the loading of heavy cargo, was completed in June 1896 and the old freight depot retained as a storage facility.[62] The steel-frame station was 50 feet (15 m) deep and 500 feet (150 m) long, with walls and roofing of sheet metal. There were 25 loading bays on the dock side alone, and traveling overhead cranes facilitated the movement of heavy loads onto pallets or into freight wagons.[63]

As part of the freight expansion, the CT&V built a second freight depot and docks on the Cuyahoga River between Main Avenue and Cathan Avenue (just west of the Superior Avenue Viaduct Bridge). The city of Cleveland, however, wished to widen the Cuyahoga River by 80 feet (24 m) at this point. The city and the railway came to an agreement whereby the city would close West River Street and give this 80 feet (24 m) of land to the railroad. The 80 feet (24 m) of land on which the CT&V docks sat would be removed to allow for the widened river channel. Since the river was a "highway" under state law, the railway agreed to pay an assessment of about $16,500 ($600,000 in 2022 dollars) for "highway improvements"; in return, the city agreed to rebuild the CT&V's docks.[64]

The new passenger depot began construction in September 1897. Designed by local structural engineer A. Lincoln Hyde and architect William Stillman Dutton[61][65] in a modified Gothic Revival style,[65] it was built by contractor C.N. Griffin. The structure was much different than originally projected, just 100-foot (30 m) long and 43-foot (13 m) deep but with three stories rather than two.[61] The roof was of slate, mined in Virginia.[63] The building's steel frame[65] had a first floor facade of rock-faced blue sandstone, while the upper floors were of buff pressed brick[61] trimmed with stone. Turrets at the corners helped to strengthen the building, and clock tower illuminated by floodlights rose from the steeply pitched roof.[65] The clock mechanism was designed and built by the local firm of Scribner and Loehr.[63] The baggage room on the lower level had an asphalt floor.[65] At the main entrance on the first floor was a vestibule from which passengers could pass into the lobby.[61] Men's and women's waiting rooms were located on either side of the lobby.[65] First story flooring consisted of mosaic tile[61] manufactured and installed by the Newcastle Block Pavement Co. of Pittsburgh.[63] The walls were painted a reddish-orange and featured wood wainscoting painted dark green,[65] with oak trim and moldings on the walls and ceiling.[61] An elevator and stairs led from the vestibule to the upper floors.[61] The second floor housed the CT&V's corporate headquarters, and featured mosaic tile flooring and walls painted ecru with oak trim. A large brick pillar, running through the building to the foundation, supported the heavy safes in the auditor's and engineer's offices.[65] The third floor contained the railway's engineering and telegraphy offices,[61] while the attic was used for records storage.[65] The entire interior was electrically lit. The train shed was just 300-foot (91 m) and 90-foot (27 m) wide. The cost of the new passenger station was estimated at $100,000 ($3,500,000 in 2022 dollars).[61] The train shed behind the new station was only the second of its kind erected in the United States. Constructed by the Massillon Bridge Company, it consisted of two levels—one for the receiving of incoming and outgoing passenger traffic, and the other for the making up of trains and the loading of special trains.[63]

System map from 1898

Route changes, trackage right leases, and new spurs[edit]

With the depression caused by the Panic of 1896 ending, the CT&V did very well financially. It gave the Wheeling & Lake Erie trackage rights over the entire length of the CT&V,[66] built a new freight depot in Cleveland on Seneca Street near the Central Viaduct (a block north of what is now W. 3rd Street and Harrison Street),[67] and purchased 3.4 acres (14,000 m2) between end of its tracks and Lake Erie for use as a rail yard. This land was obtained from the city of Cleveland for $6,000 ($200,000 in 2022 dollars). The CT&V subsequently built up the land so it would no longer flood.[68]

On November 9, 1898, the Sandyville and Waynesburg Railroad was chartered to build a line between the C&TV line at Sandyville northeast about 3 miles (4.8 km) to Waynesburg, Ohio. The line was completed on July 1, 1899, and leased to the CT&V.[69] (The line was originally intended to be 9.5 miles (15.3 km) long.)[70]

In April 1899, the Davis Railway Co. constructed a 3.5-mile (5.6 km) extension of the spur at Mineral City. This branch pushed east along Huff Run to Linden (an unincorporated crossroads hamlet)[71] and the Davis Mine No. 2 coal mine. The entire 4.9-mile (7.9 km) length of the spur from Valley Junction to the mine became known as the Huff Run Branch. Mining was so important in the area that the Huff Run Branch later added 2.63 miles (4.23 km) of second track and 7.53 miles (12.12 km) of sidings.[72]

The B&O was threatened with losing access to many of the southern Ohio markets it relied on in 1899. The first threat came from the Cleveland and Marietta Railway. In 1872, it built a branch line from Marietta, Ohio, to the B&O main line at Harmer Junction.[73] This allowed B&O and CT&V freight to be shipped on the Cleveland and Marietta (C&M) directly to Cleveland (or to be transferred at Canton and shipped to Cleveland). The Cleveland and Marietta said it would no longer accept freight for either railroad beginning January 1, 1900.[74] That same year, the Wheeling & Lake Erie acquired the Cleveland, Canton and Southern Railroad, whose track from Cleveland to Canton and then to Coshocton and Zanesville. The W&LE said it would cancel the CT&V's trackage rights,[3] which threatened to cut the CT&V completely off from all southern routes and markets. In response, the CT&V began to swiftly survey a route from Valley Junction to Canal Dover (now Dover)[75] and then to Newark, Ohio,[74][76] which would give it a link to the B&O's main line and threaten to eat significantly into traffic on both the C&M and the W&LE. To avoid construction of an independently owned new main line, the Pennsylvania Railroad agreed to give the B&O subsidiary trackage rights between Valley Junction and Canal Dover. At Canal Dover, the CT&V connected with the Lake Shore and Tuscarawas Valley Railroad (now operating as the Cleveland, Lorain and Wheeling Railroad).[3]

The CT&V thrived financially, and so did business along its route—and the railway expanded to meet this demand. In 1900, the Cleveland-Boston Bag Co. built a large mill near the tiny hamlet of Boston Mills to take advantage of the railroad. Boston Mills soon grew into a town.[33] In 1904, the railroad built a 4-mile (6.4 km) spur from Willow (the modern intersection of Fuhrmeyer Road and Old Brecksville Road) along Mill Creek to connect with the Cleveland Short Line Railway near what is now E. 73rd Street and Deveny Avenue in Cleveland.[77] That same year, the railway spent $115,000 ($3,700,000 in 2022 dollars) strengthening all the bridges along its route, and even rebuilding some older ones, so that it could haul heavier loads and use new, heavier, more powerful locomotives.[78] In 1905, the Jaite Paper Mill opened 2 miles (3.2 km) north of Boston Mills to take advantage of open land near the railroad as well.[79]

New B&O rail yard[edit]

B&O rail yard in 1946 (top center) with roundhouse visible

In 1906, the B&O closed the existing CT&V roundhouse[80] and built a $400,000 ($13,000,000 in 2022 dollars), much larger roundhouse and rail yard on W. 3rd Street in Cleveland. The 10-stall semicircular roundhouse measured 280 feet (85 m) on the outside and 145 feet (44 m) on the inside and cost $45,347 ($1,500,000 in 2022 dollars). Another $200,000 ($6,500,000 in 2022 dollars) was spent building the rail yard.[81]

Other improvements included:[81]

  • A $12,500 ($400,000 in 2022 dollars), 150-by-50-foot (46 by 15 m), 14-foot (4.3 m) deep cinder pit located about 85 feet (26 m) south of the new roundhouse;
  • A $26,370 ($900,000 in 2022 dollars), 725-by-30-foot (221.0 by 9.1 m) sand house and coal tipple located south of the new cinder pit;
  • A two-story brick resthouse for trainmen northwest of the roundhouse, with second-floor reading and sleeping rooms;
  • A one-story machine, blacksmith, and engine and boiler repair shop made of brick attached to the north end of the roundhouse;
  • An $11,000 ($400,000 in 2022 dollars), 120-by-30-foot (36.6 by 9.1 m) storehouse and oilhouse north of the roundhouse; and
  • $145,000 ($4,700,000 in 2022 dollars) in infrastructure improvements, which included a steam heating plant, smokestack, fresh water system, drain and sewer system, blow-off lines, and two 50,000-US-gallon (190,000 L) water tanks.

Bridge replacements in Cleveland[edit]

A freighter wedged against the CTV's Center Street swing bridge in 1904. The company's lawsuit over damage to the bridge went to the U.S. Supreme Court.

A controversy broke out in 1905 over whether the CT&V would be required to replace its railroad bridge over the Cuyahoga River. At issue was a swing bridge over the Old Ship Channel of the Cuyahoga River.[i] The Constitution of the United States and various federal court rulings gave the federal government control over all navigable waters,[83] and the United States Army Corps of Engineers (tasked under federal law with improving navigable waters) asserted the right to regulate the bridge. The Corps wanted the bridge removed or replaced, since the center pier of the bridge hindered traffic in the Old Ship Channel and the embankment spans, when open, used up space which the Corps wished to use for new docks. The CT&V, however, argued that the 1825 changes to the river rendered the Old Ship Channel and the New Ship Channel man-made waterways and hence not subject to federal jurisdiction.[84] Local hearings were held which documented the hindrance to water traffic,[85] and the railroad agreed in April 1905 to remove the swing bridge no later than April 1, 1907.[86] Secretary of War William Howard Taft then intervened, ordering the bridge gone by April 1, 1906.[87] Although the railroad objected to the tight timeframe,[88] it went ahead with plans for the new bridge as ordered. The railroad proposed a replacing the existing structure with a Scherzer rolling lift bridge, a plan which was approved in August 1905.[89] The new bridge opened in September 1906. Designed by the Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge Co., manufactured by the King Bridge Co., and erected by the Pittsburgh Construction Co., the double-track, 230-foot (70 m) bridge[90][91] cost $180,000 ($5,900,000 in 2022 dollars).[92]

The B&O, of its own accord, then rebuilt two more bridges in Cleveland. The first was over the Cuyahoga River near what is now Quigley Road and W. 3rd Street.[91] The 230-foot (70 m) rolling lift bridge[93] was built by the King Bridge Co. and completed in July.[94] Planning for replacement of a second bridge, this one spanning the Cuyahoga at what is now Carter Road (on the west bank) and W. 3rd Street (on the east bank), began in June 1908.[95] Originally, this rolling lift bridge was to be 160 feet (49 m) long and cost $200,000 ($6,500,000 in 2022 dollars).[96] Construction of the bridge was delayed, however, when the city of Cleveland began planning for a new viaduct over the Cuyahoga River valley near the same location. By November 1908, the city had decided to widen the river at this location, and asked the railroad to construct a longer bridge.[97] Discussions between the city and railroad ensued, and it was not until August 1909 that both sides agreed to a $275,000 ($9,000,000 in 2022 dollars), 200-foot (61 m) long rolling lift bridge. Built by the Pennsylvania Steel Co.,[98] construction took nearly 18 months. Taking into account its piers, abutments, and approaches, it was the largest rolling lift bridge in the world.[95][99]

The company also repaired a swing bridge just downstream from what is now the Center Street Bridge. This swing bridge was severely damaged when floods sent three ships crashing against the bridge.[100] The CT&V sued for damages, and the case went to the United States Supreme Court. The Supreme Court held in Cleveland Terminal and Valley R. Co. v. Cleveland S. S. Co., 208 U.S. 316 (1908), that bridge piers, bridge protective pilings, and docks were not "aids to navigation" and thus damage to them by a ship (even if on navigable waters) was not a cause for action under United States maritime law.[101]

B&O takeover[edit]

In June 1909, the B&O assumed active management of the CT&V.[11][102] This ended a process initiated in 1901, when the parent company began unifying operations with the subsidiary (beginning with a single ticket structure).[103] During this period of active management, the B&O built a CT&V rail yard at Canal Dover in 1911.[104][105]

The B&O fully absorbed the CT&V in 1915.[58][106][107]

CT&V operations under the B&O[edit]

The CT&V's Magnolia Branch (in green), abandoned in 1924

In the early 20th century, the B&O offered three round-trip passenger trains a day between Cleveland and Canton on the CT&V tracks. One of these continued to Marietta.[108] The high frequency of passenger trains was needed because the B&O's Chicago-to-Jersey City service ran through both Akron and Wheeling. The connection between Cleveland and Akron took on additional importance when, in January 1918, the B&O ceased to run passenger trains through Wheeling, and all of its passenger service went through Akron.[3] The B&O the CT&V line between Akron and Cleveland early in the 20th century to make it a better freight route.[54] However, the rapid availability of the automobile led to severe losses in passenger revenues, and the increasing use of trucks to move bulk goods significantly reduced freight traffic.[109] Passenger service to Marietta ended on July 18, 1933, and passenger service to Valley Junction ended on September 30, 1934.[108]

Slowly, the B&O began reducing the reach of the old Valley Railway. The B&O abandoned the Magnolia Branch in January 1924.[110] It abandoned its track between Valley Junction and Mineral City in 1936, due to construction of the Dover Dam flood control project[111] and realigned another 2.5 miles (4.0 km) of track to avoid the new reservoir.[112] About 5.25 miles (8.45 km) of track were also realigned due to construction of the Wills Creek Dam,[113] 8.1 miles (13.0 km) of track realigned due to construction of the Beach City Dam,[114] and 5.3 miles (8.5 km) of track realigned due to construction of the Bolivar Dam.[115][j] The new route involved building a four-span bridge over Sandy Creek. At Mineral City, the CT&V was forced to build two wooden trestles to accommodate flood control projects. One of these was 860 feet (260 m) long and crossed a tributary of Huff Run as well as two roads.[28] The CT&V abandoned its main line north of Walnut Street in Massillon due to straightening of the Tuscarawas River, and converted its industrial spur on the city's east side into a new main line.[116][k] The railroad abandoned and removed the Huff Run Branch from Valley Junction to Mineral City in 1938 following eight years of disuse.[118]

In June 1934, the CT&V moved its passenger station to Cleveland's new Terminal Tower. The 1897 passenger station on Canal Road was converted into a freight depot.[58]

The CT&V realigned the entire 14.4-mile (23.2 km) route between Beach City and Mineral City and 1.5 miles (2.4 km) around East Sparta in 1938, to accommodate the Muskingum River Conservation District's flood control initiatives.[119]

Passenger travel on the former CT&V increased somewhat during World War II, but declined sharply again afterward.[120] The B&O ceased all passenger service on the line on December 7, 1962. The last passenger train to run on the old CT&V route was the Cleveland Night Express, which provided overnight service to Baltimore.[58] It abandoned the Newburgh Branch in 1964.

Post-B&O history of the line[edit]

The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O) took control of the B&O on February 4, 1963. The two railroads retained their separate identities until merging into the Chessie System on June 15, 1973.[108]

A scenic railroad began operating on a portion of the old Valley Railway in 1975. The scenic railroad was first conceived in 1967. With little freight and no passenger traffic on the line, Henry Lucas (an official with the Cuyahoga County Fair) and Siegfried Buerling (director of the Hale Farm historic site) suggested that a "tourist railroad" be allowed to use the tracks. The B&O refused. Backers of a scenic railroad continued to press ahead, and in 1975 the Chessie System gave its approval.[121] The Cuyahoga Valley Line Scenic Railroad[120] (now known as the Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad) began operation in June 1975.[122]

The Chessie System merged with the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad in November 1980 to form CSX.[123] In 1984, CSX abandoned the remainder of the Huff Run Branch as well as all of its line between Sandyville and Mineral City.

CSX sales of the line[edit]

A Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad train idles at Rockside Road in Independence, Ohio in 2017

On September 5, 1984, CSX announced it would abandon the Valley Railway track between Akron and Independence.[121] The National Park Service subsequently began negotiating to buy these 26 miles (42 km)[124] of track to add to the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area[121] (which had been established on December 29, 1974,[125] and became a national park on October 11, 2000).[126] The sale was finalized on September 28, 1987.[121] The northern terminus of the Park Service's track is at Independence (Granger Road and Interstate 77, approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north of the Rockside station), after which CSX resumes ownership of the track.[127][128] The southern terminus of the Park Service's track is at the Akron station, at which point CSX ownership of the track resumed.[128][129]

CSX subsequently sold two more portions of the old Valley Railway. In October 1992, CSX sold 12.26 miles (19.73 km)[130] of track between Canton and Sandyville to a new Wheeling & Lake Erie Railroad (which had recently been spun off by the Norfolk Southern Railway). In May 2000, Akron's METRO Regional Transit Authority purchased 24 miles (39 km) of track between Akron and Canton from CSX in May 2000.[131][l] Metro provides trackage rights to the Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad and two freight railroads, the W&LE and the Akron Barberton Cluster Railway.[131][m]

CSX still owns and uses for freight the remainder of the Valley Railway (which it calls the Cleveland Terminal and Valley Subdivision) between Independence and Cleveland. It is unclear when the 0.6 miles (0.97 km) of track between the end of the line (on Whiskey Island) and Literary Road (near W. 3rd Street), or the 26 miles (42 km) of track between Valley Junction and Bowerston, was abandoned. The portion between Literary Road and Quigley Road (near Interstate 490), about 0.4 miles (0.64 km), was abandoned in 1983. Freight train use of the remaining portion of CT&V Subdivision is light, and as of 1992 the track was not in good enough condition to accommodate passenger trains.[133]

The Valley Railway line, as completed[edit]

The Valley Railway's Huff Run Branch (in green) in 1912

As of 1906, the Valley Railroad had 75.47 miles (121.46 km) of main track and 4.48 miles (7.21 km) of secondary track;[1] 79.64 miles (128.17 km) of main and secondary track siding and yards; 11.3 miles (18.2 km) of branch and spur track; and 8.95 miles (14.40 km) of branch and spur track siding and yards.[134] About 7 miles (11 km) of track were in the Cleveland city limits.[58]

The railroad had three branch lines: the Huff Run Branch (about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from Mineral City east to Lindentree), the Magnolia Branch (about 2.88 miles (4.63 km) from Sandyville along Sandy Creek to Magnolia),[135][n] and the Newburg Branch (about 3 miles (4.8 km) from Granger Road, following Mill Creek, to Broadway Avenue).[58]

The railroad had a number of spurs, which served: the Independence stone quarry,[o] the Schumacher "State Quarry" at Deep Lock,[p] the Lawson Waterman quarry at Peninsula,[q] the Lawson Waterman quarry at Deep Lock,[r] the Jaite Paper Mill at Boston Mills, downtown Akron,[43] and the Newburgh Line (through and north of what is now Bacci Park).

The railroad also owned at least three rail yards. The first was the Cleveland terminal yard, built at the end of the line opposite Whiskey Island in downtown Cleveland.[68] It was replaced in 1906 by the B&O Clark Avenue yard on W. 3rd Street.[81] The third rail yard was located in Dover, Ohio.[105] It is unclear when this yard was abandoned.

Historic sites and districts[edit]

The Jaite Company Store at the Jaite Mill Historic District

The Valley Railway Historic District encompasses the former Valley Railway from Independence to downtown Akron. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in 1985.[140] Much of the railroad runs parallel or adjacent to the Ohio and Erie Canal (added to the NRHP in 1966).[141] The railroad tracks also pass through the Everett Historic District (added to the NRHP in 1993)[142] and the Peninsula Village Historic District (added to the NRHP in 1974)[143] and adjacent to the Boston Mills Historic District (added to the NRHP in 1992)[144] and the Cascade Locks Historic District (added to the NRHP in 1992).[145]

A Valley Railway spur ran to the Jaite Mill Historic District (added to the NRHP in 1979),[146] and the railway also passed close to Hale Farm and Village (added to the NRHP in 1973).[147]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The state of Ohio lists no charter for an "Akron and Canton Railway" or any similarly named effort between January 1, 1867 and June 30, 1871.[4][5][6][7][8]
  2. ^ Elsewhere, Sanders says that another "Akron and Canton Railroad" was planned in the 1830s, but this project was never begun.[12]
  3. ^ The LS&MS had close relations with Standard Oil, and shipped much of its oil. The Valley Railway's tracks ran past Standard Oil's large Cleveland refinery, and linked with the LS&MS in downtown Cleveland.[25]
  4. ^ The passenger depot was located on the south side of Canal Road just before it met Columbus Road. The company also owned about 1,900 feet (580 m) of docks on the Cuyahoga River just south of the passenger depot. A separate freight station existed on Merwin Avenue between West and James Streets.[32]
  5. ^ Unionville was renamed in honor of Sylvester T. Everett, the Valley Railroad's vice president and treasurer.[36]
  6. ^ Ira was located at the intersection of Ira Road and Riverview Road.[35]
  7. ^ The Connotton Valley Railroad reached Mogadore (a hamlet east of Akron) in 1881, Cleveland in 1882, and Zanesville in 1889. It converted to standard gauge on November 18, 1888, and was renamed the Cleveland, Canton and Southern Railroad on May 17, 1890. It went into receivership on September 15, 1893, and was acquired by the W&LE on August 5, 1899.[54]
  8. ^ It included two southwest spurs at Old Brecksville Road; a spur east through Bacci Park almost to Donovan Drive; and two spurs at about Bletch Ct., one parallel and north to the branch and the other east and then south (along Warner Road).
  9. ^ When white settlers arrived in Ohio in 1796, the Cuyahoga River followed the Old Ship Channel, also known as the Old River Bed, before turning sharply to enter Lake Erie about 1 mile (1.6 km) west of its current mouth. The twisting mouth of the river inhibited ship traffic upstream, however, and in 1825 the current, straight mouth of the river was dug. This new mouth of the Cuyahoga was widened in 1854. Over time, sand bars built up which sealed off the old mouth of the river from the lake.[82]
  10. ^ The work extended from two miles north of East Sparta, Ohio, to a mile south of Sandyville, Ohio.[115]
  11. ^ The railroad anticipated realigning another 5.86 miles (9.43 km) of track due to construction of Freeport Reservoir,[117] but county commissioners decided not to build that dam.[116]
  12. ^ This track begins at Howard Street in Akron, at the southern terminus of the National Park Service track. It travels 1.6 miles (2.6 km) east, 4.76 miles (7.66 km) south, and then 3.1 miles (5.0 km) southeast to the city of Green, Ohio. It continues another 11.7 miles (18.8 km) southeast before entering Canton. The line travels about 3.9 miles (6.3 km) through Canton before terminating at the Canton Crossing Diamond, where it connects to the W&LE and the Norfolk Southern.[132]
  13. ^ W&LE's trackage rights stem from a 1992 lease of 10.25 miles (16.50 km)[130] of this track between Canton and Aultman.[108]
  14. ^ Although the CT&V leased a line from Magnolia to Waynesburg,[69] it did not own this track and thus is not included in the description of the Magnolia Line in this article.
  15. ^ Located at what is now 8900 Hemlock Road in Independence, Ohio.[136]
  16. ^ Located at what is now Deep Lock Quarry Metro Park at 5779 Riverview Road in Summit County.[137]
  17. ^ Located at 1980 West Streetsboro Road in Peninsula, Ohio.[138]
  18. ^ Also part of Deep Lock Quarry Metro Park.[139]
  1. ^ a b Ohio Commissioner of Railroads and Telegraphs 1906, p. 226.
  2. ^ a b Tamburro & Galonska 2002, p. xiii.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Sanders 2007, p. 9.
  4. ^ Ohio Commissioner of Railroads and Telegraphs 1868a, pp. generally.
  5. ^ Ohio Commissioner of Railroads and Telegraphs 1868b, pp. generally.
  6. ^ Ohio Commissioner of Railroads and Telegraphs 1870, p. generally.
  7. ^ Ohio Commissioner of Railroads and Telegraphs 1871, p. generally.
  8. ^ Ohio Commissioner of Railroads and Telegraphs 1872, p. generally.
  9. ^ a b c Fess 1937, p. 174.
  10. ^ a b c d Lane 1892, p. 631.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Sanders 2009, p. 8.
  12. ^ Sanders 2007, p. 7.
  13. ^ a b Ohio Commissioner of Railroads and Telegraphs 1883, p. 375.
  14. ^ "Valley Railway Company". The Pittsburgh Commercial. September 9, 1871. p. 2. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Tamburro & Galonska 2002, p. xv.
  16. ^ Tamburro & Galonska 2002, p. xii.
  17. ^ "The Valley Railway". The Plain Dealer. February 26, 1872. p. 3.
  18. ^ "The Valley Railway". The Plain Dealer. April 25, 1872. p. 3.
  19. ^ "The Valley Railway". The Plain Dealer. May 7, 1872. p. 3.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lane 1892, p. 632.
  21. ^ Tamburro & Galonska 2002, p. xiv.
  22. ^ Tamburro & Galonska 2002, pp. xv–xvi.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Tamburro & Galonska 2002, p. xvi.
  24. ^ Price 2015, p. 22.
  25. ^ a b c "Big Transfer of Land". The Plain Dealer. March 4, 1896. p. 10.
  26. ^ "The Valley Railway Completed Between Cleveland and Canton". The Plain Dealer. October 28, 1879. p. 1.
  27. ^ Sanders 2009, p. 45.
  28. ^ a b Sanders 2009, p. 72.
  29. ^ Sanders 2009, p. 74.
  30. ^ Lane 1892, p. 633.
  31. ^ Tamburro & Galonska 2002, p. x.
  32. ^ a b c d e f "Immense Docks". The Plain Dealer. February 25, 1896. p. 1.
  33. ^ a b Tamburro & Galonska 2002, p. xvii.
  34. ^ a b Lane 1892, p. 655.
  35. ^ a b Kovacs, Rosemary (April 19, 1973). "Map and Memories Preserve Old Towns". The Plain Dealer. p. A15.
  36. ^ a b c Tamburro & Galonska 2002, p. xvix.
  37. ^ Lane 1892, p. 133.
  38. ^ Lane 1892, p. 640.
  39. ^ a b Sanders 2007, p. 11.
  40. ^ Lane 1892, p. 988.
  41. ^ Ohio Co-operative Topographic Survey 1911, p. 175.
  42. ^ Lane 1892, pp. 655, 800.
  43. ^ a b Tamburro & Galonska 2002, pp. xvi–xvii.
  44. ^ "The Valley Railway". The Plain Dealer. March 25, 1879. p. 1.
  45. ^ a b c "Not State Land". The Plain Dealer. April 17, 1896.
  46. ^ "Perfectly Safe". The Plain Dealer. January 2, 1896. p. 3.
  47. ^ a b "State Opens Case To Oust Railroad". The Plain Dealer. March 10, 1910. p. 5.
  48. ^ "Questions State's Right to Be Suing". The Plain Dealer. March 11, 1908. p. 5.
  49. ^ "Railway Claims Canal". The Plain Dealer. October 21, 1908. p. 5.
  50. ^ "Little Stories Of Ohio Capital". The Plain Dealer. December 21, 1911. p. 12.
  51. ^ "Holds Cases Different". The Plain Dealer. February 5, 1912. p. 7.
  52. ^ Cleveland, Terminal & Valley Railroad Company, et al. v. The State ex rel., 85 O.S. 251 (Ohio 1912).
  53. ^ Kennedy 1885, p. 30.
  54. ^ a b Sanders 2007, p. 10.
  55. ^ "The Deal Clinched". The Plain Dealer. January 9, 1890. p. 2.
  56. ^ a b c Tamburro & Galonska 2002, p. xx.
  57. ^ "The Valley Dies". The Plain Dealer. June 17, 1892. p. 8.
  58. ^ a b c d e f "Baltimore & Ohio Railroad". Encyclopedia of Cleveland. 2017. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
  59. ^ Bruce 1952, pp. 407–408.
  60. ^ "To Be Sold". The Plain Dealer. August 3, 1895. p. 6.
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The New Cleveland, Terminal & Valley Depot". The Plain Dealer. September 5, 1897. p. 1.
  62. ^ a b "New Freight House". The Plain Dealer. June 14, 1896. p. 6.
  63. ^ a b c d e f The Railway Agent 1898, p. 85.
  64. ^ "Came to Terms". The Plain Dealer. November 21, 1896. p. 1.
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i The Railway Agent 1898, p. 83.
  66. ^ "Over the Valley". The Plain Dealer. January 2, 1897. p. 10.
  67. ^ "New Depot". The Plain Dealer. April 1, 1897. p. 1.
  68. ^ a b "A Big Contract". The Plain Dealer. June 8, 1897. p. 10.
  69. ^ a b Ohio Commissioner of Railroads and Telegraphs 1906, p. 128.
  70. ^ "Construction". The Railway Age. March 17, 1890. p. 190. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
  71. ^ "The Work in Progress". The Railway Age. April 7, 1899. p. 264. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
  72. ^ Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company 1902, p. 64.
  73. ^ Ohio Commissioner of Railroads and Telegraphs 1906, pp. 96–97.
  74. ^ a b "Valley to Be Extended". The Plain Dealer. December 20, 1899. p. 6.
  75. ^ Miller 2000, p. 75.
  76. ^ "New Roads and Projects". Railway and Engineering Review. December 23, 1899. p. 727.
  77. ^ "Railroad News". The Plain Dealer. May 21, 1904. p. 5.
  78. ^ "Railroad News". The Plain Dealer. November 25, 1904. p. 3.
  79. ^ Tamburro & Galonska 2002, p. xviii.
  80. ^ Sanders 2014, p. 15.
  81. ^ a b c "B. & O. Plans To Spend $400,000". The Plain Dealer. August 12, 1906. p. 1.
  82. ^ Mansfield 1899, pp. 299–300.
  83. ^ Linsley & Franzini 1974, p. 108.
  84. ^ Couch, W.S. (February 3, 1905). "Have An Army of Witnesses". The Plain Dealer. pp. 1, 2.
  85. ^ "Hearing On B. & O. Bridge". The Plain Dealer. March 12, 1905. p. 2.
  86. ^ "Agrees To Remove Bridge". The Plain Dealer. April 4, 1905. p. 12.
  87. ^ "Bridge Must Go". The Plain Dealer. May 11, 1905. p. 3.
  88. ^ "Railroads Want Delay". The Plain Dealer. May 12, 1905. p. 3.
  89. ^ "Plans Are Approved". The Plain Dealer. August 10, 1905. p. 5.
  90. ^ Camp, Walter Mason (March 23, 1907). "New Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge at Cleveland". The Railway and Engineering Review. pp. 257–258. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
  91. ^ a b Bluestone 1978, p. 86.
  92. ^ "Railroad News". The Plain Dealer. September 8, 1905. p. 3.
  93. ^ "Big Lift Bridge to Span Cuyahoga River". The Plain Dealer. April 19, 1907. p. 10.
  94. ^ "Bridge Is Completed". The Plain Dealer. July 31, 1907. p. 12.
  95. ^ a b Bluestone 1978, p. 96.
  96. ^ "B. & O. Won't Wait For New Viaduct". The Plain Dealer. June 25, 1908. p. 12.
  97. ^ "Wants Change In New Bridge Plans". The Plain Dealer. November 12, 1908. p. 12.
  98. ^ "To Replace Old Bridge". The Plain Dealer. August 9, 1909. p. 10.
  99. ^ "New B. & O. Bridge Finished". The Plain Dealer. March 12, 1911. p. A6.
  100. ^ Secretary of War 1904, pp. 3806–3807.
  101. ^ Cleveland Terminal and Valley R. Co. v. Cleveland S. S. Co., 208 U.S. 316 (U.S. 1908).
  102. ^ Metzger & Bobel 2009, p. 174.
  103. ^ "Many Important Changes". The Plain Dealer. June 16, 1901. p. 8.
  104. ^ Sanders 2009, p. 71.
  105. ^ a b "Yards at Canal Dover". Industrial World. April 24, 1911. p. 489. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
  106. ^ "Begin Fight On Ohio Slag Rates". The Plain Dealer. November 4, 1915. p. 16.
  107. ^ Ori 2006, p. 11.
  108. ^ a b c d Sanders 2009, p. 61.
  109. ^ Tamburro & Galonska 2002, pp. xxi–xxii.
  110. ^ "Legal Notices". New Philadelphia Daily Times. December 28, 1923. p. 7; "Order Magnolia Branch R.R. Abandoned". New Philadelphia Daily Times. January 29, 1924. p. 8. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  111. ^ "53 Miles of Railway Relocated in Ohio Flood-Control Project". Railway Age. September 5, 1936. pp. 345–350; "Engineers Get Ready for Construction Dover Dam". Zanesville Times Recorder. April 6, 1935. p. 1.
  112. ^ "Chief Railroad Appraisal Engineer Named". Zanesville Times Recorder. February 25, 1935. p. 1.
  113. ^ "Turn First Dirt Today in Building Wills Creek Dam". Zanesville Times Recorder. March 12, 1935. pp. 1, 5.
  114. ^ "Canton Firm is Low Bidder on Rail Reloation". Zanesville Times Recorder. May 8, 1935. p. 4.
  115. ^ a b "Bid of Local Company Low". Massillon Evening Independent. July 11, 1935. p. 2.
  116. ^ a b "Straightening of Tuscarawas River In City Approved". Massillon Evening Independent. April 16, 1935. p. 1.
  117. ^ "$1,850,000 River Straightening Project for Massillon". Massillon Evening Independent. February 14, 1935. pp. 1, 8.
  118. ^ "May Abandon Line". Massillon Evening Independent. November 5, 1937. p. 22; "B&O To Drop Branch". Marion Star. December 22, 1937. p. 2.
  119. ^ "Railway Construction in the United States". Railway Age. January 7, 1939. p. 74. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  120. ^ a b Tamburro & Galonska 2002, p. xxii.
  121. ^ a b c d Sanders 2007, p. 93.
  122. ^ "Chugging Out of History". The Plain Dealer. June 1, 1975. p. AA2; Ellison, Bruce (November 23, 1975). "Overcrowded National Parks Create an Operational Tightrope". The Plain Dealer. p. E2.
  123. ^ "Chessie, Seaboard Merge Into Largest Rail Network". The Plain Dealer. November 3, 1980. p. E10.
  124. ^ Volpe National Transportation Systems Center 2013, p. 1.
  125. ^ Brazaitis, Thomas J. (December 29, 1974). "Ford Signs Cuyahoga Valley Park Bill". The Plain Dealer. pp. A1, A5.
  126. ^ Hetter, Katia (June 13, 2013). "Cuyahoga Valley: A spiritual retreat". CNN. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
  127. ^ Surface Transportation Board 1998, p. 5—311.
  128. ^ a b Volpe National Transportation Systems Center 2013, p. 50.
  129. ^ Parsons Brinckerhoff 2002, p. 3—32.
  130. ^ a b Surface Transportation Board, Department of Transportation. STB Finance Docket No. 34341. "Wheeling & Lake Erie Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--CSX Transportation, Inc. 68 FR 59680. October 16, 2003
  131. ^ a b Bergmann Associates 2012, p. 46.
  132. ^ Bergmann Associates 2012, p. 28.
  133. ^ Burnett, Thomas M. (September 7, 1992). "Plan to Extend Rail Is Picking Up Steam". The Plain Dealer. p. B2.
  134. ^ Ohio Commissioner of Railroads and Telegraphs 1906, p. 227.
  135. ^ Sanders 2009, p. 62.
  136. ^ Zurick, Maura (July 14, 2014). "200 years of Independence". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  137. ^ "Deep Lock Quarry". Summit County Parks. 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  138. ^ Fellenstein, Stephanie (July 8, 2015). "Oh, the places we'll go". Gatehouse Media. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  139. ^ Downing, Bob (March 2, 2008). "UA team unearths historic sites". Akron Beacon Journal. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  140. ^ Valley Railway Historic District
  141. ^ Ohio and Erie Canal
  142. ^ Everett Historic District
  143. ^ Peninsula Village Historic District
  144. ^ Boston Mills Historic District
  145. ^ Cascade Locks Historic District
  146. ^ Jaite Mill Historic District
  147. ^ Jonathan Hale Homestead