Vyoshenskaya (Russian: Вёшенская) or Veshenskaya, colloquially known as Vyoshki, is a rural locality (a stanitsa) and the administrative center of Sholokhovsky District of Rostov Oblast, Russia, located in the northern reaches of the Don River on its left bank. Population: 9,261 (2010 Census); 9,317 (2002 Census); 9,578 (1989 Census).
It was first mentioned in 1672.
During the Russian Civil War in 1919, the Upper-Don Anti-Bolshevists operated from Vyoshenskaya. The Vyoshenskaya uprising and its leader, Pavel Kudinov, are described in Sholokhov's novel And Quiet Flows the Don. The rebels had withdrawn from the White Army and joined the Bolsheviks, but rose up in arms because of the Red Terror. They felt betrayed by the Bolsheviks who had promised that the Upper Don would be spared any military action or decossackization. The counter-revolutionaries then united with the Don Army. The uprising failed as the southern front collapsed. Sholokhov also described the conditions during those years in his collection of short stories Tales of the Don.
Due to the efforts of Sholokhov, a paved road was laid in 1963 between Vyoshenskaya and Millerovo. In 1985, a bridge was built connecting Vyoshenskaya with the stanitsa of Bazkovskaya, on the opposite bank.
After Sholokhov's death in 1984, a museum honoring the writer was created. The town has erected many monuments to Sholokhov and the characters from his novel And Quiet Flows the Don.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- History of Vyoshenskaya (in Russian)