Rostov Oblast

Coordinates: 47°52′N 41°11′E / 47.867°N 41.183°E / 47.867; 41.183
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Rostov Oblast
Ростовская область
Flag of Rostov Oblast
Coat of arms of Rostov Oblast
Anthem: Anthem of Rostov Oblast (The Orthodox Quiet Don)[3]
Coordinates: 47°52′N 41°11′E / 47.867°N 41.183°E / 47.867; 41.183
Federal districtSouthern[1]
Economic regionNorth Caucasus[2]
Administrative centerRostov-on-Don[4]
 • BodyLegislative Assembly
 • Governor[6]Vasily Golubev[5]
 • Total100,967 km2 (38,984 sq mi)
 • Rank32nd
 • Total4,200,729
 • Estimate 
 • Rank6th
 • Urban
 • Rural
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[10])
ISO 3166 codeRU-ROS
License plates61, 161, 761
OKTMO ID60000000
Official languagesRussian[11]

Rostov Oblast (Russian: Росто́вская о́бласть, romanized: Rostovskaya oblast', IPA: [rɐˈstofskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ]) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the Southern Federal District. The oblast has an area of 100,967 square kilometers (38,984 sq mi) and a population of 4,200,729 (2021 Census),[8] making it the sixth most populous federal subject in Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Rostov-on-Don, which also became the administrative center of the Southern Federal District in 2002.


Rostov Oblast borders Ukraine (Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts) and also Volgograd and Voronezh Oblasts in the north, Krasnodar and Stavropol Krais in the south, and the Republic of Kalmykia in the east. The Rostov oblast is located in the Pontic-Caspian steppe. It is directly north over the North Caucasus and west of the Yergeni hills.[13]

It is within the Russian Southern Federal District.

Rivers and lakes[edit]

The Don River, one of Europe's longest rivers, flows through the oblast for part of its course. Lakes cover only 0.4% of the oblast's area.

Administrative divisions[edit]


Tanais, former ancient Greek city and medieval Italian trading city

Historically, at various times, the territory was ruled either entirely or partly by Scythia, ancient Greeks, Old Great Bulgaria, Khazars, Kipchaks, Italians (Pisa,[14] Venice, Genoa)[15] the Mongol Empire, the Crimean Khanate, the Ottoman Empire,[15] Russia and Soviet Ukraine. The ancient Greek city of Tanais is located in the province.

The Rostov Oblast was formed in 1937 out of the Azov-Black Sea Krai. During World War II, it was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1941–1943.


Historical population
Source: Census data

Population: 4,200,729 (2021 Census);[8] 4,277,976 (2010 Russian census);[16] 4,404,013 (2002 Census);[17] 4,308,654 (1989 Soviet census).[18]

Life expectancy at birth in Rostov Oblast

Vital statistics for 2022:[19][20]

  • Births: 32,753 (7.9 per 1,000)
  • Deaths: 60,775 (14.7 per 1,000)

Total fertility rate (2022):[21]
1.25 children per woman

Life expectancy (2021):[22]
Total — 69.79 years (male — 65.80, female — 73.67)

Ethnic groups[edit]

Residents identified themselves as belonging to 157 different ethnic groups, including 27 of more than 2,000 persons each. The largest ethnicities are[16] the 3,795,607 Russians (90.3%); the 110,727 Armenians (2.6%) and the 77,802 Ukrainians (1.9%). Other important groups are the 35,902 Turks (0.9%); 16,493 Belarusians (0.4%); 13,948 Tatars (0.3%); 17,961 Azerbaijanis (0.4%); 11,449 Chechens (0.3%); 16,657 Romani (0.4%); 11,597 Koreans (0.3%); 8,296 Georgians (0.2%), and 2,040 Assyrians (.05%). There were also 76,498 people (1.8%) belonging to other ethno-cultural groupings. 76,735 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[23]


Religion in Rostov Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[24][25]
Russian Orthodoxy
Other Orthodox
Other Christians
Rodnovery and other native faiths
Spiritual but not religious
Atheism and irreligion
Other and undeclared

According to a 2012 survey[24] 49.5% of the population of Rostov Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 6% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are either Orthodox Christian believers who do not belong to church or are members of other (non-Russian) Orthodox bodies, 1% are Muslims, and 1% are adherents of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery) movement. In addition, 26% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 12% is atheist, and 3.5% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[24]

Church of the Intercession, Rostov-on-Don

The Ascension Cathedral is the largest Russian Orthodox church in Novocherkassk, Rostov Oblast, Russia. It used to be one of the largest churches of the Russian Empire and the main church of the Don Host Oblast.

The five-domed building, which stands 75 meters tall, is a notable example of Russian Neo-Byzantine architecture. It was erected between 1891 and 1904 on the site of an earlier church. The first church on the site was built to Luigi Rusca's designs. It collapsed in 1846. A replacement church collapsed 17 years later.[26]

Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin ― one of the oldest churches in Rostov-on-Don. For a considerable period of time, Intercession Church served as the principal church not only for the fortress of St. Dimitry of Rostov but also for the people of local settlements. Since the end of the 18th century, the Church of Intercession had been considered to be a cathedral. The status changed in 1822, when Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary on the decree of the Holy Synod was declared cathedral.



Rostov State Musical Theater

The region has 8,057 objects of archaeological heritage of federal importance. These include lower-Gnilovskaya, a settlement and a necropolis, fragments of the walls of the Genoese fortress of the 14th century, the archaeological Museum-reserve "Tanais", and many burial mounds and necropolises. Since 2002, the Rostov region has hosted the country's only races on tractors.[citation needed]


Taganrog Theatre
  • Rostov academic drama theatre, named after Maxim Gorky.
  • Rostov State Musical Theater. The theater opened in September 1999, and is the successor to the 1919 Rostov Musical Comedy Theater, one of the best operetta theaters in the Soviet Union.

The theater has two stages as well as a music and entertainment center, and hosts about 300 performances and concerts annually, as well as various forums and festivals. Its repertoire encompasses both musical traditions, as well as experiments in the field of contemporary art.

  • Rostov state puppet theatre.
  • Rostov regional academic youth theatre (former Rostov theatre for young spectators).
  • Taganrog Theatre. The Taganrog Theater was established in 1827 by governor Alexander Dunaev. The theater was subsidized by the Taganrog's City Council since 1828, and its first director was Alexander Gor. The first group of Russian drama artists was directed by Perovsky and toured around the region, giving performances in Rostov on Don, Novocherkassk, Bahmut. The repertoire consisted mainly of dramas, melodramas and vaudevilles. In 1874, the Taganrog Municipality acquired the theater building by the purchase of its stocks.
  • Don theatre of drama and Comedy V. F. Komissarzhevskaya (the Cossack drama theatre) Novocherkassk.
  • Shakhty drama theatre, Shakhty.
  • Novoshakhtinskiy drama theatre, Novoshakhtinsk.


Soviet steam locomotive class Su in the display area

In Rostov-on-Don[edit]

Taganrog military museum
  • Center for Contemporary Art "Tobacco Factory".
  • Rostov Regional Museum of Local History.
  • Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts.
  • Museum of Contemporary Art at Dmitrovskaya.
  • Museum of Russian-Armenian Friendship.
  • Museum of North Caucasus Railway. The first museum of history of North Caucasus Railway opened on 4 November 1960 in a Community Center of railwaymen at Rostov-Glavny station. Permanent exposition includes: information boards about famous North Caucasus railwaymen, model trains on a scale 1:15, uniform, cases, panoramas, implements of various times. The exhibition covers the period from emergence of rail transport in the region up to the present moment. The various collections from the Russian Civil War and the Great Patriotic War, now exceed 12,000 objects in the main fund.[27]

In other cities of the region[edit]

Deinotherium skeleton in one of the rooms.
  • Aksai Military History Museum, Aksay.
  • Archaeological museum-reserve "Tanais", Nedvigovka.
  • Azov Museum of History, Archaeology and Palaeontology, Azov. The bulk of the museum is located in the three-story building erected in 1892 which belonged to the former town council, there are 22 rooms. The symbol of the museum is the skeleton of a Trogontherium mammoth that existed 800-600 thousand years ago in the interglacial period. This is the world's unique skeleton with the whole skull. The museum's areas: permanent exhibitions - 2852 m2, temporary exhibitions - 580 m2, storage facilities - 1896 m2, park (open air) - 7.13 hectares. 
  • Bataysk Museum of History, Bataysk.
  • Gukovo Museum of Mining Work, Gukovo.
  • House-Museum of S. Budyonny, Stan. Budennovskaya.
  • Novocherkassk Museum of the History of the Don Cossacks, Novocherkassk.
  • Razdorsk Ethnographic Museum-Reserve, the camp. Razdorskaya.
  • Salsk Art Museum named after People's Artist VK Nechitailo, Salsk.
  • Shakhty Museum of Local History, Shakhty.
  • Taganrog military museum, Taganrog. The start of museum exhibition creation refers to May 9, 2004, when the club Auto-Retro Taganrog was founded. Subsequently, several vehicle units were purchased and repaired. In 2008, club activity concept got military direction. On May 6, 2010, permanent exhibition consisting of several thousands of exhibits was opened. In July 2012, the name Taganrog military museum got official status.
  • The State Museum-Reserve of MA Sholokhov, St. Veshenskaya.
  • Volgodonsk Art Museum, Volgodonsk.
  • Volgodonsk Ecological and Historical Museum, Volgodonsk.


Major industries of Rostov Oblast are agriculture, agricultural industry, food processing, heavy industry, coal and automobile manufacture.[28]

The largest companies in the region include Novoshakhtinsk Petrochemical Plant, Gloria Jeans Corp., Rostvertol, Oil-extracting factory "Yug Rusi", North Caucasian Railway.[29]

Banking sector[edit]

In the Rostov Region in 1989, the first commercial bank in Southern Russia, Rostovsoсbank, was created on the basis of the regional division of the Zhilsotsbank USSR.[30] The bank existed from 1989 to 1998,[31] with four branches operating in Rostov-on-Don. In addition, the bank had branches in the cities of Taganrog, Shakhty, Gukovo and Donetsk. In 1998 Rostovsotsbank lost solvency, but was able to ensure full repayment of deposits to all depositors before the establishment of the Deposit Insurance System, even before the revocation of the banking license.

From 1999 to 2010, one of the largest banks in Southern Russia was Donskoy Narodny Bank (Don People's Bank), located in Rostov-on-Don.

As of 2022, there are 7 regional credit organizations and 21 bank branches operating in Rostov Oblast. The leading positions are taken by Sberbank, VTB, Alfa-Bank, Rosbank, Center-Invest and Fora-Bank.[32]



  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Law #30-ZS
  4. ^ Charter of Rostov Oblast, Article 14
  5. ^ Official website of Rostov Oblast. Vasily Yuryevich Golubev, Governor of Rostov Oblast (in Russian)
  6. ^ Charter of Rostov Oblast, Article 27
  7. ^ "Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 01.01.2019 (в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации)". Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved August 29, 2023.
  8. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Всероссийская перепись населения 2020 года. Том 1 [2020 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1] (XLS) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  10. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  11. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  12. ^ Charter of Rostov Oblast, Article 13
  13. ^ Google Earth
  14. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Taganrog" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 355–356.
  15. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Azov" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  16. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  17. ^ Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  18. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  19. ^ "Information on the number of registered births, deaths, marriages and divorces for January to December 2022". ROSSTAT. Archived from the original on March 2, 2023. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  20. ^ "Birth rate, mortality rate, natural increase, marriage rate, divorce rate for January to December 2022". ROSSTAT. Archived from the original on March 2, 2023. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  21. ^ Суммарный коэффициент рождаемости [Total fertility rate]. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Archived from the original (XLSX) on August 10, 2023. Retrieved August 10, 2023.
  22. ^ "Демографический ежегодник России" [The Demographic Yearbook of Russia] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service of Russia (Rosstat). Retrieved June 1, 2022.
  23. ^ "ВПН-2010". Archived from the original on January 7, 2019. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  24. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  25. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  26. ^ "История - Официальный сайт Ростовской и Новочеркасской епархии".
  27. ^ Музей истории Северо-Кавказской железной дороги (in Russian). Localway. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  28. ^ "Industry of the region".
  29. ^ "Rostov region Industries". Archived from the original on November 7, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  30. ^ "Банки СССР – Промстройбанк, Агропромбанк, Жилсоцбанк, Сбербанк, Внешторгбанк". Retrieved August 10, 2022.
  31. ^ "Открытое акционерное общество Ростовский коммерческий банк социального развития - "Ростовсоцбанк" | Банк России". Retrieved August 10, 2022.
  32. ^ "Банки играют на сохранение". (in Russian). April 29, 2022. Retrieved August 10, 2022.


  • Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Областной закон №19-ЗС от 29 мая 1996 г. «Устав Ростовской области», в ред. Областного закона №442-ЗС от 23 ноября 2015 г. «О поправках к Уставу Ростовской области». Вступил в силу 6 июня 1996 г. Опубликован: "Наше время", №98–99, 6 июня 1996 г. (Legislative Assembly of Rostov Oblast. Oblast Law #19-ZS of May 29, 1996 Charter of Rostov Oblast, as amended by the Oblast Law #442-ZS of November 23, 2015 On the Amendments to the Charter of Rostov Oblast. Effective as of June 6, 1996.).
  • Глава Администрации Ростовской области. Областной Закон №30-ЗС от 10 октября 1996 г. «О гимне Ростовской области». Вступил в силу с момента опубликования (31 октября 1996 г.). Опубликован: "Наше время", №196, 31 октября 1996 г. (Head of the Administration of Rostov Oblast. Oblast Law #30-ZS of October 10, 1996 On the Anthem of Rostov Oblast. Effective as of the moment of publication (October 31, 1996).).

External links[edit]