Jump to content

Vikram (rocket family)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Vikram (rocket))

FunctionSmall-lift launch vehicle
ManufacturerSkyroot Aerospace
Country of originIndia
HeightVikram I: 20 m (66 ft)
Payload to LEO (500 km @ 45° inclination)
  • Vikram I: 480 kg (1,060 lb)
  • Vikram II: 595 kg (1,312 lb)
  • Vikram III: 815 kg (1,797 lb)
Payload to SSPO (500 km)
  • Vikram I: 290 kg (640 lb)
  • Vikram II: 400 kg (880 lb)
  • Vikram III: 560 kg (1,230 lb)
Associated rockets
ComparableElectron, Kaituozhe-1, SSLV
Launch history
StatusUnder development
Launch sitesSatish Dhawan Space Centre
Total launchesVikram-S: 1 (sub-orbital)
Success(es)1 (sub-orbital)
First flight18 November 2022 (suborbital)
First stage (Vikram I)
Powered byKalam 1000
Maximum thrust1,000 kN (220,000 lbf)
Second stage (Vikram I)
Powered byKalam 250
Maximum thrust250 kN (56,000 lbf)
Third stage (Vikram I)
Powered byKalam 100
Maximum thrust100 kN (22,000 lbf)
Fourth stage (Vikram I)
Powered by4 x Raman I
Maximum thrust3.4 kN (760 lbf)

The Vikram (Sanskrit, lit.'Brave'; Namesake: Vikram Sarabhai[1]) is a family of small-lift launch vehicles being developed by Skyroot Aerospace, an Indian startup aerospace company.

Before a full orbital launch, a suborbital flight of rocket designated Vikram-S was performed on 18 November 2022 by the name of mission Prarambh (Sanskrit, lit.'beginning').[2][3]


Skyroot Aerospace has successfully tested Vikram-S, the sounding rocket. Vikram-I is currently under development while the heavier launchers of Vikram-II and Vikram-III are proposed.


The Vikram-I, first rocket in the series, has three solid fuel-powered stages each with a burn time ranging between 80 and 100 seconds and the final stage is Raman engine (Sanskrit, lit.'enchanting', Namesake: C.V. Raman). The Raman engine is powered by MMH and NTO liquid fuels in a cluster of four engines that generate 3.4 kN thrust. These Raman Engines will be used to do final adjustments in the orbit of the stage.[4] Vikram-I is designed to lift 290 kg to a 500 km Sun synchronous polar orbit (SSPO) and 480 kg to 45º inclination in a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO).[5][6]

Vikram orbital launch vehicles under development in comparison with already flown Vikram S, the suborbital class sounding rocket of Skyroot Aerospace.

Planned rockets in the series[7]
Launch Vehicle Payload capacity First flight Total launches
(500 km)
Low Earth orbit
(500 km; 45°)
Vikram-S (Suborbital) - - 18 November 2022 1
Vikram-I 290 kg (640 lb) 480 kg (1,060 lb) Q1 2024 (est.)[8] 0
Vikram-II 400 kg (880 lb) 595 kg (1,312 lb) TBD 0
Vikram-III 560 kg (1,230 lb) 815 kg (1,797 lb) TBD 0

Development and testing[edit]

  • On 12 August 2020, Skyroot Aerospace successfully tested Vikram-I launch vehicle's upper stage engine Raman.[9]
  • On 21 September 2020, several Ballistic Evaluation Motors (BEM) were fired to fine tune and qualify Vikram-I Solid Stage Propellant formulation.[10]
  • On 22 December 2020, Skyroot conducted a successful test firing of a Solid rocket stage demonstrator 'Kalam-5'.[11] The test was conducted at Solar Industries in Nagpur at 3 pm. The test cleared a 24 seconds long duration demonstration, achieving a peak thrust of 5.3 kN.[12]
  • On 20 June 2021, Vikram-I's third stage (Kalam-100) successfully completed the Proof Pressure Test (PPT).[13]
  • On 19 May 2022, has announced the successful completion of a full duration test-firing of its Vikram-I rocket stage, representing a major milestone for the company. Named 'Kalam-100' after former president and the renowned Indian rocket scientist A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, the third stage of Vikram-I produces a peak vacuum thrust of 100 kN (or ~10 Tons) and has a burn time of 108 sec. The rocket stage has been built with high-strength carbon fiber structure, solid fuel, novel thermal protection system, and carbon ablative nozzle. This testing will help Skyroot in development of orbital vehicle Vikram-I and gives great confidence for the other rocket stages planned to be tested soon. This is best in class rocket stage of this size, with record propellant loading and firing duration and using all carbon composite structure for delivering best performance. This is largest rocket stage ever designed, manufactured, and tested completely in the private sector. There was a good match of test results with the design predictions in the very first attempt, which is a testimony to the team's capabilities. The state-of-the-art technology like carbon composite case, high propellant volumetric loading up to 94%, lighter EPDM based thermal protection system, and submerged nozzle have been validated through the successful static test.[14][15] The video of the firing[16]
  • On 18 November 2022, Skyroot Aerospace performed the maiden launch of the Vikram-S suborbital rocket, carrying payloads for Space Kidz, Bazoomq and N-Space Tech.[17] The flight was successful, and the rocket reached an apogee of 89.5 km, making Skyroot Aerospace the first Indian private company to reach space.[18]
  • On 4 April 2023, Skyroot Aerospace announced the 200-second fire-endurance test of enhanced, fully 3D-printed 'Dhawan-II' cryogenic engine that will power the upper stage of Vikram-II. It was considered a milestone for the cryogenic engine program, fueling the accelerated development of Vikram series.[19]
  • On 21 June 2023, Skyroot Aerospace announced the successful flight qualification testing of the Raman-I engine to be used for roll attitude control of the Vikram-I rocket. As Vikram-I launches to space, aerodynamic disturbances and thrust misalignments can make the vehicle roll about its axis, needing a responsive roll-control system. It is provided by four Raman-I engines through precise pulses, commanded by the autopilot algorithm of mission computer. Raman is a series of engines/thrusters using earth storable hypergolic propellants for upper stage engine and attitude/reaction control in Vikram-I. Supported by ISRO and IN-SPACe, this test was done at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) of ISRO by a private company.[20]
  • On 4 July 2023, Skyroot Aerospace successfully completed the carbon-fiber winding and curing of Stage-1 motor case for Vikram-I. With 1.7 meters diameter and 10 meters long, this was the largest hardware the company ever manufactured, and was built meticulously in-house using a multi-axis high precision robotic machine, powered by proprietary software. This stage, named 'Kalam 1200', is designed to generate a peak thrust of 120 tons. [21]
  • On 10 July 2023, Vikram-I Stage-2 'Kalam-250' achieved the successful qualification test firing of its igniter. The igniter is used to safely, reliably and rapidly induce a combustion reaction in a solid rocket motor in a controlled and predictable manner under extreme temperature, pressure and vibration environments.[22]
  • On 18 December 2023, Skyroot successfully conducted a proof pressure test on Kalam-1200, the first stage of Vikram-I rocket. Kalam-1200 is made up of ultra-light, high strength carbon composite and was subjected to extreme combustion pressure of 82.5 atmosphere.[23]

Launch history[edit]

S.No Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Orbit Customer Status Note
1. 18 November 2022 Vikram-S Satish Dhawan India Suborbital Success First launch from a private Indian space agency.
2. Q1 2024 Vikram-I Satish Dhawan FLP India Low Earth TBA Planned Maiden flight of Vikram 1 rocket.
3. Q2 2024 Vikram-I Satish Dhawan India Low Earth TBA Planned
4. Q3 2024 Vikram-I Satish Dhawan India Low Earth TBA Planned
5. Q4 2024 Vikram-I Satish Dhawan India Low Earth TBA Planned

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Launch Vehicle | Skyroot Aerospace". 10 January 2019. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  2. ^ Skyroot Aerospace [@SkyrootA] (18 November 2022). "89.5 km peak altitude achieved. Vikram-S rocket meets all flight parameters. It's history in the making for India" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  3. ^ *Tripathi, Sibu (8 November 2022). "India's first private sector rocket Vikram-S to launch in November: Here's what we know". India Today. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  4. ^ Scientist, Gareeb (1 July 2020). "The SpaceX's of India | Private Indian Rocket Companies | Skyroot | Agnikul | Bellatrix" – via YouTube.
  5. ^ "India's first-ever privately designed and developed rocket is a step closer to becoming a reality in 2021". Business Insider. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  6. ^ "With ISRO assistance, India's Skyroot Aerospace aims maiden rocket launch by Dec-2021". WION. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  7. ^ "Launch Vehicle". Skyroot Aerospace. 10 January 2019. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  8. ^ Bharadwaj, Swati (25 October 2023). "Skyroot gears up for Vikram-1 launch in Q1 2024, opens India's 1st integrated private sector rocket facility in Hyderabad". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 December 2023.
  9. ^ Narasimhan, T. E. (12 August 2020). "Skyroot Aerospace first private company to test upper stage rocket engine". Business Standard India. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  10. ^ Vikram-I Solid Stage BEM Firing, retrieved 21 January 2022
  11. ^ "Another outstanding success! In an India's first by a private company and a major milestone for us, we are thrilled to announce successful test firing of our first solid rocket propulsion stage demonstrator: Kalam-5". Twitter. Retrieved 21 January 2022.[self-published]
  12. ^ Skyroot Aerospace: Kalam-5 Solid Rocket Motor Test Fire, retrieved 21 January 2022
  13. ^ "In a major milestone, we successfully completed the Proof Pressure Test (PPT) of Vikram-1's 3rd stage 'Kalam-100'". Twitter. Retrieved 21 January 2022.[self-published]
  14. ^ "Skyroot successfully test fires space launch vehicle 'Vikram-1' rocket stage", The Hindu, 19 May 2022, retrieved 19 May 2022
  15. ^ Indian launch startup Skyroot successfully completes full-duration stage test, retrieved 19 May 2022
  16. ^ Static Fire Test, Vikram-1 Stage 3, Kalam-100, retrieved 19 May 2022
  17. ^ Skyroot Aerospace [@SkyrootA] (17 November 2022). "Mission set. Happy to announce the authorization received from IN-SPACe yesterday for 18 November '22, 11:30 AM, after final checks on readiness and weather. Here's our #Prarambh mission brochure for you. Watch this space for the launch live link" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  18. ^ Skyroot Aerospace [@SkyrootA] (18 November 2022). "89.5 km peak altitude achieved. Vikram-S rocket meets all flight parameters. It's history in the making for India" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  19. ^ Indian firm Skyroot Aerospace test fires 3D printed cryogenic engine spacefaring rocket launch by 2023 end wionews.com
  20. ^ @SkyrootA (21 June 2023). "Thrilled to announce the successful flight qualification testing of our Raman-I engine used for roll attitude control of the Vikram-I rocket" (Tweet) – via Twitter. [better source needed]
  21. ^ @SkyrootA (4 July 2023). "In a momentous development, we successfully completed the carbon-fiber winding and curing of our majestic 10 meters long, 1.7 meters diameter, Stage-1 motor case for Vikram-I" (Tweet) – via Twitter. [better source needed]
  22. ^ @SkyrootA (10 July 2023). "A critical milestone has been achieved before our Vikram-1 Stage-2 'Kalam-250' gets ready for its static test, with the successful qualification test firing of its igniter" (Tweet) – via Twitter. [better source needed]
  23. ^ "Hyderabad's Skyroot Aerospace puts first stage of Vikram-1 through pressure test". The Times of India. 19 December 2023. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 19 December 2023.