The Login/Sign Up page of Twitter
|Traded as||NYSE: TWTR|
|Founded||March 21, 2006|
|Headquarters||San Francisco, California, U.S.|
|Key people||Jack Dorsey (CEO)
Omid Kordestani (Chairman)
|Revenue||US$2.21 billion (2015)|
|Net income||US$ -521 million (2015)|
|Employees||3,898 (March 2016)|
|Alexa rank||8 (June 2016[update])|
|Type of site||Social network service|
|Registration||Required to post, follow, or be followed|
|Users||310 million active users (March 2016)|
|Launched||July 15, 2006|
Twitter (//) is an online social networking service that enables users to send and read short 140-character messages called "tweets". Registered users can read and post tweets, but those who are unregistered can only read them. Users access Twitter through the website interface, SMS or mobile device app. Twitter Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world.
Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Evan Williams, Biz Stone, and Noah Glass and launched in July 2006. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity, with more than 100 million users posting 340 million tweets a day in 2012. The service also handled 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet". As of March 2016, Twitter has more than 310 million monthly active users.
- 1 History
- 2 Leadership
- 3 Logo
- 4 Features
- 5 Usage
- 6 Finances
- 7 Technology
- 8 Society
- 9 Television
- 10 Statistics
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Creation and initial reaction
Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey, then an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group. The original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams later ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was also partly due to the fact that domain twitter.com was already in use, and it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter. The developers initially considered "10958" as a short code, but later changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 PM Pacific Standard Time (PST): "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:
...we came across the word 'twitter', and it was just perfect. The definition was 'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and 'chirps from birds'. And that's exactly what the product was.
The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams, Dorsey, and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets—including Odeo.com and Twitter.com—from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, who was silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007. Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview:
With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter actually changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility. It is that, in part, but the insight we eventually came to was Twitter was really more of an information network than it is a social network.
The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive (SXSWi) conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways, exclusively streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters. Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, and the bloggers in attendance touted it."
Reaction at the conference was highly positive. Blogger Scott Beale said that Twitter was "absolutely ruling" SXSWi. Social software researcher danah boyd said Twitter was "owning" the conference. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less. And we just did!" The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has also hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue.
The company experienced rapid initial growth. It had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007. This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications. As of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, that was about 140 million tweets posted daily. As noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site in January 2009 from its previous rank of twenty-second.
Twitter's usage spikes during prominent events. For example, a record was set during the 2010 FIFA World Cup when fans wrote 2,940 tweets per second in the thirty-second period after Japan scored against Cameroon on June 14. The record was broken again when 3,085 tweets per second were posted after the Los Angeles Lakers' victory in the 2010 NBA Finals on June 17, and then again at the close of Japan's victory over Denmark in the World Cup when users published 3,283 tweets per second. The record was set again during the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup Final between Japan and the United States, when 7,196 tweets per second were published. When American singer Michael Jackson died on June 25, 2009, Twitter servers crashed after users were updating their status to include the words "Michael Jackson" at a rate of 100,000 tweets per hour. The current record as of August 3, 2013 was set in Japan, with 143,199 tweets per second during a television screening of the movie Castle in the Sky (beating the previous record of 33,388, also set by Japan for the television screening of the same movie).
Twitter acquired application developer Atebits on April 11, 2010. Atebits had developed the Apple Design Award-winning Twitter client Tweetie for the Mac and iPhone. The application, now called "Twitter" and distributed free of charge, is the official Twitter client for the iPhone, iPad and Mac.
From September through October 2010, the company began rolling out "New Twitter", an entirely revamped edition of twitter.com. Changes included the ability to see pictures and videos without leaving Twitter itself by clicking on individual tweets which contain links to images and clips from a variety of supported websites including YouTube and Flickr, and a complete overhaul of the interface, which shifted links such as '@mentions' and 'Retweets' above the Twitter stream, while 'Messages' and 'Log Out' became accessible via a black bar at the very top of twitter.com. As of November 1, 2010, the company confirmed that the "New Twitter experience" had been rolled out to all users.
On April 5, 2011, Twitter tested a new homepage and phased out the "Old Twitter". However, a glitch came about after the page was launched, so the previous "retro" homepage was still in use until the issues were resolved; the new homepage was reintroduced on April 20. On December 8, 2011, Twitter overhauled its website once more to feature the "Fly" design, which the service says is easier for new users to follow and promotes advertising. In addition to the Home tab, the Connect and Discover tabs were introduced along with a redesigned profile and timeline of Tweets. The site's layout has been compared to that of Facebook. On February 21, 2012, it was announced that Twitter and Yandex agreed to a partnership. Yandex, a Russian search engine, finds value within the partnership due to Twitter's real time news feeds. Twitter's director of business development explained that it is important to have Twitter content where Twitter users go. On March 21, 2012, Twitter celebrated its sixth birthday while also announcing that it has 140 million users and sees 340 million tweets per day. The number of users is up 40% from their September 2011 number, which was said to have been at 100 million at the time.
In April 2012, Twitter announced that it was opening an office in Detroit, with the aim of working with automotive brands and advertising agencies. Twitter also expanded its office in Dublin. On June 5, 2012, a modified logo was unveiled through the company blog, removing the text to showcase the slightly redesigned bird as the sole symbol of Twitter. On October 5, 2012, Twitter acquired a video clip company called Vine that launched in January 2013. Twitter released Vine as a standalone app that allows users to create and share six-second looping video clips on January 24, 2013. Vine videos shared on Twitter are visible directly in users' Twitter feeds. Due to an influx of inappropriate content, it is now rated 17+ in Apple's app store. On December 18, 2012, Twitter announced it had surpassed 200 million monthly active users. Twitter hit 100 million monthly active users in September 2011.
On April 18, 2013, Twitter launched a music app called Twitter Music for the iPhone. On August 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Trendrr, followed by the acquisition of MoPub on September 9, 2013. As of September 2013, the company's data showed that 200 million users send over 400 million tweets daily, with nearly 60% of tweets sent from mobile devices. On June 4, 2014, Twitter announced that it will acquire Namo Media, a technology firm specializing in "native advertising" for mobile devices. On June 19, 2014, Twitter announced that it has reached an undisclosed deal to buy SnappyTV, a service that helps edit and share video from television broadcasts. The company was helping broadcasters and rights holders to share video content both organically across social and via Twitter's Amplify program. In July 2014, Twitter announced that it intends to buy a young company called CardSpring for an undisclosed sum. CardSpring enables retailers to offer online shoppers coupons that they can automatically sync to their credit cards in order to receive discounts when they shop in physical stores. On July 31, 2014, Twitter announced that it has acquired a small password-security startup called Mitro. On October 29, 2014, Twitter announced a new partnership with IBM. The partnership is intended to help businesses use Twitter data to understand their customers, businesses and other trends.
2015 and slow growth
On February 11, 2015, Twitter announced that it had acquired Niche, an ad network for social media stars, founded by Rob Fishman and Darren Lachtman. The acquisition price was reportedly $50 million. On March 13, 2015, Twitter announced its acquisition of Periscope, an app which allows live streaming of video. In April 2015, the Twitter.com desktop homepage changed. However, a glitch came about after the page was launched, so the previous "retro" homepage was still in use until the issues were resolved; the new homepage was reintroduced on April 20., Twitter announced that it has acquired TellApart, a commerce ads tech firm, with $532 million stock. Later in the year it became apparent that growth had slowed, according to Fortune, Business Insider, Marketing Land and other news websites including Quartz (in 2016).
Initial public offering (IPO)
On September 12, 2013, Twitter announced that it had filed papers with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ahead of a planned stock market listing. It revealed its prospectus in an 800-page filing. Twitter planned to raise US$1 billion as the basis for its stock market debut. The IPO filing states that "200,000,000+ monthly active users" access Twitter and "500,000,000+ tweets per day" are posted. In an October 15, 2013 amendment to their SEC S-1 filing, Twitter declared that they would list on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), quashing speculation that their stock would trade on the NASDAQ exchange. This decision was widely viewed to be a reaction to the botched initial public offering of Facebook. On November 6, 2013, 70 million shares were priced at US$26 and issued by lead underwriter Goldman Sachs.
On November 7, 2013, the first day of trading on the NYSE, Twitter shares opened at $26.00 and closed at US$44.90, giving the company a valuation of around US$31 billion. This was $18.90 above the initial offering price and Twitter ended with a market capitalization of $24.46 billion. The paperwork from show of November 7s that among the founders, Williams received a sum of US$2.56 billion and Dorsey received US$1.05 billion, while Costolo's payment was US$345 million. As of December 13, 2013, Twitter had "a market capitalization of $32.76 billion". On February 5, 2014, Twitter published its first results as a public company, showing a net loss of $511 million in the fourth quarter of 2013. On January 5, 2016, CEO Jack Dorsey commented on a report that Twitter planned to expand its character limit to 10,000 (private messages already had the longer limit as of July), requiring users to click to see anything beyond 140 characters. He said while Twitter would "never lose that feeling" of speed, users could do more with the text.
As chief executive officer, Dorsey saw the startup through two rounds of capital funding by the venture capitalists who backed the company. On October 16, 2008, Williams took over the role of CEO, and Dorsey became chairman of the board. On October 4, 2010, Williams announced that he was stepping down as CEO. Dick Costolo, formerly Twitter's chief operating officer, became CEO. On October 4, 2010, Williams made an announcement saying that he will stay with the company and "be completely focused on product strategy".
According to The New York Times, "Mr. Dorsey and Mr. Costolo forged a close relationship" when Williams was away. According to PC Magazine, Williams was "no longer involved in the day-to-day goings on at the company". He was focused on developing a new startup, and became a member of Twitter's board of directors, and promised to "help in any way I can". In 2011, Stone was still with Twitter but was working with AOL as an "advisor on volunteer efforts and philanthropy". In January 2014 Stone announced the release of Jelly, a 'social Q&A network for mobile'. Dorsey rejoined Twitter in March 2011, as executive chairman focusing on product development. At that time he split his schedule with Square (where he is CEO), whose offices are within walking distance of Twitter's in San Francisco.
In September 2011, board members and investors Fred Wilson and Bijan Sabet resigned from Twitter's Board of Directors. In October 2012, Twitter announced it had hired former Google executive Matt Derella to become their new director of business agency development. Twitter named former Goldman Sachs executive Anthony Noto as the company's CFO in July 2014, with an "annual salary of $250,000 and one-time restricted stock options of 1.5 million shares ... valued at $61.5 million". On June 10, 2015, Twitter announced its CEO Dick Costolo would resign on July 1, 2015. Noto was said to be considered a potential replacement for outgoing CEO Costolo. On October 14, 2015, former Google chief business officer Omid Kordestani became executive chairman, replacing Dorsey who remains CEO. On January 26, 2016, Leslie Berland, former executive vice president of global advertising, marketing, and digital partnerships at American Express, was named chief marketing officer.
Twitter has become internationally identifiable by its signature bird logo. The original logo was in use from its launch in March 2006 until September 2010. A slightly modified version succeeded the first style when the website underwent its first redesign.
On February 27, 2012, a tweet from an employee that works on the company's platform and API discussed the evolution of the "Larry the Bird" logo with Twitter's creative director and it was revealed that it was named after Larry Bird of the NBA's Boston Celtics fame. This detail had been confirmed when the Boston Celtics' director of interactive media asked Twitter co-founder Biz Stone about it in August 2011.
On June 5, 2012, Twitter unveiled its third logo redesign, replacing Larry the Bird with an updated icon simply named as the "Twitter Bird". As of this logo revision, the word "Twitter" and the lowercase letter "t" are no longer used, with the bird becoming the sole symbol for the company's branding. According to Douglas Bowman, designer of Twitter, the new logo resembles a mountain bluebird. Twitter explains on their website not to modify the logo (e.g. rotate the bird, change the logo's color, etc.).
Tweets are publicly visible by default, but senders can restrict message delivery to just their followers. Users can tweet via the Twitter website, compatible external applications (such as for smartphones), or by Short Message Service (SMS) available in certain countries. Users may subscribe to other users' tweets—this is known as "following" and subscribers are known as "followers" or "tweeps", a portmanteau of Twitter and peeps. Individual tweets can be forwarded by other users to their own feed, a process known as a "retweet". Users can also "like" (formerly "favorite") individual tweets. Twitter allows users to update their profile via their mobile phone either by text messaging or by apps released for certain smartphones and tablets. Twitter has been compared to a web-based Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client. In a 2009 Time essay, technology author Steven Johnson described the basic mechanics of Twitter as "remarkably simple":
As a social network, Twitter revolves around the principle of followers. When you choose to follow another Twitter user, that user's tweets appear in reverse chronological order on your main Twitter page. If you follow 20 people, you'll see a mix of tweets scrolling down the page: breakfast-cereal updates, interesting new links, music recommendations, even musings on the future of education.
According to research published in April 2014, around 44 percent of user accounts have never tweeted.
San Antonio-based market-research firm Pear Analytics analyzed 2,000 tweets (originating from the United States and in English) over a two-week period in August 2009 from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm (CST) and separated them into six categories:
- Pointless babble – 40%
- Conversational – 38%
- Pass-along value – 9%
- Self-promotion – 6%
- Spam – 4%
- News – 4%
Despite Jack Dorsey's own open contention that a message on Twitter is "a short burst of inconsequential information", social networking researcher danah boyd responded to the Pear Analytics survey by arguing that what the Pear researchers labelled "pointless babble" is better characterized as "social grooming" and/or "peripheral awareness" (which she justifies as persons "want[ing] to know what the people around them are thinking and doing and feeling, even when co-presence isn't viable"). Similarly, a survey of Twitter users found that a more specific social role of passing along messages that include a hyperlink is an expectation of reciprocal linking by followers.
Users can group posts together by topic or type by use of hashtags – words or phrases prefixed with a
"#" sign. Similarly, the
"@" sign followed by a username is used for mentioning or replying to other users. To repost a message from another Twitter user and share it with one's own followers, a user can click the retweet button within the Tweet.
Through SMS, users can communicate with Twitter through five gateway numbers: short codes for the United States, Canada, India, New Zealand, and an Isle of Man-based number for international use. There is also a short code in the United Kingdom which is only accessible to those on the Vodafone, O2 and Orange networks. In India, since Twitter only supports tweets from Bharti Airtel, an alternative platform called smsTweet was set up by a user to work on all networks. A similar platform called GladlyCast exists for mobile phone users in Singapore and Malaysia.
The tweets were set to a largely constrictive 140-character limit for compatibility with SMS messaging, introducing the shorthand notation and slang commonly used in SMS messages. The 140-character limit also increased the usage of URL shortening services such as bit.ly, goo.gl, and tr.im, and content-hosting services, such as Twitpic, memozu.com and NotePub to accommodate multimedia content and text longer than 140 characters. Since June 2011, Twitter has used its own t.co domain for automatic shortening of all URLs posted on its website, making other link shorteners superfluous for staying within the 140 character limit.
On May 24, 2016, Twitter announced that media such as photos and videos, and the person's handle, would not count against the 140 character limit. A user photo post used to count for about 24 characters. Attachments and links will also no longer be part of the character limit.
On July 17, Twitter will launch a new way for advertisers to target users that have tweeted with a certain emoji or engaged with tweets with a certain emoji.
A word, phrase or topic that is mentioned at a greater rate than others is said to be a "trending topic". Trending topics become popular either through a concerted effort by users, or because of an event that prompts people to talk about a specific topic. These topics help Twitter and their users to understand what is happening in the world and what people's opinions are about it.
Trending topics are sometimes the result of concerted efforts and manipulations by preteen and teenaged fans of certain celebrities or cultural phenomena, particularly musicians like Lady Gaga (known as Little Monsters), Justin Bieber (Beliebers), and One Direction (Directioners), and fans of the Twilight (Twihards), Rihanna fans (Rih Navy), and Harry Potter (Potterheads) novels. Twitter has altered the trend algorithm in the past to prevent manipulation of this type, with limited success.
The Twitter web interface displays a list of trending topics on a sidebar on the home page, along with sponsored content (see image).
Twitter often censors trending hashtags that are claimed to be abusive or offensive. Twitter censored the #Thatsafrican and #thingsdarkiessay hashtags after users complained that they found the hashtags offensive. There are allegations that Twitter removed #NaMOinHyd from the trending list and added an Indian National Congress-sponsored hashtag.
Adding and following content
There are numerous tools for adding content, monitoring content and conversations including Telly (video sharing, old name is Twitvid), TweetDeck, Salesforce.com, HootSuite, and Twitterfeed. As of 2009[update], fewer than half of tweets posted were posted using the web user interface with most users using third-party applications (based on an analysis of 500 million tweets by Sysomos).
A verified Twitter account formally validates the identity of the person or company that owns the account—the aim of the "verified" status is to prove that a real-world person or company is not being impersonated, through the placement of a small blue checkmark by the top-right corner of a user's page, or next to the username in the platform's Search function. Twitter is responsible for assigning the blue checkmark, and it is frequently applied to the accounts of notable people in politics, music, movies, business, fashion, government, sports, media, and journalism.
The owners of verified accounts can also access additional features that are not available to standard Twitter-account holders. These features include:
- The ability to choose how their notifications and mentions are presented. Since verified accounts typically receive a lot of followers, account holders can filter these notices based on whether or not they are from verified accounts.
- The ability to view information about their followers and their involvement on Twitter.
- The ability to receive direct messages from all followers or only selected followers.
- In a breach of Twitter's rules, some users placed the verified checkmark in their background—Twitter confirmed that such conduct is invalid. Following a design update of the Twitter platform, it is more difficult for users to impersonate a verified account because of the layout.
A limitation of the verified status is that if the account is hacked, the person or company can still be impersonated for a limited time, until control is regained over the account by the legitimate owners – as happened, for example, with Tesla Motors' Twitter account briefly in 2015.
Twitter has mobile apps for iPhone, iPad, Android, Windows 10, Windows Phone, BlackBerry, Firefox OS, and Nokia S40. There is also version of the website for mobile devices, SMS and MMS service. For many years, Twitter has limited the use of third party applications accessing the service by implementing a 100,000 user limit per application.
Since August 31, 2010, third-party Twitter applications have been required to use OAuth, an authentication method that does not require users to enter their password into the authenticating application. The OAuth authentication method used to be optional, but it is now compulsory and the user-name/password authentication method has been made redundant and is no longer functional. Twitter stated that the move to OAuth will mean "increased security and a better experience".
Related headlines feature
This feature adds websites to the bottom of a tweet's permalink page. If a website embedded a tweet onto one of their stories, the tweet will show the websites that mentioned the tweet. This feature was added onto Twitter so if the viewer doesn't understand what the tweet means, they can click on the sites to read more about what the person is talking about.
On October 21, 2015, Twitter began to roll out the ability to attach poll questions to tweets. Polls are open for 24 hours, and voters are not personally identified.
|This section is outdated. (October 2014)|
Twitter is ranked as one of the ten-most-visited websites worldwide by Alexa's web traffic analysis. Daily user estimates vary as the company does not publish statistics on active accounts. A February 2009 Compete.com blog entry ranked Twitter as the third most used social network based on their count of 6 million unique monthly visitors and 55 million monthly visits. In March 2009, a Nielsen.com blog ranked Twitter as the fastest-growing website in the Member Communities category for February 2009. Twitter had annual growth of 1,382 percent, increasing from 475,000 unique visitors in February 2008 to 7 million in February 2009. In 2009, Twitter had a monthly user retention rate of forty percent.
In 2009, Twitter was mainly used by older adults who might not have used other social sites before Twitter, said Jeremiah Owyang, an industry analyst studying social media. "Adults are just catching up to what teens have been doing for years," he said. According to comScore only eleven percent of Twitter's users are aged twelve to seventeen. comScore attributed this to Twitter's "early adopter period" when the social network first gained popularity in business settings and news outlets attracting primarily older users. However, comScore also stated in 2009 that Twitter had begun to "filter more into the mainstream", and "along with it came a culture of celebrity as Shaq, Britney Spears and Ashton Kutcher joined the ranks of the Twitterati".
According to a study by Sysomos in June 2009, women make up a slightly larger Twitter demographic than men—fifty-three percent over forty-seven percent. It also stated that five percent of users accounted for seventy-five percent of all activity, and that New York City has more Twitter users than other cities.
According to Quancast, twenty-seven million people in the US used Twitter as of September 3, 2009. Sixty-three percent of Twitter users are under thirty-five years old; sixty percent of Twitter users are Caucasian, but a higher than average (compared to other Internet properties) are African American/black (sixteen percent) and Hispanic (eleven percent); fifty-eight percent of Twitter users have a total household income of at least US$60,000. The prevalence of African American Twitter usage and in many popular hashtags has been the subject of research studies.
On September 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it has 100 million active users logging in at least once a month and 50 million active users every day.
In an article published on January 6, 2012, Twitter was confirmed to be the biggest social media network in Japan, with Facebook following closely in second. comScore confirmed this, stating that Japan is the only country in the world where Twitter leads Facebook.
On March 31, 2014, Twitter announced there were 255 million monthly active users (MAUs) and 198 million mobile MAUs. In 2013, there were over 100 million users actively using Twitter daily and about 500 million Tweets every day, with about 29% of users checking Twitter multiple times a day.
In 2012, the country with the most active users on Twitter was the United States.
Twitter raised over US$57 million from venture capitalist growth funding, although exact numbers are not publicly disclosed. Twitter's first A round of funding was for an undisclosed amount that is rumored to have been between US$1 million and US$5 million. Its second B round of funding in 2008 was for US$22 million and its third C round of funding in 2009 was for US$35 million from Institutional Venture Partners and Benchmark Capital along with an undisclosed amount from other investors including Union Square Ventures, Spark Capital, and Insight Venture Partners. Twitter is backed by Union Square Ventures, Digital Garage, Spark Capital, and Bezos Expeditions.
In May 2008, The Industry Standard remarked that Twitter's long-term viability is limited by a lack of revenue. Twitter board member Todd Chaffee forecast that the company could profit from e-commerce, noting that users may want to buy items directly from Twitter since it already provides product recommendations and promotions.
By March 2009 communications consultant Bill Douglass predicted in an interview that Twitter would be worth $1 billion within six months, which came to pass when the company closed a financing round valuing it at $1 billion in September of that year.
The company raised US$200 million in new venture capital in December 2010, at a valuation of approximately US$3.7 billion. In March 2011, 35,000 Twitter shares sold for US$34.50 each on Sharespost, an implied valuation of US$7.8 billion. In August 2010 Twitter announced a "significant" investment led by Digital Sky Technologies that, at US$800 million, was reported to be the largest venture round in history.
In July 2009, some of Twitter's revenue and user growth documents were published on TechCrunch after being illegally obtained by Hacker Croll. The documents projected 2009 revenues of US$400,000 in the third quarter and US$4 million in the fourth quarter along with 25 million users by the end of the year. The projections for the end of 2013 were US$1.54 billion in revenue, US$111 million in net earnings, and 1 billion users. No information about how Twitter planned to achieve those numbers was published. In response, Twitter co-founder Biz Stone published a blog post suggesting the possibility of legal action against the hacker.
On April 13, 2010, Twitter announced plans to offer paid advertising for companies that would be able to purchase "promoted tweets" to appear in selective search results on the Twitter website, similar to Google Adwords' advertising model. As of April 13, Twitter announced it had already signed up a number of companies wishing to advertise, including Sony Pictures, Red Bull, Best Buy, and Starbucks.
The company generated US$45 million in annual revenue in 2010, after beginning sales midway through that year; the company operated at a loss through most of 2010.
Users' photos can generate royalty-free revenue for Twitter, and an agreement with World Entertainment News Network (WENN) was announced in May 2011. In June 2011, Twitter announced that it would offer small businesses a self-service advertising system. Twitter generated US$139.5 million in advertising sales during 2011.
The self-service advertising platform was launched in March 2012 to American Express card members and merchants in the U.S. on an invite-only basis. Twitter later reported that numerous small businesses and people who used the self-service tool provided feedback that indicated they were impressed by the feature. To continue their advertising campaign, Twitter announced on March 20, 2012 that promoted tweets would be introduced to mobile devices. In April 2013, Twitter announced that its Twitter Ads self-service platform, consisting of promoted tweets and promoted accounts, was available to all U.S. users without an invite.
Twitter's financial revenue statistics for the first quarter of 2014 was reported as US$250 million.
Twitter places great reliance on open-source software. The Twitter Web interface uses the Ruby on Rails framework, deployed on a performance enhanced Ruby Enterprise Edition implementation of Ruby.
In the early days of Twitter, tweets were stored in MySQL databases that were temporally sharded (large databases were split based on time of posting). After the huge volume of tweets coming in caused problems reading from and writing to these databases, the company decided that the system needed re-engineering.
From Spring 2007 to 2008 the messages were handled by a Ruby persistent queue server called Starling, but since 2009 implementation has been gradually replaced with software written in Scala. The switch from Ruby to Scala and the JVM has given Twitter a performance boost from 200–300 requests per second per host to around 10,000–20,000 requests per second per host. This boost was greater than the 10x improvement that Twitter's engineers envisioned when starting the switch. The continued development of Twitter has also involved a switch from monolithic development of a single app to an architecture where different services are built independently and joined through remote procedure calls.
Individual tweets are registered under unique IDs using software called snowflake, and geolocation data is added using 'Rockdove'. The URL shortner t.co then checks for a spam link and shortens the URL. Next, the tweets are stored in a MySQL database using Gizzard, and the user receives acknowledgement that the tweets were sent. Tweets are then sent to search engines via the Firehose API. The process itself is managed by FlockDB and takes an average of 350 ms.
On August 16, 2013, Twitter's Vice President of Platform Engineering Raffi Krikorian shared in a blog post that the company's infrastructure handled almost 143,000 tweets per second during that week, setting a new record. Krikorian explained that Twitter achieved this record by blending its homegrown and open source technologies.
On April 30, 2009, Twitter adjusted its web interface, adding a search bar and a sidebar of "trending topics"—the most common phrases appearing in messages. Biz Stone explains that all messages are instantly indexed and that "with this newly launched feature, Twitter has become something unexpectedly important – a discovery engine for finding out what is happening right now."
In March 2012, Twitter became available in Arabic, Farsi, Hebrew and Urdu, the first right-to-left language versions of the site. About 13,000 volunteers helped with translating the menu options. In August 2012, beta support for Basque, Czech and Greek was added, making the site available in 33 different languages.
When Twitter experiences an outage, users once saw the "fail whale" error message image created by Yiying Lu, illustrating eight orange birds using a net to hoist a whale from the ocean captioned "Too many tweets! Please wait a moment and try again." In a November 2013 WIRED interview Chris Fry, VP of Engineering at that time, noted that the company had taken the "fail whale" out of production as the platform was now more stable.
Twitter had approximately ninety-eight percent uptime in 2007 (or about six full days of downtime). The downtime was particularly noticeable during events popular with the technology industry such as the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expo keynote address.
- May 2008: Twitter's new engineering team made architectural changes to deal with the scale of growth. Stability issues resulted in down time or temporary feature removal.
- August 2008: Twitter withdrew free SMS services from users in the United Kingdom and for approximately five months instant messaging support via a XMPP bot was listed as being "temporarily unavailable".
- October 10, 2008: Twitter's status blog announced that instant messaging (IM) service was no longer a temporary outage and needed to be revamped. It was announced that Twitter aims to return its IM service pending necessary major work.
- June 12, 2009: In what was called a potential "Twitpocalypse", the unique numerical identifier associated with each tweet exceeded the limit of 32-bit signed integers (2,147,483,647 total messages). While Twitter itself was not affected, some third-party clients could no longer access recent tweets. Patches were quickly released, though some iPhone applications had to wait for approval from the App Store.
- June 25, 2009: Twitter ran slowly for some time after over 50,000 tweets on Michael Jackson's death were recorded in an hour.
- August 6, 2009: Twitter and Facebook suffered from a denial-of-service attack, causing the Twitter website to go offline for several hours. It was later confirmed that the attacks were directed at one pro-Georgian user around the anniversary of the 2008 South Ossetia War, rather than the sites themselves.
- September 22, 2009: The identifier exceeded the limit for 32-bit unsigned integers (4,294,967,296 total messages) again breaking some third-party clients.
- December 17, 2009: A hacking attack replaced the website's welcoming screen with an image of a green flag and the caption "This site has been hacked by Iranian Cyber Army" for nearly an hour. No connection between the hackers and Iran has been established.
- June–July 2010: Twitter had a very high service rejection rate (10–20%) during the 2010 FIFA World Cup period, also, the response latency increased substantially.
- November 2010: A number of accounts encountered a fault that resulted in them seeing the "fail whale" when they tried to log in to their accounts. The accounts themselves were not locked out as account holders could still see their "mentions" page, and post from there, but the timeline and a number of other features were unavailable during this outage.
- June 21, 2012: The site was down for around one hour and forty minutes, with the cause being described by Twitter as a "cascading bug".
- July 26, 2012: Twitter users in the UK could not post messages for part of the day in advance of the 2012 Summer Olympics.
- March 2, 2014 - During the 86th Academy Awards, Ellen DeGeneres posted a selfie of herself and other celebrities as seen on the telecast, which shut down Twitter for more than 20 minutes.
Privacy and security
A security vulnerability was reported on April 7, 2007, by Nitesh Dhanjani and Rujith. Since Twitter used the phone number of the sender of an SMS message as authentication, malicious users could update someone else's status page by using SMS spoofing. The vulnerability could be used if the spoofer knew the phone number registered to their victim's account. Within a few weeks of this discovery, Twitter introduced an optional personal identification number (PIN) that its users could use to authenticate their SMS-originating messages.
On January 5, 2009, 33 high-profile Twitter accounts were compromised after a Twitter administrator's password was guessed by a dictionary attack. Falsified tweets—including sexually explicit and drug-related messages—were sent from these accounts.
Twitter launched the beta version of their "Verified Accounts" service on June 11, 2009, allowing famous or notable people to announce their Twitter account name. The home pages of these accounts display a badge indicating their status.
In May 2010, a bug was discovered by İnci Sözlük that could allow a Twitter user to force others to follow them without the other users' consent or knowledge. For example, comedian Conan O'Brien's account, which had been set to follow only one person, was changed to receive nearly 200 malicious subscriptions.
In response to Twitter's security breaches, the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) brought charges against the service; the charges were settled on June 24, 2010. This was the first time the FTC had taken action against a social network for security lapses. The settlement requires Twitter to take a number of steps to secure users' private information, including maintenance of a "comprehensive information security program" to be independently audited biannually.
On December 14, 2010, the United States Department of Justice issued a subpoena directing Twitter to provide information for accounts registered to or associated with WikiLeaks. Twitter decided to notify its users and said in a statement, "... it's our policy to notify users about law enforcement and governmental requests for their information, unless we are prevented by law from doing so."
In May 2011, a claimant known as "CTB" (subsequently identified as Ryan Giggs) in the case of CTB v Twitter Inc., Persons Unknown took legal action at the High Court of Justice in London against Twitter, requesting that Twitter release details of account holders. This followed gossip posted on Twitter about Giggs' private life, causing conflict relating to privacy injunctions. Tony Wang, the head of Twitter in Europe, said that people who do "bad things" on the site would need to defend themselves under the laws of their own jurisdiction in the event of controversy, and that the site would hand over information about users to the authorities when it was legally required to do so. He also suggested that Twitter would accede to a UK court order to divulge names of users responsible for "illegal activity" on the site.
On May 29, 2011, it was reported that South Tyneside council in England had successfully taken legal action against Twitter in a court in California, forcing Twitter to reveal the details of five user accounts. The council was trying to discover the identity of a blogger called "Mr Monkey" who allegedly posted libellous statements about three local councillors.
On January 23, 2012, it was reported that Twitter would be acquiring Dasient, a startup that offers malware protection for businesses. Twitter announced plans to use Dasient to help remove hateful advertisers on the website.
On January 26, 2012, Twitter began offering a feature which would allow tweets to be removed selectively by country. Twitter cited France and Germany as examples, where pro-Nazi content is illegal. Deleted tweets used to be removed in all countries. The first use of the policy was to block the account of German neo-Nazi group Besseres Hannover on October 18, 2012. The policy was used again the following day to remove anti-Semitic French tweets with the hashtag #unbonjuif ("a good Jew").
On February 20, 2012, a third-party public-key encryption app (written in Python and partially funded by a grant from the Shuttleworth Foundation) for private messaging in Twitter, CrypTweet, was released.
On May 17, 2012, Twitter announced it would implement the "Do Not Track" privacy option, a cookie-blocking feature found in Mozilla's Firefox browser. The "Do Not Track" feature works only on sites that have agreed to the service.
In August 2012 it was reported that there is a market in fake Twitter followers that are used to increase politicians' and celebrities' apparent popularity. The black market for the fake followers, known as "bots", has been linked to "nearly every politically linked account from the White House to Congress to the 2016 campaign trail". In June 2014, POLITICO analyzed Twitter handles with the highest rates of fake followers: US President Barack Obama with 46.8 percent, Democratic National Committee Chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz with 35.1 percent, and Senator John McCain with 23.6 percent. The culprits working to generate the fake followers, or "bots", include campaign workers or friends of political candidates. One site offers 1,000 fake followers for $20. The people creating the "bots" are often from Eastern Europe and Asia. In 2013, two Italian researchers calculated 10 percent of total accounts on Twitter are "bots" however, other estimates have placed the figure even higher.
In April 2013 Twitter warned news organizations around the world to secure their Twitter accounts after a number of high-profile hacks of official accounts, including those of the Associated Press and The Guardian. In May 2013, Twitter announced a two-factor login verification as an added measure against hacking.
In August 2013, Twitter announced plans to introduce a "report abuse" button for all versions of the site. A petition for making the process of complaining about harassment easier had collected over 100,000 signatures. The move followed the posting of abusive tweets, including rape and death threats to historian Mary Beard, British feminist campaigner Caroline Criado-Perez and the British MP Stella Creasy. Three men were arrested under the Protection from Harassment Act 1997 in connection with the incidents.
In August 2014, Twitter said that in certain cases it would delete pictures of people who had died after requests from family members and "authorized individuals". The move followed controversy over the sharing of images on Twitter showing the killing of American journalist James Foley.
In December 2014 Twitter announced new reporting and blocking policies; a blocking mechanism devised by Randi Harper, a target of GamerGate, also received notable coverage.
Twitter has a history of both using and releasing open source software while overcoming technical challenges of their service. A page in their developer documentation thanks dozens of open source projects which they have used, from revision control software like Git to programming languages such as Ruby and Scala. Software released as open source by the company includes the Gizzard Scala framework for creating distributed datastores, the distributed graph database FlockDB, the Finagle library for building asynchronous RPC servers and clients, the TwUI user interface framework for iOS, and the Bower client-side package manager. The popular Twitter Bootstrap web design library was also started at Twitter and is the most popular repository on GitHub.
Innovators patent agreement
On April 17, 2012, Twitter announced it would implement an "Innovators Patent Agreement" which would obligate Twitter to only use its patents for defensive purposes. The agreement went into effect in 2012.
t.co is a URL shortening service created by Twitter. It is only available for links posted to Twitter and not available for general use. All links posted to Twitter use a t.co wrapper. Twitter hopes that the service will be able to protect users from malicious sites, and will use it to track clicks on links within tweets.
Having used the services of third parties TinyURL and bit.ly, Twitter began experimenting with its own URL shortening service for private messages in March 2010 using the twt.tl domain, before it purchased the t.co domain. The service was tested on the main site using the accounts @TwitterAPI, @rsarver and @raffi. On September 2, 2010, an email from Twitter to users said they would be expanding the roll-out of the service to users. On June 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it was rolling out the feature.
Integrated photo-sharing service
On June 1, 2011, Twitter announced its own integrated photo-sharing service that enables users to upload a photo and attach it to a Tweet right from Twitter.com. Users now also have the ability to add pictures to Twitter's search by adding hashtags to the tweet. Twitter also plans to provide photo galleries designed to gather and syndicate all photos that a user has uploaded on Twitter and third-party services such as TwitPic.
A Twitterbot is a computer program that automatically posts on Twitter, they are programmed to tweet, retweet, and follow other accounts. According to a recent report, there were 20 million, fewer than 5%, of accounts on Twitter that were fraudulent in 2013. These fake accounts are often used to build large follower populations quickly for advertisers, while others respond to tweets that include a certain word or phrase. Twitter's wide-open application programming interface and cloud servers make it possible for twitterbots' existence within the social networking site.
Issues and controversies
Twitter has been used for a variety of purposes in many industries and scenarios. For example, it has been used to organize protests, sometimes referred to as "Twitter Revolutions", which include the 2011 Egyptian revolution, 2010–2011 Tunisian protests, 2009–2010 Iranian election protests, and 2009 Moldova civil unrest.
The systematic literature review by Buettner & Buettner analyzed the role of Twitter during a wide range of revolutions and other social movements (2007 WikiLeaks, 2009 Moldova, 2009 Austria student protest, 2009 Israel-Gaza, 2009 Iran green revolution, 2009 Toronto G20, 2010 Venezuela, 2010 Germany Stuttgart21, 2011 Egypt, 2011 England, 2011 US Occupy movement, 2011 Spain Indignados, 2011 Greece Aganaktismenoi movements, 2011 Italy, 2011 Wisconsin labor protests, 2012 Israel Hamas, 2013 Brazil Vinegar, 2013 Turkey).
The governments of Iran and Egypt blocked the service in retaliation. The Hill on February 28, 2011 described Twitter and other social media as a "strategic weapon ... which have the apparent ability to re-align the social order in real time, with little or no advanced [sic] warning". During the Arab Spring in early 2011, the number of hashtags mentioning the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt increased. A study by the Dubai School of Government found that only 0.26% of the Egyptian population, 0.1% of the Tunisian population and 0.04% of the Syrian population are active on Twitter.
The service is also used as a form of civil disobedience: in 2010, users expressed outrage over the Twitter Joke Trial by making obvious jokes about terrorism; and in the British privacy injunction debate in the same country a year later, where several celebrities who had taken out anonymised injunctions, most notably the Manchester United player Ryan Giggs, were identified by thousands of users in protest to traditional journalism being censored.
Another, more real time and practical use for Twitter exists as an effective de facto emergency communication system for breaking news. It was neither intended nor designed for high performance communication, but the idea that it could be used for emergency communication certainly was not lost on the originators, who knew that the service could have wide-reaching effects early on when the San Francisco company used it to communicate during earthquakes. The Boston Police tweeted news of the arrest of Boston Marathon bombing suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. Another practical use that is being studied is Twitter's ability to track epidemics and how they spread. In addition, Twitter has acted as a sensor for automatic response to natural disasters such as bush fires.
Twitter has been used by Somalia's al-Shabaab rebels, who had their accounts suspended after they used the site to claim responsibility for an attack on the Westgate Shopping Mall in Nairobi in September 2013.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has also used the service: in January 2016, Twitter was sued by the widow of a U.S. man killed in the Amman shooting attack, claiming that allowing ISIL to use the platform constituted the provision of material support of a terrorist organization, which is illegal under U.S. federal law. Twitter disputed the claim, stating that "violent threats and the promotion of terrorism deserve no place on Twitter and, like other social networks, our rules make that clear." The Electronic Frontier Foundation believed that Twitter could be protected under Section 230 safe harbors, which dictate that the operators of an interactive computer service are not liable for the content published by others.
On May 31, 2016, Twitter suspended multiple parody accounts that satirized Russian politics, sparking protests and raising questions about where the company stands on freedom of speech. The accounts were restored the next day following a public outcry. Twitter declining to comment on why the accounts were suspended. The same day, Twitter, along with Facebook, Google, and Microsoft, jointly agreed to a European Union code of conduct obligating them to review "[the] majority of valid notifications for removal of illegal hate speech" posted on their services within 24 hours.
Censorship and Twitter
Twitter is banned completely in Iran, China and North Korea, and has has been intermittently blocked in numerous countries including Egypt, Iraq, Turkey and Venezuela on different bases.
Twitter Trust & Safety Council
On February 9, 2016, Twitter announced the creation of the "Twitter Trust & Safety Council." The stated aim of this council is "...to ensure that people feel safe expressing themselves on Twitter." The 50 "Inaugural Members" of the council that were named in the announcement consisted almost entirely of persons or progressive organizations who have advocated the censorship of hate speech on the internet.
After claims in the media that the hashtags #wikileaks and #occupywallstreet were being censored because they did not show up on the site's list of trending topics, Twitter responded by stating that it does not censor hashtags unless they contain obscenities.
In 2016, at the same time as Twitter executives paid to attend a political fundraiser by Hillary Clinton, the Twitter platform banned a pro-Bernie Sanders account that had started a hashtag critical of Clinton's fundraising from wealthy donors.
Instant, short, and frequent communication
In May 2008, The Wall Street Journal wrote that social networking services such as Twitter "elicit mixed feelings in the technology-savvy people who have been their early adopters. Fans say they are a good way to keep in touch with busy friends. But some users are starting to feel 'too' connected, as they grapple with check-in messages at odd hours, higher cellphone bills and the need to tell acquaintances to stop announcing what they're having for dinner." The following year, John C. Dvorak described Twitter as "the new CB radio".
Twitter has been adopted as a communication and learning tool in educational and research settings mostly in colleges and universities. It has been used as a backchannel to promote student interactions, especially in large-lecture courses. Research has found that using Twitter in college courses helps students communicate with each other and faculty, promotes informal learning, allows shy students a forum for increased participation, increases student engagement, and improves overall course grades.
Tech writer Bruce Sterling commented in 2007 that using Twitter for "literate communication" is "about as likely as firing up a CB radio and hearing some guy recite the Iliad". In September 2008, the journalist Clive Thompson mused in a The New York Times Magazine editorial that the service had expanded narcissism into "a new, supermetabolic extreme—the ultimate expression of a generation of celebrity-addled youths who believe their every utterance is fascinating and ought to be shared with the world". One of the earliest documented forms of celebrity related twitter-like disclosures dates from 1980, when real estate mogul William Desmond Ryan made round the clock press releases about his relationship with comedian Phyllis Diller, even revealing what she was making him for dinner on a nightly basis. Conversely, Vancouver Sun columnist Steve Dotto opined that part of Twitter's appeal is the challenge of trying to publish such messages in tight constraints, and Jonathan Zittrain, professor of Internet law at Harvard Law School, said that "the qualities that make Twitter seem inane and half-baked are what makes it so powerful".
In 2009, Nielsen Online reported that Twitter has a user retention rate of forty percent. Many people stop using the service after a month, therefore the site may potentially reach only about ten percent of all Internet users. In 2009, Twitter won the "Breakout of the Year" Webby Award. During a February 2009 discussion on National Public Radio's Weekend Edition, the journalist Daniel Schorr stated that Twitter accounts of events lacked rigorous fact-checking and other editorial improvements. In response, Andy Carvin gave Schorr two examples of breaking news stories that played out on Twitter and said users wanted first-hand accounts and sometimes debunked stories. On November 29, 2009 Twitter was named the Word of the Year by the Global Language Monitor, declaring it "a new form of social interaction". Time magazine acknowledged its growing level of influence in its 2010 Time 100; to determine the influence of people, it used a formula based on famous social networking sites, Twitter and Facebook. The list ranges from Barack Obama and Oprah Winfrey to Lady Gaga and Ashton Kutcher. The U.S. government, seeing social media's role in the 2010 Arab Spring revolts, covertly developed a Cuban alternative to Twitter called ZunZuneo as part of a long-term strategy to "stir unrest". The service was active from 2010 to 2012.
During the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, in which he appeared at the London Olympic Stadium in person, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the founder of the World Wide Web, tweeted "This is for everyone", which was instantly spelled out in LCD lights attached to the chairs of the 80,000 people in the audience.
World leaders and their diplomats have taken note of Twitter's rapid expansion and have been increasingly utilizing Twitter diplomacy, the use of Twitter to engage with foreign publics and their own citizens. US Ambassador to Russia, Michael A. McFaul has been attributed as a pioneer of international Twitter diplomacy. He used Twitter after becoming ambassador in 2011, posting in English and Russian. On October 24, 2014, Queen Elizabeth II sent her first tweet to mark the opening of the London Science Museum's Information Age exhibition. A 2013 study by website Twiplomacy found that 153 of the 193 countries represented at the United Nations had established government Twitter accounts. The same study also found that those accounts amounted to 505 Twitter handles used by world leaders and their foreign ministers, with their tweets able to reach a combined audience of over 106 million followers.
According to an analysis of accounts, the heads of state of 125 countries and 139 other leading politicians have Twitter accounts that have between them sent more than 350,000 tweets and have almost 52 million followers. However, only 30 of these do their own tweeting, more than 80 do not subscribe to other politicians and many do not follow any accounts.
More than twenty Roman Catholic cardinals manage active Twitter accounts, nine of whom were cardinal electors for the 2013 Papal conclave. Pope Benedict XVI was the first Pope to have a Twitter account; it was set up in 2012. As of April 2016, his successor, Pope Francis I, has 9.06 million followers of his Twitter account (@Pontifex). In 2014 astrophysicist Neil DeGrasse Tyson caused a controversy among conservative Christians with a Christmas tweet celebrating the birth of Isaac Newton.
Twitterbots are capable of influencing public opinion about culture, products and political agendas by automatically generating mass amounts of tweets through imitating human communication. The New York Times states, "They have sleep-wake cycles so their fakery is more convincing, making them less prone to repetitive patterns that flag them as mere programs." The tweets generated vary anywhere from a simple automated response to content creation and information sharing, all of which depends on the intention of the person purchasing or creating the bot. The social implications these Twitterbots potentially have on human perception are sizeable according to a study published by the ScienceDirect Journal. Looking at the Computers as Social Actors (CASA) paradigm, the journal notes, "people exhibit remarkable social reactions to computers and other media, treating them as if they were real people or real places." The study concluded that Twitterbots were viewed as credible and competent in communication and interaction making them suitable for transmitting information in the social media sphere. While the technological advances have enabled the ability of successful Human-Computer Interaction, the implications are questioned due to the appearance of both benign and malicious bots in the Twitter realm. Benign Twitterbots may generate creative content and relevant product updates whereas malicious bots can make unpopular people seem popular, push irrelevant products on users and spread misinformation, spam and/or slander.
In addition to content generating bots, users can purchase followers, favorites, retweets and comments on various websites that cater to expanding a users image through accumulation of followers. With more followers, users' profiles gain more attention, thus increasing their popularity. Generating Web traffic is a valuable commodity for both individuals and businesses because it indicates notability. With Twitterbots, users are able to create the illusion of "buzz" on their site by obtaining followers from services such as Swenzy and underground suppliers who operate bot farms or click farms. The companies that facilitate this service create fake Twitter accounts that follow a number of people, some of these Twitter accounts may even post fake tweets to make it seem like they are real. This practice of obtaining mass amounts of twitterbots as followers is not permitted on Twitter. The emphasis on followers and likes as a measure of social capital has urged people to extend their circle to weak and latent ties to promote the idea of popularity for celebrities, politicians, musicians, public figures, and companies alike. According to The New York Times, bots amass significant influence and have been noted to sway elections, influence the stock market, public appeal, and attack governments.
According to documents leaked by Edward Snowden and published in July 2014, the United Kingdom's GCHQ has a tool named BIRDSONG for "automated posting of Twitter updates", and a tool named BIRDSTRIKE for "Twitter monitoring and profile collection".
Twitter is also increasingly used for making TV more interactive and social. This effect is sometimes referred to as the second screen, "virtual watercooler" or social television—the practice has been called "chatterboxing". Twitter has been successfully used to encourage people to watch live TV events, such as the Oscars, the Super Bowl and the MTV Video Music Awards; however this strategy has proven less effective with regularly scheduled TV shows. Such direct cross-promotions have been banned from French television due to regulations against secret advertising.
In December 2012, Twitter and Nielsen entered a multi-year agreement to produce social TV ratings, which are expected to be commercially available for the fall 2013 season as the Nielsen Twitter TV Rating. Advertising Age said Twitter had become the new TV Guide. Then in February 2013, Twitter acquired Bluefin Labs for an estimated US$50 million to $100 million, which was the company's largest acquisition as of 2013. Founded in 2008 at the MIT Media Lab, Bluefin is a data miner whose analysis tells which brands (e.g., TV shows and companies) are chatted about the most in social media. MIT Technology Review said that Bluefin gives Twitter part of the US$72 billion television advertising market.
In April 2013, the Associated Press' Twitter account was briefly hacked into, sending out a message that US president Barack Obama had been injured in an attack on the White House. Stocks lost $134 billion in value almost instantly, before recovering in value when it was discovered the report was false.
In May 2013, it launched Twitter Amplify—an advertising product for media and consumer brands. With Amplify, Twitter runs video highlights from major live broadcasts, with advertisers' names and messages playing before the clip. Then in October 2013, Comcast announced a partnership with NBCUniversal and Twitter, to allow users to tune into live streaming from their set-top box, smartphone or tablet by tapping a 'See It' button embedded in selected tweets.
in an attempt to compete with Twitter's leadership in TV, Facebook introduced a number of features in 2013 to drive conversation around TV including hashtags, verified profiles and embeddable posts. It also opened up new data visualization APIs for TV news and other media outlets, enabling them to search for a word and see a firehose of public posts that mention it as well as show how many people mentioned a word in both public and private posts during a set time frame, with a demographic breakdown of the age, gender, and location of these people. In January 2014, Facebook announced a partnership with UK-based social TV analytics company SecondSync which saw the social network make its social TV available outside the company for the first time. Facebook struck the partnership to help marketers understand how people are using the social network to talk about topics such as TV. However, Twitter responded by acquiring SecondSync and Parisian social TV firm Mesagraph three months later. These acquisitions, as well as a partnership with research company Kantar (which it had been working with to develop a suite of analytics tools for the British TV industry since August 2013) strengthened Twitter's dominance of the "second screen" – TV viewers using tablets and smartphones to share their TV experience on social media. With the additional analytic tools, Twitter was able to improve the firm's offering to advertisers, allowing them to, for instance, only promote a tweet onto the timelines of users who were watching a certain programme.
By February 2014, all four major U.S. TV networks had signed up to the Amplify program, bringing a variety of premium TV content onto the social platform in the form of in-tweet real-time video clips. In March 2014, ITV became the first major broadcaster in the UK to sign up to Twitter Amplify and Twitter introduced one-tap video playback across its mobile apps to further enhance the consumer experience.
In June 2014, Twitter acquired its Twitter Amplify partner in the U.S., SnappyTV, as part of its ongoing efforts to be the leader in social television. The company was helping broadcasters and rights holders to share video content both organically across social and via Twitter's Amplify program. In Europe Twitter's Amplify partner is London-based Grabyo, which has also struck numerous deals with broadcasters and rights holders to share video content across Facebook and Twitter.
Most popular accounts
As of May 31, 2016, the Twitter accounts with the most followers were:
- Katy Perry: 89,071,169
- Justin Bieber: 82,290,686
- Taylor Swift: 77,874,177
- Barack Obama: 75,241,599
- YouTube: 62,319,173
- Rihanna: 61,114,092
- Ellen DeGeneres: 60,060,695
- Lady Gaga: 59,757,672
- Justin Timberlake: 55,406,690
- Twitter: 55,064,486
The oldest Twitter accounts are 14 accounts which became active on March 21, 2006, all belonging to Twitter employees at the time and including @jack (Jack Dorsey), @biz (Biz Stone), and @noah (Noah Glass).
With over 41 million tweets, the most discussed topic ever on Twitter was the "#ALDubEBTamangPanahon" of AlDub on October 24, 2015 during the sold out special concert presentation of the Kalyeserye segment of the noontime show Eat Bulaga entitled Eat Bulaga: Sa Tamang Panahon held at the Philippine Arena, the world's largest indoor arena located in Bulacan, Philippines. The said event was attended by over 55,000 fans.
A selfie orchestrated by 86th Academy Awards host Ellen DeGeneres during the March 2, 2014 broadcast is the most retweeted image ever. DeGeneres said she wanted to homage Meryl Streep's record 17 Oscar nominations by setting a new record with her, and invited other Oscar celebrities to join them. The resulting photo of twelve celebrities broke the previous retweet record within forty minutes, and was retweeted over 1.8 million times in the first hour. By the end of the ceremony it had been retweeted over 2 million times; less than 24 hours later, it had been retweeted over 2.8 million times. As of 18 March 2014[update], it has been retweeted over 3.4 million times. The group selfie effort was parodied by Lego, and Matt Groening with The Simpsons. It beat the previous record, 778,801, which was held by Barack Obama, following his victory in the 2012 presidential election.
According to Guinness World Records, the fastest pace to a million followers was set by actor Robert Downey Jr. in 23 hours and 22 minutes in April 2014. This record was later broken by Caitlyn Jenner, who joined the site on June 1, 2015 and amassed a million followers in just 4 hours and 3 minutes.
The most tweeted moment in the history of Twitter was during the airing of Castle in the Sky on August 2, 2013, when fans tweeted the word "balse" at the exact time that it played in the movie. There was a global peak of 143,199 tweets in one second, beating the previous record of 33,388.
- Ambient awareness
- Comparison of microblogging services
- List of mergers and acquisitions by Twitter
- List of virtual communities with more than 100 million users
- Twitter usage—How various people and organizations use Twitter
- Dorsey, Jack (March 21, 2006). "just setting up my twttr". Twitter. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
- "About Twitter, Inc.".
- Jeremy Quittner (October 3, 2013). "Twitter Balance Sheet". Google. Retrieved November 14, 2013.
- "Twitter Company Info". Twitter. February 6, 2015. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- Humble, Charles (July 4, 2011). "Twitter Shifting More Code to JVM, Citing Performance and Encapsulation As Primary Drivers". InfoQ. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- "Twitter Search Is Now 3x Faster". April 6, 2011.
- "Twitter.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
- "About Twitter, Inc.". Twitter.
- Arrington, Michael (July 15, 2006). "Odeo Releases Twttr". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- "Twitter via SMS FAQ" Retrieved April 13, 2012.
- "About Twitter" Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Twitter (March 21, 2012). "Twitter turns six". Twitter.
- "Twitter Passed 500M Users In June 2012, 140M Of Them In US; Jakarta 'Biggest Tweeting' City". TechCrunch. July 30, 2012.
- Twitter Search Team (May 31, 2011). "The Engineering Behind Twitter's New Search Experience". Twitter Engineering Blog. Twitter. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- "Twitter turns six" Twitter.com, March 21, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "Top Sites". Alexa Internet. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- D'Monte, Leslie (April 29, 2009). "Swine Flu's Tweet Tweet Causes Online Flutter". Business Standard. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
Also known as the 'SMS of the internet', Twitter is a free social networking service
- (registration required) Miller, Claire Cain (October 30, 2010). "Why Twitter's C.E.O. Demoted Himself". The New York Times. Retrieved October 31, 2010.
- "Co-founder of Twitter receives key to St. Louis with 140 character proclamation". ksdk.com. KSDK. September 19, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
After high school in St. Louis and some time at the University of Missouri-Rolla, Jack headed east to New York University.
- Williams, Evan (April 13, 2011). "It's true...". Twitter. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
- "Buy a vowel? How Twttr became Twitter". CNNMoney. November 23, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
- Sagolla, Dom (January 30, 2009). "How Twitter Was Born". 140 Characters: A Style Guide for the Short Form. 140 Characters. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
- Sano, David (February 18, 2009). "Twitter Creator Jack Dorsey Illuminates the Site's Founding Document". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
- "How Twitter Was Founded". Business Insider (April 13, 2011). Retrieved on September 4, 2013.
- Malik, Om (October 25, 2006). "Odeo RIP, Hello Obvious Corp". GigaOM. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- Madrigal, Alexis (April 14, 2011). "Twitter's Fifth Beatle Tells His Side of the Story". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
- Lennon, Andrew. "A Conversation with Twitter Co-Founder Jack Dorsey". The Daily Anchor. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- Issie Lapowsky (4 October 2013). "Ev Williams on Twitter's Early Years". Inc. Inc. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- Douglas, Nick (March 12, 2007). "Twitter Blows Up at SXSW Conference". Gawker. Retrieved February 21, 2011.
- Levy, Steven (April 30, 2007). "Twitter: Is Brevity The Next Big Thing?". Newsweek. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
- Terdiman, Daniel (March 10, 2007). "To Twitter or Dodgeball at SXSW?". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
- Stone, Biz (February 4, 2011). "We Won!". Twitter Blog. Twitter. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- Press release (January 22, 2010). "Media Advisory M10-012 – NASA Extends the World Wide Web Out into Space". NASA. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- Arrington, Michael (August 23, 2010). "Twitter Hires Adam Bain Away from News Corp. as President of Revenue". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- Beaumont, Claudine (February 23, 2010). "Twitter Users Send 50 Million Tweets Per Day – Almost 600 Tweets Are Sent Every Second Through the Microblogging Site, According to Its Own Metrics". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- Staff writer (March 4, 2010). "Twitter Registers 1,500 Per Cent Growth in Users". New Statesman. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- Garrett, Sean (June 18, 2010). "Big Goals, Big Game, Big Records". Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter). Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- "Twitter Blog: #numbers". Blog.twitter.com. March 14, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- Kazeniac, Andy (February 9, 2009). "Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot, Twitter Climbs". Compete.com. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
- Miller, Claire Cain (June 18, 2010). "Sports Fans Break Records on Twitter". Bits (blog of The New York Times). Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- Van Grove, Jennifer (June 25, 2010). "Twitter Sets New Record: 3,283 Tweets Per Second". Mashable. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- "Women's World Cup Final breaks Twitter record". ESPN. July 18, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
- Shiels, Maggie (June 26, 2009). "Web Slows After Jackson's Death". BBC News. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- "New Tweets per second record, and how!". twitter.com.
- Kanalley, Craig (January 2, 2013). "Tweets-Per-Second Record Set By Japan, Korea On New Year's Day 2013". The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- Miller, Claire Cain (April 11, 2010). "Twitter Acquires Atebits, Maker of Tweetie". Bits (blog of The New York Times). Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- Praetorius, Dean (May 4, 2011). "Twitter Users Report Twitter.com Has A New Homepage (SCREENSHOTS)". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Dunn, John E (April 6, 2011). "Twitter Delays Homepage Revamp After Service Glitch". PCWorld. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Crum, Chris (April 20, 2011). "New Twitter Homepage Launched". Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- "Twitter: Yours to discover". Fly.twitter.com. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- Twitter / YouTube (April 7, 2010). "Twitter 2.0: Everything You Need To Know About The New Changes". Fox News. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- "Twitter partners with Yandex for real-time search". Reuters. February 21, 2012.
- "Twitter Says It Has 140 Million Users". Mashable. March 21, 2012.
- "Twitter heads to Motown to be closer to automakers". Reuters. April 4, 2012. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- "Twitter to create 12 jobs as it scales up Irish operations". Irish Independent. April 4, 2012. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- Rodriguez, Salvador (June 6, 2012). "Twitter adopts new bird logo". latimes.com. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Twitter Acquires Video Service; Are Third Party Video Developers In Danger Now Too?". MediaBistro. October 9, 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- "Twitter Buys Vine, a Video Clip Company That Never Launched". All Things D. October 9, 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Dredge, Stuart (January 23, 2013). "Vine iPhone app brings short, sharp video to Twitter". The Guardian (London). Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- "Twitter's Vine Changes App Store Rating to +17, Adds Social Sharing Features". ABC News.
- "Twitter Now Has More Than 200 Million Monthly Active Users". Mashable. December 18, 2012.
- Ulanoff, Lance. "Twitter Launches Twitter #music App and Service". Mashable. Mashable. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- "Twitter acquires real-time social data company Trendrr to help it better tap into TV and media". The Next web. August 28, 2013. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- Isidore, Chris (September 10, 2013). "Twitter makes another acquisition". CNN Money. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- Heidi Moore (September 12, 2013). "Twitter files for IPO in first stage of stock market launch". The Guardian. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Shih, Gerry (June 6, 2014). "Twitter acquires mobile advertising startup Namo Media". Reuters. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- Calia, Michael (June 19, 2014). "Twitter Boosts Video Push With SnappyTV Buy". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
- Tom Cheredar, Venture Beat. "Twitter buys SnappyTV to beef up its arsenal of TV-focused ad tools". June 19, 2014. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
- Sawers, Paul (June 19, 2014). "Twitter's evolution as a broadcasting platform continues as it acquires live-TV clipping service SnappyTV". The Next Web. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- "With CardSpring Deal, Twitter's E-Commerce Strategy Emerges in Time for Holidays". July 20, 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
- Austin, Scott (July 31, 2014). "Twitter Acquires Security-Password Startup Mitro". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- Lopes, Marina. "IBM, Twitter to partner on business data analytics". Reuters. October 29, 2014. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- Ha, Anthony. "Twitter Acquires Niche, A Startup That Helps Advertisers Work With Social Media Celebrities". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
- "Twitter buys Niche, an ad network for Vine stars, for about $50 million in cash and stock". Business Insider. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
- Constine, Josh (March 13, 2015). "Twitter Confirms Periscope Acquisition, And Here’s How The Livestreaming App Works". Retrieved April 10, 2015.
- "Twitter.com gets a refresh".
- Constine, Josh (April 29, 2015). "Twitter Improves Ads By Acquiring TellApart, Selling Them Through Google’s DoubleClick". Retrieved April 29, 2015.
- Rosoff, Matt (April 29, 2015). "Twitter's price for TellApart: $532 million". Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- http://fortune.com/2015/10/29/twitter-growth/. Retrieved ~~~~~. Check date values in:
|access-date=(help); Missing or empty
- http://www.businessinsider.com/twitter-user-growth-continues-to-stall-2015-10. Retrieved ~~~~~. Check date values in:
|access-date=(help); Missing or empty
- http://marketingland.com/revenue-is-up-but-twitter-still-struggling-in-slow-growth-mode-148852 ~~~~~
- http://qz.com/614607/twitter-now-has-a-problem-thats-way-worse-than-slow-user-growth/ ~~~~~
- "Twitter plans stock market listing". BBC News. September 12, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- "Business Highlights". The Washington Post. October 4, 2013. Retrieved October 12, 2013.[dead link]
- "Twitter wants to raise $1bn in its stock market debut". BBC News. October 4, 2013. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "S-1 1 d564001ds1.htm FORM S-1". United States Securities Exchange Commission. United States Securities Exchange Commission. October 3, 2013. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- "Amendment 1 to Form S-1 Registration Statement, Twitter,Inc.". EDGAR. October 15, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- "Twitter Announces It Will List On The NYSE Under TWTR, Twitter,Inc.". TechCrunch. October 15, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- "Interesting Numbers From Twitter's IPO". ABC News. November 8, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- "Twitter prices IPO at $26 per share". Yahoo! Finance. November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- "Twitter shares jump 73% in market debut". BBC News. November 7, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- Strugatz, Rachel (December 19, 2013). "Number 7: All Tech, All the Time". WWD. Archived from the original on April 15, 2015. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
- Kurt Wagner (November 8, 2013). "Twitter IPO: Guess Who Just Got Rich". Mashable. Mashable. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- Rushe, Dominic (February 5, 2014). "Twitter posts revenues of $242m but share price plummets as growth stalls". The Guardian. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
- Koh, Yoree (January 5, 2016). "Twitter to Expand Tweet’s 140-Character Limit to 10,000". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- Miller, Claire Cain; Goel, Vindu (October 16, 2008). "Twitter Sidelines One Founder and Promotes Another". Bits (blog of The New York Times). Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- (registration required) Miller, Claire Cain (October 20, 2008). "Popularity or Income? Two Sites Fight It Out". The New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- McCarthy, Caroline (October 16, 2008). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey Steps Down". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- Staff writer (October 4, 2010). "#newtwitterceo". Blog of Twitter. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- "Twitter CEO Evan Williams Stepping Down". Mashable. October 4, 2010.
- Miller, Claire Cain (March 28, 2011). "Two Twitter Founders Trade Places". The New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
- Albanesius, Chloe (March 29, 2011). "Twitter's Evan Williams Confirms Departure". PC Magazine (Ziff Davis). Retrieved March 29, 2011.
- Newton, Casey (January 7, 2014). "Twitter Founder Biz Stone Launches Jelly, A Social Q&A Network for Mobile". The Verge. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "Twitter Shakes Things Up Again: Fred Wilson, Bijan Sabet Leaving Board – Peter Kafka – Social". AllThingsD. September 16, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- Olanoff, Drew. "Twitter Poaches Former Google Exec Matt Derella As New Director Of Agency Business Development". October 23, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Reuters. "Twitter replaces CFO with former Goldman manager". July 1, 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- GOEL, VINDU (June 11, 2015). "Twitter’s Embattled Chief Executive, Costolo, Will Resign". New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- Koh, Yoree, "Twitter CFO's Ascent Creates New Power Center" (please edit this parenthetical note to "subscribers only" if link does not work for non-subscribers), Wall Street Journal, June 15, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Koh, Yoree (October 14, 2015). "Twitter Taps Former Google Officer as Executive Chairman". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
- Kosoff, Maya. "Twitter just named its new CMO". Business Insider. Business Insider. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Freeman, Eric (August 2011). "Twitter's Logo Is Named After Larry Bird". Yahoo!Sports. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
- Griggs, Brandon (June 7, 2012). "Twitter's bird logo gets a makeover". CNN. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
- Bowman, Douglas (June 6, 2012). "Birds:What is the new Twitter bird logo's species?". Quora. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
- Halliday, Josh (June 7, 2012). "No flipping the bird! Twitter unveils strict usage guidelines for new logo". TheGuardian. Retrieved October 11, 2014.
- "Using Twitter with Your Phone". Twitter Support. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
We currently support 2-way (sending and receiving) Twitter SMS via short codes and one-way (sending only) via long codes.
- Stone, Biz (October 30, 2009). "There's a List for That". blog.twitter.com. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
- Brown, Amanda (March 2, 2011). "The tricky business of business tweeting". The Irish Times. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
- "Twitter officially kills off favorites and replaces them with likes". The Verge (Vox Media). Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "Mobile Apps".
- Stutzman, Fred (April 11, 2007). "The 12-Minute Definitive Guide to Twitter". AOL Developer Network. Archived from the original on July 4, 2008. Retrieved November 12, 2008.
- Johnson, Steven (June 5, 2009). "How Twitter Will Change the Way We Live". Time. Retrieved February 13, 2011.
- Murphy, David (April 13, 2014). "44 Percent of Twitter Accounts Have Never Tweeted". PC Magazine.
- Ryan Kelly, ed. (August 12, 2009). "Twitter Study – August 2009". Twitter Study Reveals Interesting Results About Usage (PDF). San Antonio, Texas: Pear Analytics. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 15, 2011.
- boyd, danah (August 16, 2009). "Twitter: "pointless babble" or peripheral awareness + social grooming?". Retrieved September 19, 2009.
- Avery Holton, Kang Baek, Mark Coddington, Yaschur, Carolyn (2014). "Seeking and Sharing: Motivations for Linking on Twitter". Communication Research Reports 31 (1): 33–40. doi:10.1080/08824096.2013.843165.
- Strachan, Donald (February 19, 2009). "Twitter: How To Set Up Your Account". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved February 13, 2011.
- Staff writer (n.d.). "Twitter Lists!". Support forum at help.twitter.com. Retrieved February 13, 2011.
- Andrews, Robert (March 27, 2009). "Twitter Brings Back UK SMS; Vodafone First, Others To Follow". The Guardian (London). Retrieved June 7, 2009.
- "Blog.Twitter.com". Blog.Twitter.com. November 16, 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
- Kutty, Darpana (October 15, 2009). "Twitter, Bharti Airtel Tie-Up To Activate Twitter SMS Service in India". topnews.in. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "SMStweet :: Send Twitter Message sing SMS in India". India. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- Balanarayan, N.T. (December 17, 2009). "Tweeting Via SMS Is In, the Way It Should Be". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "Update Twitter or Plurk by sending an SMS to a Singapore or Malaysia local number". Singapore. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- Staff writer (n.d.). "About Twitter's Link Service <http://t.co>". Twitter Help Center (module of Twitter). Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Penner, Carolyn (June 7, 2011). "Link Sharing Made Simple". Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter). Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- "Coming soon to Twitter: More room to tweet". Associated Press. May 24, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- Lever, Rob (May 24, 2016). "Twitter eases 140 character limit". Yahoo Tech. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Digital Marketing Training Blog (June 16, 2016). "Twitter introduces Emoji Targeting, let’s advertisers target people through emojis they use". Retrieved June 17, 2016.
- "Bloggers back media against youth league". Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- "Top Twitter Trends of 2009". Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- Vicky Woollaston. "Justin Bieber fans beat Twitter 'block' | Web User magazine". Webuser.co.uk. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- Weiner, David (June 21, 2009). "#Thatsafrican – When Twitter Went Racist?". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- "Thingsdarkiessay causes a Twitter storm". South Africa: Independent Online. November 5, 2009. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- Gupta, Kanchan (August 13, 2013). "Role of Twitter in trending wars". NITI Central. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- Locke, Laura (September 29, 2011). "Twitter video-sharing service nabs $6.5 million". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- "Inside Twitter Clients – An Analysis of 500 Million Tweets". Sysomos. November 2009. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- MacArthur, Amanda. "How to get Verified on Twitter: A Hack". Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- Cashmore, Pete. "Twitter Launches Verified Accounts". Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- Kanalley, Craig (March 12, 2013). "Why Twitter Verifies Users: The History Behind the Blue Checkmark". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- Wagner, Kurt. "Twitter Unveils Exclusive Feature For Verified Users". Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "FAQs about verified accounts". Twitter. Twitter, Inc. 2014. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Smith, Dave (April 25, 2016). "Tesla's Twitter account was hacked". Business Insider. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
- Volledige naam. "Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "Getting Started with Twitter via SMS". Support.twitter.com. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- Wauters, Robin (August 17, 2012). "Twitter API Changes Set Maximum User Cap for 3rd Parties". Thenextweb.com. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- "Twitter Applications and OAuth". Twitter. August 30, 2010. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- Mlot, Stephanie. "Twitter Adds 'Related Headlines' to Embedded Tweets". PC Magazine. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Your Twitter Feed Is About to Be Flooded With Polls". Wired. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
- "Twitter.com". Alexa Internet. August 26, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- McGiboney, Michelle (March 18, 2009). "Twitter's Tweet Smell of Success". Nielsen. Retrieved April 5, 2009.
- Hoffman, Stefanie (April 29, 2009). "Twitter Quitters Outnumber Those Who Stay, Report Finds". United Business Media. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
- "comScore Report: Twitter Usage Exploding in Brazil, Indonesia and Venezuela". Bill Hartzer. August 11, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- "The Netherlands lead Global Markets in Twitter.com reach". Comscoredatamine.com. February 10, 2011. Archived from the original on April 15, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Miller, Claire Cain (August 25, 2009). "Who's Driving Twitter's Popularity? Not Teens". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- Lipsman, Andrew (September 2, 2009). "What Ashton vs. CNN Foretold About the Changing Demographics of Twitter". comScore. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- Cheng, Alex; Evans, Mark (June 2009). "Inside Twitter – An In-Depth Look Inside the Twitter World". Sysomos. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Bluff, Brian (May 2010). "Who Uses Twitter?". site-seeker.com. Archived from the original on May 31, 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2010.
- Chen, Adrian (May 17, 2011). "Why So Many Black People Are On Twitter". Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- Saint, Nick (April 30, 2010). "Why Is Twitter More Popular With Black People Than White People?". Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- Taylor, Chris (September 8, 2011). "Twitter has 100 million active users".
- Yarrow, Jay, "There's Only One Place In The World Where Twitter Is Bigger Than Facebook", Business Insider, January 6, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "Twitter Reports First Quarter 2014 Results". Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Twitter, Inc Common Stock". Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- Duggan, Maeve. "Social Media Update 2013". Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Semiocast — Twitter reaches half a billion accounts — More than 140 millions in the U.S.". Semiocast. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- Staff writer (February 16, 2009). "Twitter Raises over $35M in Series C". MarketingVOX. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Womack, Brian (November 12, 2008). "Twitter Shuns Venture-Capital Money as Startup Values Plunge". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Miller, Claire Cain (October 16, 2008). "Twitter Sidelines One Founder and Promotes Another". Bits (blog of The New York Times). Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- [dead link] Snyder, Bill (March 31, 2008). "Twitter: Fanatical Users Help Build the Brand, But Not Revenue". The Industry Standard (via Infoworld). Archived from the original on March 16, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Miller, Claire Cain (June 19, 2009). "Twitter Plans To Offer Shopping Advice and Easy Purchasing". Bits (blog of The New York Times). Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "Will Twitter Be Google's Next YouTube?". ECommerce Times. March 9, 2009.
- Stone, Brad (September 24, 2009). "Twitter's Latest Valuation: $1 Billion". New York Times Bits blog.
- Ante, Spencer E.; Efrati, Amir; Das, Anupretta (February 10, 2011). "Twitter as Tech Bubble Barometer". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Carlson, Nicholas (March 4, 2011). "Twitter Valued At $7.8 Billion In Private Market Auction". Business Insider via San Francisco Chronicle (Hearst). Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Delevett, Peter (August 1, 2011). "Twitter lands $800 million venture capital deal, breaking record". San Jose Mercury News.
- Scott, Mark (December 19, 2011). "Saudi Prince Invests $300 Million in Twitter". The New York Times. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
- Staff writer (July 15, 2009). "Hacker Exposes Private Twitter Documents". Bits (blog of The New York Times). Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Stone, Biz (July 15, 2007). "Twitter, Even More Open Than We Wanted". Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter). Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Arthur, Charles (April 13, 2010). "Twitter Unveils 'Promoted Tweets' Ad Plan – Twitter To Let Advertisers Pay for Tweets To Appear in Search Results". The Guardian (London). Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Kimberley, Sara (April 13, 2010). "Twitter Debuts 'Promoted Tweets' Ad Platform". MediaWeek (U.K. edition). Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- Laurent, Olivier (May 11, 2011). "Photo agency's CEO addresses TwitPic controversy". British Journal of Photography (London). Archived from the original on August 3, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
The deal will give WENN exclusive rights to sell images posted on the TwitPic service.
- Todd Wasserman (June 9, 2011). "Twitter Will Automate Ad-Buying by the End of the Year". Mashable.com. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- Zach Miners (April 30, 2013). "Twitter opens self-service ads to everyone". CMO. IDG Communications. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- "Twitter Rolls Out Promoted Tweets for Mobile"; Wasserman, Todd. March 20, 2012. mashable.com.
- Vaughan-Nichols, Steven (August 30, 2012). "How Twitter tweets your tweets with open source". ZDNet. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
- Gomes, Lee (June 22, 2009). "The Pied Piper of Pay". Forbes. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- ryan king (September 25, 2009). "Twitter on Ruby". Retrieved October 31, 2009.
We recently migrated Twitter from a custom Ruby 1.8.6 build to a Ruby Enterprise Edition release candidate, courtesy of Phusion. Our primary motivation was the integration of Brent's MBARI patches, which increase memory stability.
- Krikorian, Raffi (August 13, 2013). "New Tweets per second record, and how!". Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Payne (January 16, 2008). "Announcing Starling". Twitter. Archived from the original on January 20, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2009.
- Venners, Bill (April 3, 2009). "Twitter on Scala". Artima Developer. Retrieved June 17, 2009.
- Om Malik (August 17, 2013). "How Twitter scaled its infrastructure to handle record tweet-per-second days". GIGAOM. GIGAOM. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- "API Documentation". Google Groups. Retrieved May 8, 2008.[dead link]
- "Twitter API Wiki / FrontPage". Apiwiki.twitter.com. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- Stone, Biz (April 30, 2009). "Twitter Search for Everyone!". Twitter. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- "Twitter Arabic, Farsi, Hebrew and Urdu version launch". BBC News. March 7, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
- "Twitter Now Available in Basque, Czech, Greek". Pcmag.com. August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- (registration required) Walker, Rob (February 15, 2009). "Consumed – Fail Whale". The New York Times Magazine. p. 17. Retrieved February 15, 2009.
- Whyte, Murray (June 1, 2008). "Tweet, Tweet – There's Been an Earthquake". Toronto Star. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Staff writer (December 19, 2007). "Twitter Growing Pains Cause Lots of Downtime in 2007". Royal Pingdom (blog of Pingdom). Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Dorsey, Jack (January 15, 2008). "MacWorld". Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter). Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Kuramoto, Jake (January 15, 2008). "MacWorld Brings Twitter to its Knees". Oracle AppsLab. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- "Changes for Some SMS Users—Good and Bad News". Twitter (blog). August 13, 2008. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
- Dorsey, Jack (May 23, 2008). "Twitter IM Down May 23–24". Get Satisfaction. Retrieved July 29, 2008.
- Williams, Evan (October 10, 2008). "IM: Not Coming Soon". Twitter status blog. Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved December 31, 2008.
- Siegler, MG (June 12, 2009). "Twitter Moves Up The Twitpocalypse. All Hell May Break Loose Today.". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
- O'Brien, John (June 24, 2009). "MacChat: 2009 – The Age of the Twitpocalypse". Tech Blog (blog of news.com.au). Archived from the original on July 11, 2009. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "Google & Twitter crash at news of Jackson's death". News.icm.ac.uk. June 26, 2009. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- Claburn, Thomas (August 6, 2009). "Twitter Downed by Denial of Service Attack". InformationWeek. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- Staff writer (August 7, 2009). "Web Attack 'Aimed at One Blogger'". BBC News. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Parr, Ben (September 21, 2009). "Twitpocalypse II: Twitter Apps Might Break Tomorrow". Mashable. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Staff writer (December 18, 2009). "Twitter Hackers Appear To Be Shiite Group". CNN. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Tianyin Xu; Yang Chen; Lei Jiao; Ben Y. Zhao; Pan Hui & Xiaoming Fu (December 2011). Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands (PDF). Proc. of the ACM/IFIP/USENIX 12th International Middleware Conference (Middleware'11).
- "Twitter taken offline by 'cascading bug', site confirms". BBC News. June 22, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- "Twitter down but not out as Olympics test looms". The Guardian. July 26, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- "Selfie at Oscars breaks retweet record". BBC News. March 3, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- Rushe, Dominic (January 8, 2011). "Icelandic MP Fights US Demand for Her Twitter Account Details". The Guardian (London). Retrieved January 10, 2011.
- "How to Hide Your Followers & Who You Are Following on Twitter | The Classroom | Synonym". Classroom.synonym.com. November 9, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Hansell, Saul (July 16, 2009). "Advertisers Are Watching Your Every Tweet". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- Gilbertson, Scott (June 11, 2007). "Twitter Vulnerability: Spoof Caller ID To Take Over Any Account". Webmonkey. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- Leyden, John (March 6, 2009). "Twitter SMS Spoofing Still Undead". The Register. Retrieved June 17, 2009.
- Stone, Biz (January 5, 2009). "Monday Morning Madness". Retrieved June 17, 2009.
- Bellantoni, Christina; Stephen Dinan (January 5, 2009). "Obama's Twitter Site Hacked?". The Washington Times. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- McCarthy, Caroline (June 12, 2009). "Twitter Power Players Get Shiny 'Verified' Badges". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Ostrow, Adam (May 10, 2010). "Twitter Bug Lets You Control Who Follows You". Mashable. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
- Gonsalves, Antone (June 25, 2010). "Twitter, Feds Settle Security Charges – Twitter Must Establish and Maintain a 'Comprehensive Information Security Program' and Allow Third-Party Review of the Program Biannually for the 10 Years". InformationWeek. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "Twitter Subpoena" (PDF). Salon.com. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
- Fildes, Jonathan (September 21, 2010). "Twitter Scrambles To Block Worms". BBC News. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Schroeder, Stan (September 22, 2010). "17-Year-Old Australian Boy, Japanese Developer Take Blame for Twitter Meltdown". Mashable. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "Twitter Status – XSS Attack Identified and Patched". status.twitter.com. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
- Staff writer (September 22, 2010). "Kiwi Link To Twitter 'Mouseover' Chaos". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "Twitter Inc., Unknown Posters Sued by Athlete Known as 'CTB' at U.K. Court" bloomberg.com May 20, 2011
- "Twitter users served with privacy injunction". Politics.co.uk. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Parker, Nick (May 20, 2011). "Imogen footie rat in bid to gag Twitter site". London: The Sun. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- "Twitter's European boss Tony Wang gives legal warning". BBC News (UK). May 25, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- Smith, Lewis (May 26, 2011). "Twitter chief hints he may have to divulge users' names". The Independent (UK). Retrieved December 13, 2011.
- "Mr Monkey" accessed May 30, 2011
- "South Tyneside Council takes Twitter to court in US". BBC News. May 29, 2011.
- "Twitter Buys Dasient Security Startup To Combat Spam". The Huffington Post. January 24, 2012.
- "Twitter to selectively 'censor' tweets by country". BBC News. January 27, 2012.
- "Twitter Blog – Tweets still must flow" January 26, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- Nicholas Kulish (October 18, 2012). "Twitter Blocks Germans' Access to Neo-Nazi Group". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "Twitter removes French anti-Semitic tweets". BBC News. October 19, 2012. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "CrypTweet encrypts Twitter direct messages – CSO | The Resource for Data Security Executives". CSO. February 21, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "CrypTweet: Experimental Twitter Encryption". Plexusproject.org. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Bilton, Nick (May 17, 2012). "Twitter Implements Do Not Track Privacy Option". The New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- Rory Carroll in Los Angeles (August 9, 2012). "Fake Twitter accounts may be driving up Mitt Romney's follower number | World news | guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
- SAMUELSOHN, DARREN (June 11, 2014). "Pols have a #fakefollower problem". POLTICO. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- Lotan, Gilad (May 31, 2014). "Op-Ed Mining Twitter gold, at five bucks a pop". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- WOOLLACOTT, Emma. "Why fake Twitter accounts are a political problem". New Statesman. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- "Twitter Warns news Organisations Amid Syrian Hacking Attacks". Descrier. April 30, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
- Rodriguez, Salvador (May 23, 2013). "Twitter adds two-step verification option to help fend off hackers". latimes.com. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- "Twitter's Tony Wang issues apology to abuse victims", BBC News, August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
- "Of Pride, Prejudice and Harassment on Twitter" The New York Times, August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
- "Twitter updates its rules for users, after uproar over rape, bomb threats", CNET, August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
- "Twitter abuse: man arrested in Bristol" BBC News, August 7, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2013.
- "Twitter Is Trying to Block Images of James Foley's Death". Yahoo! Tech. August 20, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- "Twitter policy on media concerning a deceased user" Nu Wexler on Twitter, August 19, 2014.
- "Twitter announces sweeping update to reporting, blocking tools". Ars Technica.
- "Building a safer Twitter".
- "Twitter unveils new tools to fight harassment". CBS News.
- "Twitter Gives Harassed Users a Little Ammo".
- Fahad Saleem. "Twitter Inc (TWTR) Could Use Gamergate Autoblocker Model To Block Millions of Fake Accounts?". TechInsider.
- "Blocked on Twitter: Software’s limits in the fight against online hate". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). December 4, 2014.
- Wofford, Taylor (November 29, 2014). "One Woman’s New Tool to Stop Gamergate Harassment on Twitter". Newsweek. Retrieved December 6, 2014.
- Tiku, Nitasha. "Twitter CEO: 'We suck at dealing with abuse'". The Verge. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- "Ireland to become privacy regulator for 300m Twitter users". Irish Times. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Twitter / OpenSource". Twitter.com. Archived from the original on April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- "Open Source Thanks". Twitter. Archived from the original on April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- "twitter (Twitter, Inc.) Github Organization". Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- "Open Source Projects". Twitter. Archived from the original on March 8, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- "Search: Stars>1". Github. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- O'Brien, Terrence (April 17, 2012). "Twitter introduces Innovators Patent Agreement, vows to not abuse patent system". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- Garrett, Sean (June 8, 2010). "Links and Twitter: Length Shouldn't Matter". Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter). Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Metz, Cade (September 2, 2010). "Twitter Tightens Grip on Own Firehose". The Register. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Weisenthal, Joe (May 6, 2009). "Twitter Switches from TinyURL to Bit.ly". Business Insider. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "Twitter now with integrated photo-sharing service and completely new twitter search". Techshrimp. June 1, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
- Mike Flacy, Digital Trends. "Twitter photo sharing goes live for all users". August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 10, 2011.
- D'onfro, Jillian. "Twitter Admits 5% Of Its 'Users' Are Fake". Business Insider. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Dubbin, Rob. "The Rise Of Twitter Bots". The New Yorker. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Jack Dorsey (July 8, 2011). Impressions on the White House Twitter Townhall. The White House. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- Buettner, Ricardo & Buettner, Katharina (2016). A Systematic Literature Review of Twitter Research from a Socio-Political Revolution Perspective. 49th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Kauai, Hawaii: IEEE. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4239.9442.
- "Could Tunisia Be the Next Twitter Revolution?". The Atlantic. January 13, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
- Rebecca Santana (June 15, 2009). "Iran Election, Uprising Tracked On Twitter As Government Censors Media". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 29, 2011.
- (registration required) Fahim, Kareem (January 26, 2011). "Protesters in Egypt Defy Ban as Government Cracks Down". The New York Times.
- "Social media as a strategic weapon by Paul JJ Payack and Edward ML Peters". The Hill (newspaper). February 28, 2011. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "Twitter's influence on the Arab Spring". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). August 19, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
- Fox, Zoe (June 8, 2012). "How the Arab World Uses Facebook and Twitter". Mashable. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
- Siddique, Haroon (November 12, 2010). "#IAmSpartacus campaign explodes on Twitter in support of airport joker". The Guardian (London). Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- Gabbatt, Adam; Taylor, Matthew (May 22, 2011). "Scottish newspaper identifies injunction footballer". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Mills, Alexander; Chen, Lee, Rao (2009). "Web 2.0 Emergency Applications: How Useful Can Twitter Be for Emergency Response?" (PDF). Twitter for Emergency Management and Mitigation: 3. Retrieved April 18, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Boston police: Marathon bombings suspect 'in custody'". CNN.com. April 20, 2013. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- Brooke Jarvis, The Washington Post. "Twitter becomes a tool for tracking flu epidemics and other public health issues". March 4, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2013
- Power, Robert; CSIRO (2013). "Finding Fires with Twitter" (PDF). Proc. Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop.
- Earle, Paul S.; USGS (2012). "Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world". Annals of Geophysics 54 (6).
- AAP (September 22, 2013). "al-Shabab Twitter account suspended". SBS News. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- "Authorities and militants take Nairobi battle to Twitter". BBC News. September 24, 2013. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "Lawsuit Blames Twitter for ISIS Terrorist Attack". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
- "Can Twitter Be Liable for ISIS Tweets?". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
- "Twitter Suspends Russian Satirical Accounts, Raising Free Speech Questions | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Times, The Moscow; network, part of the New East (June 2, 2016). "Twitter unblocks spoof Putin account after widespread criticism". the Guardian. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- "Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Microsoft sign EU hate speech code". The Guardian. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "Religion, Twitter and freedom: A peaceful explosion", The Economist, May 27, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
- Branigan, Tania. "China blocks Twitter, Flickr, YouTube and Hotmail ahead of Tiananmen anniversary". The Guardian (London).
- Patricia Laya (February 15, 2014). "Venezuelans Blocked on Twitter as Opposition Protests Mount". Bloomberg.com.
- "Challenging the access ban in Turkey". twitter.com.
- "Iraq Crisis: Twitter, Google, YouTube and Facebook Blocked by Government to Stop Isis Plotting". International Business Times UK.
- Twitter's corporate blog, "Announcing the Twitter Trust & Safety Council"
- Reason.com "Hit & Run" blog: "Did Twitter's Orwellian 'Trust and Safety' Council Get Robert Stacy McCain Banned?" "...its selections for this committee were entirely one-sided—there’s not a single uncompromising anti-censorship figure or group on the list. It looks like Twitter gave control of its harassment policy to a bunch of ideologues, and now their enemies are being excluded from the platform." 
- Arthur, Charles (December 9, 2010). "Wikileaks: Twitter explains why it's not trending, as hackers play cat and mouse". The Guardian (London). Retrieved November 29, 2011.
- "Reply to question from journalist about alleged censorship of #occupywallstreet" Twitter, September 26, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
- Larson, Dave (August 1, 2011). "Twitter admits editing offensive Trending Topics, plans more". Retrieved November 29, 2011.
- "Twitter Exec Censors #WhichHillary in advance of Sunday Fundraiser, Key Primaries". Daily Kos. Archived from the original on February 26, 2016.
- Lavallee, Andrew (March 16, 2007). "Friends Swap Twitters, and Frustration – New Real-Time Messaging Services Overwhelm Some Users with Mundane Updates from Friends". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
- John C. Dvorak (August 25, 2009). "Twitter Is the New CB Radio". PC Magazine.
- Grandjean, Martin (2016). "A social network analysis of Twitter: Mapping the digital humanities community". Cogent Arts & Humanities 3 (1): 1171458. doi:10.1080/23311983.2016.1171458.
- Rankin, M. (2010). "Some general comments on the 'Twitter Experiment'"
- Grosseck & Holotescu (2008). "Can we use Twitter for educational activities?" Proceedings of the 4th International Scientific Conference: eLearning and Software forEducation, Bucharest, Romania.
- Elavsky, CM, Mislan, C & Elavsky, S (2011). When talking less is more: exploring outcomes of Twitter usage in the large‐lecture hall. Learning, Media and Technology Volume 36, Issue 3.
- Junco, R., Heiberger, G., & Loken, E. (2011). "The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades". Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(2), 119–132. Archived May 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Junco, R., Elavsky, C. M., Heiberger, G. (2012). "Putting Twitter to the test: assessing outcomes for student collaboration, engagement, and success". British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01284.x Archived January 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- Ebner, Lienhardt, Rohs, & Meyer (2010). "Microblogs in Higher Education – A chance to facilitate informal and process-oriented learning?" Computers & Education, 55, 92–100.
- (registration required) Pontin, Jason (April 22, 2007). "From Many Tweets, One Loud Voice on the Internet". The New York Times. Retrieved June 21, 2009.
- (registration required) Thompson, Clive (September 5, 2009). "I'm So Totally, Digitally Close to You". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
- "St. Petersburg Times – Google News Archive Search". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- [dead link] Lewis, Nick (April 16, 2009). "Tweet This: It's the Year of the Twitter". The Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on April 15, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2009.
- (registration required) Cohen, Noam (June 20, 2009). "Twitter on the Barricades: Six Lessons Learned". The New York Times. Retrieved June 21, 2009.
- Kurutz, Steven (December 1, 2009). "Rick Moody's Twitter Short Story Draws Long List of Complaints". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 19, 2012.
- Goldsmith, Belinda (April 29, 2009). "Many Twitters Are Quick Quitters: Study". Reuters. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
- Staff writer (n.d.). "13th Annual Webby Special Achievement Award Winners". The Webby Awards. Archived from the original on February 20, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
- Paul, Ian (May 5, 2009). "Jimmy Fallon Wins Top Webby: And the Winners Are...". PC World. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
- Carvin, Andy (February 28, 2009). "Welcome to the Twitterverse". National Public Radio. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
- "Top Word of 2009: Twitter". Languagemonitor.com. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- Vidyarthi, Neil (April 30, 2010). "Time Magazine's Social Influence Index Led by Obama, Gaga, Kutcher". socialtimes.com. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
- The Hill on February 28, 2011 described Twitter and other social media as a "strategic weapon ... which have the apparent ability to re-align the social order in real time, with little or no advanced [sic] warning".
- "U.S. secretly created 'Cuban Twitter' to stir unrest". The Washington Post. 2014.[dead link]
- Friar, Karen (July 28, 2012). "Sir Tim Berners-Lee stars in Olympics opening ceremony". ZDNet. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- Berners-Lee, Tim (July 27, 2012). "This is for everyone". Twitter. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- Ländler, Mark (February 4, 2014). "In the Scripted World of Diplomacy, a Burst of Tweets". International New York Times. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
- "Queen's first tweet.". BBC News.
- "Twiplomacy Study 2013 – International Organisations". Twiplomacy.com. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- John Heilprin Leaders all a twitter but few do own tweets The Advertiser July 28, 2012 Pg 64
- "A List of Cardinals on Twitter (October 2015)". sixfortyone.co.uk. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
- Alyssa Newcomb (March 6, 2013). "Tweeting Cardinals Share Pre-Conclave Thoughts". ABC News. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- Linda Sharkey (May 23, 2014). "The reason why the Pope has a Twitter and not a Facebook account". The Independent. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- Steinbuch, Yaron (December 26, 2014). "Astrophysicist angers Christians with Christmas tweet". New York Post.
- Bilton, Nick. "Friends, and Influence, for Sale Online". The New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Urbina, Ian (August 10, 2013). "I Flirt and Tweet. Follow Me at #Socialbot". The New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Edwards, Chad. "Is that a bot running the social media feed? Testing the differences in perceptions of communication quality for a human agent and a bot agent on Twitter". Science Direct. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Miners, Zach. "Bot or Not? Researchers make an app to sniff out bots on Twitter". PC World. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Depillis, Lydia. "Swenzy`". Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Depillis, Lydia (January 6, 2014). "Click farms are the new sweatshops". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Martin, Michel. "How To Spot And Outfake Bogus Twitter Followers". NPR. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Van Dijck, Jose (2013). "The Culture of Connectivity.". Oxford University Press.
- Urbina, Ian (August 10, 2013). "I Flirt and Tweet. Follow Me at #Socialbot". The New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- "GCHQ leak lists UK cyber-spies' hacking tools". BBC News. July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
- "JTRIG Tools and Techniques". Retrieved July 16, 2014.
- "What Shows Are Viewers Tweeting About and What Does this Mean for Operators?". Tvgenius.net. March 31, 2011. Archived from the original on April 11, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- "Social Web Makes TV Viewers 'Chatterboxers'", Sky News, March 15, 2012 Archived March 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Twitter Blog: Super Data". Blog.twitter.com. February 10, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- "Does Twitter Drive TV Ratings?". Tvgenius.net. Archived from the original on November 1, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- "France bans Facebook and Twitter promotion on TV". FRANCE 24. June 6, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- Shontell, Alyson (February 4, 2013). and %5b%5bJonathan Zittrain%5d%5d, professor of Internet law at %5b%5bHarvard Law School%5d%5d, said that Breakout of the Year.businessinsider.com/twitter-bluefin-labs-2013-2 "Twitter Makes Big Acquisition, Buys Social TV Analytics Company Bluefin Labs" Check
|url=value (help). Business Insider. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- Geron, Tomio (February 6, 2013). "Twitter Confirms Bluefin Labs Acquisition For Social TV". Forbes. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- "Twitter Has Become the New TV Guide – Now Can It Offer New TV Rating?". Advertising Age (Crain). October 23, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- Stelter, Brian (February 5, 2013). "Twitter Buys Company That Mines Chatter About TV". The New York Times. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- Talbot, David (February 5, 2013). "Buying Bluefin Will Give Twitter a Piece of TV's $72 Billion Ad Market". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- "How a false tweet sank stocks". 3 News NZ. April 25, 2013.
- Indvik, Lauren (May 23, 2013). "Twitter Amplify Will Bring Sponsored Video Clips to Your Feed". Mashable. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
- Lunden, Ingrid (May 23, 2013). "Twitter Launches TV Ad Targeting, Twitter Amplify For Real-Time Videos In Stream". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
- Summers, Nick (October 9, 2013). "Twitter and Comcast's new 'See it' button lets you watch and record TV shows directly from a tweet". The Next Web. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
- Constine, Josh (May 21, 2014). "Facebook Adds Shazam-Style Audio Recognition To Help You Automatically Tag Posts With TV Shows And Songs". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
- Protalinski, Emil (January 30, 2014). "Facebook opens up its social TV data for the first time in partnership with UK analytics firm SecondSync". The Next Web. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
- Hern, Alex (April 1, 2014). "Twitter buys UK 'social TV' firm SecondSync". The Guardian. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
- Wasserman, Todd (February 27, 2014). "Twitter Snags the Last of the Major Networks, ABC, for Amplify". Mashable. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
- Plunkett, John (March 31, 2014). "ITV commercial boss warns brands that 90% of content is 'crap'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved April 12, 2014.
- Summers, Nick (March 20, 2014). "Twitter is testing one-tap video playback across its mobile apps for Amplify partner clips". The Next Web. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
- Bradwell, Jason (July 2, 2014). "Why Did Twitter Buy SnappyTV? Grabyo Reaction". VOD Professional. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- Sawyers, Paul (June 10, 2014). "Wimbledon 'near-live' highlights will be broadcast globally across Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and YouTube". TNW. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- "Twitter Top 100 Most Followers". twittercounter.com. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
- "Search by Twitter bio, name, URL, location, more". Followerwonk. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- "Fans in the Philippines & around the world sent 41M Tweets mentioning #ALDubEBTamangPanahon". Twitter Data Verified Account. October 27, 2015. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- Mendoza, Arvin (October 25, 2015). "'AlDub' breaks FIFA World Cup's Twitter record". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Tomchak, Anne-Marie (July 9, 2014). "#BBCtrending: Brazil's World Cup thrashing breaks Twitter records". BBC Online. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
- DeGeneres, Ellen (March 2, 2014). "If only Bradley's arm was longer. Best photo ever. #oscars". Twitter. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- BBC Trending (March 3, 2014). "#BBCtrending: Selfie at Oscars breaks retweet record". Bbc.com. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- "Ellen DeGeneres' Selfie at Oscars Sets Retweet Record, Crashes Twitter". The Ledger. Associated Press. March 3, 2014.
- Hubbard, Amy (March 2, 2014). "Oscars 2014, the year of the selfie: Ellen tweet grabs retweet record". latimes.com. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Ellen DeGeneres' Famous Oscar Selfie Gets The Simpsons and Lego Treatment—Take a Look!". Eonline.com. March 4, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- "Grumpy Cat, Legos Parody Ellen's Oscars Selfie". Abcnews.go.com. March 5, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- "Barack Obama victory tweet most retweeted ever". BBC News. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- "Four more years" Barack Obama on Twitter, November 6, 2012.
- "Fastest time to reach one million followers on Twitter". Guinness World Records. April 12, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
- Oremus, Will (August 19, 2013). "Balse Festival: Japan "Castle in the Sky" airing breaks Twitter record for tweets per second". Slate.com. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
- Fitton, Laura; Gruen, Michael E.; Poston, Leslie; foreword by Jack Dorsey (2009). Twitter for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 9780470479919.
- Twitter Search. Available at: https://support.twitter.com/articles/132700-using-twitter-search
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News from Wikinews|
|Wikidata has a property, P2002, for Twitter username (see uses)|