Vishnupalita Kambhoja

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Prince Vishnupalita Kambhoja [1] (Kumara Kanbhoja Vhenupalita in Mhar (Mahad)inscriptions)[2] finds reference in the Buddhist inscriptions (today known as Gandharpale caves situated near confluence of Gandhari & savitri rivers)found at Mhar or Mahad in Kolaba district of Maharashtra, in Bombay Presidency. Kanbhoja of the inscriptions is same as the Kambhoja or Kamboja[3] of ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts and of king Asoka’s Rock Edicts. The prince is believed to have ruled in Kolaba (near Bombay), probably around the 2nd century CE.[4]

Dr J. Burgess's translation of the Mhar (Mahad) inscription[edit]

“To the Perfect one! Kumara (or Prince) Kanbhoja (=Kambhoja) Vhenupalita (=Vishnupalita)’s [5] Lena (=cave), Chaitiyagriha and eight (8) cells; this much work is endowed, and two (2) cisterns on each side of the Lena, also a passage connected with the Lena is presented. It is charitable gift of the Kumara (or Prince)” .[6]

Dating of the inscriptions[edit]

According to Dr J. Burgess, the characters of this record seem to be of about the time of Vasishthiputra the Andhrabhritya or Satakarni king (reign 130-160 CE) [7]

Historical significance of the inscriptions[edit]

The estimated date for this inscription is the 2nd century CE.[8] This demonstrates that the Kambojas from north-west had settled in Konkan region in Maharashtra prior to 100-150 BCE. The name of the prince i.e. Visnupalita Kanbhoja clearly indicates that, by this time the migrant Kambojas had totally acclimatised to the Indian culture. Also, the surname of the prince i.e. 'Kanbhoja' bears the impress of southern or southwestern Indian influence and is an apparent change from Kamboja which bears Iranianian or Paisachi influence.

The existence of Kamboja principality on west coast of India near Bombay as born out by inscriptional evidence above may further prove the fact that the Kambojas who had migrated to and colonized Sri Lanka and later, the Kambuja in Indo-China Peninsula, may have proceeded there via Gujarat/Bombay around this time. The above is just one example of Kamboja principalities. The evidence exists that there were more Kamboja principalities located in western, south-western/southern India.

Inscriptions or Charters belonging to the Bhoja rulers, dating to the 5th century, executed by Nidhivara and written by Buddhadasa of the Kamboja (Brahman) gotra have been found in Bandora, Goa.[9][10][11][12]

Luders's inscriptions No 176 and 472 refer to the gift of a monk Kaboja (Kamboja) from Nandi-Nagara made at Sanchi Buddghist Stupa.[13][14][15][16] According to IHQ: "The monk was a Kamboja of Nandi-Nagara which might have been a place in the neighborhood of Sanchi".[17] But no evidence of any ancient place called Nandi-Nagara near Sanchi (in Malawa) is attested. Probably the Nandi Nagara of the Sanchi Inscriptions refers to modern Nandode (Rajpipli) in Gujarat which in earlier was known as Nandan Nagar [18][19] or Nandi-puri.[20][21]

The above pieces of evidence pieced together further support the presence of Kambojas in south-western India in the post-Christian times.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Archaeological Survey of Western India, 1879, p 2, Dr J. Burgess.
  2. ^ Ibid.
  3. ^ Maharashtra State gazetteers, 1964, p 57, Maharashtra (India), Gazetteers Dept, Maharashtra (India).
  4. ^ Maharashtra State gazetteers, 1964, p 57, Maharashtra (India). Gazetteers Dept, Maharashtra (India); Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1883, Chapter VII, p 137, Bombay Presidency; Also see: Dr. Burgess' Archaeological Survey of Western India, 1879, X. 4, 9, 14, 15, 17. NOTE: Kanabhoja is same as Sanskrit Kambhoja = Kamboja.
  5. ^ Archaeological Survey of Western India, 1879, p 2, Dr J. Burgess.
  6. ^ For full Prakrit & Sanskrit versions of the Mhar Inscription and its English trans., see ref: Archaeological Survey of Western India, 1879, p 2, and fn 5, Dr J. Burgess.
  7. ^ Baudha Rock Temples of Ajanta, Their Paintings and Sculptures, Archaeological Survey of Western India, 1879, P 2, fn 8, Dr. J. Burgess,
  8. ^ Maharashtra State gazetteers, 1964, p 57, Maharashtra (India), Gazetteers Dept, Maharashtra (India).
  9. ^ The Cultural History of Goa from 10000 B.C.-1352 A.D., 1986, p 206, Anant Ramkrishna Sinai Dhume - Goa, Daman and Diu (India)
  10. ^ Gazetteer of the Union Territory Goa, Daman and Diu, 1979, p 66, Vithal Trimbak Gune, Goa, Daman and Diu (India).
  11. ^ Also: K. C. Chaṭṭopādhyāya Memorial Volume, 1975, p 24, Kshetresh Chandra Chattopadhyaya - India Civilization.
  12. ^ Indica, 2004, p 65, Saint Xavier's College, Bombay Heras Institute of Indian History and Culture.
  13. ^ Kleine Schriften, 1985, p 352, Otto Stein, Friedrich Wilhelm.
  14. ^ Epigraphia Indika, II, p 97. no. 7=L. 176; p 387, no. 287= L.472; The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1949, Vol 25-26, p 127.
  15. ^ Report of Tours in Bundelkhand and Malwa in 1874-75 and 1876-77, 1880, p 58, Alexander Cunningham.
  16. ^ Buddhism in Malwa, 1976, p 53, S. M. Pahadiya - Buddhism.
  17. ^ The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1949, Vol 25-26, p 127.
  18. ^ The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, 1885, p 1218, Edward Balfour.
  19. ^ Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, 2002, Vol I, p 95, Col James Tod.
  20. ^ Jīvana Tathā Saṃskr̥ti, 1976, Ānandapriya, Vidyālaṅkāra Śaṅkaradeva, Vedālaṅkāra Dalīpa, Yaśodabahana Paramāra.
  21. ^ NOTE: There is repeated ancient reference to Nandipura or Nandipuri as a region east of Bharoach in south-east Gujarat on Karjah river in former Rajpipli State where a second branch of the Gurjara-Pratiharas ruled during the 7th century CE. It’s modern name is Nandode (Rajpipli) and is located in eastern Gujarat not far from Bhroach. It has been the Capital of the Gurjara-Pratiharas (See also: History and Culture of Indian People, The Classical age, p 66,155).

Further reading[edit]

  • Baudha Rock-Temples of Ajanta, Their Paintings and Sculptures, Archaeological Survey of Western India, 1879, p 2, Dr J. Burgess
  • Inscriptions from the Cave-temples of Western India: With Descriptive Notes, &c, 1976, James Burgess, Bhagvānlal
  • Maharashtra State gazetteers, 1964, Maharashtra (India). Gazetteers Dept, Maharashtra (India)
  • Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1883, Chapter XIV, p 347, Bombay (Presidency)
  • Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1883, Chapter VII, P 137, Bombay Presidency;
  • The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, 2000, International Association of Buddhist Studies
  • Monastery and Guild: Commerce Under the Sātavāhanas, 1986, Himanshu Prabha Ray
  • Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay, 1974, Asiatic Society of Bombay
  • The Cultural History of Goa from 10000 B.C.-1352 A.D., 1986, Anant Ramkrishna Sinai Dhume - Goa, Daman and Diu (India)
  • K. C. Chaṭṭopādhyāya Memorial Volume, 1975, p 24,Kshetresh Chandra Chattopadhyaya - India Civilization.