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Protein DFNB31 PDB 1uez.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases WHRN, CIP98, PDZD7B, USH2D, WI, DFNB31, whirlin
External IDs MGI: 2682003 HomoloGene: 18739 GeneCards: WHRN
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE DFNB31 47553 at fs.png

PBB GE DFNB31 221887 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)


RefSeq (protein)


Location (UCSC) Chr 9: 114.4 – 114.51 Mb Chr 4: 63.41 – 63.5 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Whirlin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFNB31 gene.[3][4][5]

In rat brain, WHRN interacts with a calmodulin-dependent serine kinase, CASK, and may be involved in the formation of scaffolding protein complexes that facilitate synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).[6] Mutations in this gene, also known as WHRN, cause autosomal recessive deafness.[5]

Model organisms[edit]

Model organisms have been used in the study of WHRN function. A conditional knockout mouse line, called Whrntm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi[10][11] was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium program — a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease to interested scientists.[12][13][14]

Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion.[8][15] Twenty tests were carried out on mutant mice and two significant abnormalities were observed.[8] Whrntm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi homozygote mice show a moderate to severe hearing loss at 14 weeks. Female homozygous mutant animals also displayed an increased thermal nociceptive threshold in a hot plate test.[8]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Mburu P, Mustapha M, Varela A, Weil D, El-Amraoui A, Holme RH, Rump A, Hardisty RE, Blanchard S, Coimbra RS, Perfettini I, Parkinson N, Mallon AM, Glenister P, Rogers MJ, Paige AJ, Moir L, Clay J, Rosenthal A, Liu XZ, Blanco G, Steel KP, Petit C, Brown SD (Aug 2003). "Defects in whirlin, a PDZ domain molecule involved in stereocilia elongation, cause deafness in the whirler mouse and families with DFNB31". Nat Genet. 34 (4): 421–8. doi:10.1038/ng1208. PMID 12833159. 
  4. ^ Ebermann I, Scholl HP, Charbel Issa P, Becirovic E, Lamprecht J, Jurklies B, Millan JM, Aller E, Mitter D, Bolz H (Mar 2007). "A novel gene for Usher syndrome type 2: mutations in the long isoform of whirlin are associated with retinitis pigmentosa and sensorineural hearing loss". Hum Genet. 121 (2): 203–11. doi:10.1007/s00439-006-0304-0. PMID 17171570. 
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: DFNB31 deafness, autosomal recessive 31". 
  6. ^ Yap CC, Liang F, Yamazaki Y, et al. (2003). "CIP98, a novel PDZ domain protein, is expressed in the central nervous system and interacts with calmodulin-dependent serine kinase". J. Neurochem. 85 (1): 123–34. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01647.x. PMID 12641734. 
  7. ^ "Hot plate data for Whrn". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. 
  8. ^ a b c d Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: High throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta Ophthalmologica. 88: 925–7. doi:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.4142.x. 
  9. ^ Mouse Resources Portal, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.
  10. ^ "International Knockout Mouse Consortium". 
  11. ^ "Mouse Genome Informatics". 
  12. ^ Skarnes, W. C.; Rosen, B.; West, A. P.; Koutsourakis, M.; Bushell, W.; Iyer, V.; Mujica, A. O.; Thomas, M.; Harrow, J.; Cox, T.; Jackson, D.; Severin, J.; Biggs, P.; Fu, J.; Nefedov, M.; De Jong, P. J.; Stewart, A. F.; Bradley, A. (2011). "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337–342. doi:10.1038/nature10163. PMC 3572410Freely accessible. PMID 21677750. 
  13. ^ Dolgin E (2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262–3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718. 
  14. ^ Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (2007). "A Mouse for All Reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. 
  15. ^ van der Weyden L, White JK, Adams DJ, Logan DW (2011). "The mouse genetics toolkit: revealing function and mechanism.". Genome Biol. 12 (6): 224. doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-224. PMC 3218837Freely accessible. PMID 21722353. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]