Walnut Grove, Mississippi

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Walnut Grove, Mississippi
Town
Location of Walnut Grove, Mississippi
Location of Walnut Grove, Mississippi
Walnut Grove, Mississippi is located in the US
Walnut Grove, Mississippi
Walnut Grove, Mississippi
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 32°35′45″N 89°27′32″W / 32.59583°N 89.45889°W / 32.59583; -89.45889Coordinates: 32°35′45″N 89°27′32″W / 32.59583°N 89.45889°W / 32.59583; -89.45889
Country United States
State Mississippi
County Leake
Government
 • Mayor Brian Gomillion
Area
 • Total 0.8 sq mi (2.1 km2)
 • Land 0.8 sq mi (2.1 km2)
 • Water 0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation 361 ft (110 m)
Population (2000)
 • Total 488
 • Density 610.2/sq mi (235.6/km2)
Time zone Central (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code 39189
Area code(s) 601
FIPS code 28-77520
GNIS feature ID 0679299

Walnut Grove is a town in Leake County, Mississippi. The population was 1,911 at the 2010 census. Under the leadership of eight-term mayor, William Grady Smith, one of the longest-serving mayors in the state, the town had dramatically increased its population and revenues by annexing the Walnut Grove Youth Correctional Facility, privately owned and operated under contract to the state. By 2011 this was the largest juvenile facility in the nation.[citation needed] The troubled facility was closed in 2016.[1]

Golden Memorial State Park is located east of the town.

History[edit]

Walnut Grove began as a European-American settlement in a nearby location, now referred to as "Old Walnut Grove". This area was developed as cotton plantations in the antebellum era. The town was incorporated in 1884.[2] A post office was established in 1854,[3] and in the early 1900s, electricity and street lights were installed.[2]

The Jackson and Eastern Railway was completed to Walnut Grove in 1923, and then extended to nearby Tuscola, Mississippi in 1925.[4]

The town was surveyed at its present location in 1923. Two canals were built near Walnut Grove in the late 1920s to improve transportation. Walnut Grove received a telephone franchise in 1927, and was connected to the Forest exchange.

In 1962, a sewage and water system was installed, and in 1966, natural gas was installed. In 1970, the town organized and trained a volunteer fire department, though the first fire truck was not purchased until 1974.[2]

Walnut Grove's Marshall, Jake Trest, was murdered in 1979. His killer, Edward Earl Johnson, was executed in 1987.[5]

In 1981, William Grady Sims was elected as mayor of Walnut Grove and was repeatedly re-elected, serving until 2012. He was one of the longest-serving mayors in the state. By 2006 the town annexed the property of the Walnut Grove Youth Correctional Facility, which had been constructed nearby in the county in 2001, adding to its area and population. In 2009 Sims was appointed as warden by the company that owned the prison. The prison made payments to the city in lieu of taxes that constituted 15% of the city's budget in 2011.[6] State expansion of the prison population made it the largest youth facility in the nation.

In 2009, Sims took a female prisoner to a nearby motel and raped her. He was sentenced to seven months in confinement.[1] Numerous investigations of conditions at the prison resulted in a class-action suit filed in 2010 in federal court against its management and the state. The federal government started a separate investigation. Sims resigned as warden. In 2011 he was indicted on two federal charges; in February 2012 he resigned as mayor under a federal plea agreement.[7] In October 2011 he was ordered by the state auditor to pay "$31,530 for using city employees and equipment to work on private prisons in the area, including the one he ran."[8]

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.8 square miles (2.1 km²), all land.

Cityscape[edit]

The community's town hall, post office, and library are not in the central part of Walnut Grove.[9]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890 166
1900 207 24.7%
1910 199 −3.9%
1930 753
1940 653 −13.3%
1950 517 −20.8%
1960 433 −16.2%
1970 398 −8.1%
1980 439 10.3%
1990 389 −11.4%
2000 488 25.4%
2010 1,911 291.6%
Est. 2015 1,619 [10] −15.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[11]

As of the census[12] of 2000, there were 488 people, 215 households, and 127 families residing in the town. The population density was 610.2 people per square mile (235.5/km²). There were 239 housing units at an average density of 298.9 per square mile (115.3/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 57.38% White, 40.78% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.20% Pacific Islander, and 1.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.41% of the population.

There were 215 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.3% were married couples living together, 20.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.5% were non-families. 36.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the town, the population was spread out with 29.1% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, and 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 86.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.3 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $21,719, and the median income for a family was $27,981. Males had a median income of $21,667 versus $26,000 for females. The per capita income for the town was $11,851. About 25.2% of families and 29.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 47.1% of those under age 18 and 15.1% of those age 65 or over.

The 2006 population estimate had 1,424 residents; this dramatic increase is due to the annexation of the Walnut Grove Correctional Facility and its inmate population.[13] Growth has continued, largely through inmate population.

Economy[edit]

Marco Apparel, a clothing manufacturer, opened in Walnut Grove in 1984. In 2001, it laid off over 100 employees.[14] The city was struggling to survive.

In 2001, the privately owned Walnut Grove Youth Correctional Facility opened in unincorporated county land under contract with the state; it was designed for youth offenders of 18 and under in age. Originally it was considered a model, but the state kept raising the age of offenders who were incarcerated there, and some prisoners aged there, so the population included young men in their 20s. From 2003 to 2010, the prison was operated by Cornell Companies, which merged that year with GEO Group. The town annexed the prison property before 2006, thereby markedly increasing its population.[13] Its prisoners outnumbered town residents by a two to one ratio. The prison paid the city substantial amounts in lieu of taxes, with payments making up 15% of the city's annual budget in 2011.[6] The facility was subject of many investigations and was closed in September 2016.

Government[edit]

The Town of Walnut Grove has an alderman/mayor form of government with the mayor voting in case of a tie. City government is made up of five elected aldermen, an elected mayor, an elected municipal clerk, and an appointed police chief.[citation needed]

The mayor is Brian Gomillion, elected in 2013, and the Board of Aldermen includes: Jerry Darby, Teresa Darby, Pamela Gill, Chip Jones, Cindy Jones, and Mike Johnson.[15]

Education[edit]

The Town of Walnut Grove is served by the Leake County School District.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wiliams, Timothy (16 September 2016). "Privately Run Mississippi Prison, Called a Scene of Horror, is Shut Down". New York Times. Retrieved 16 September 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c "History of Walnut Grove, Leake County, Mississippi". msleake. April 1975. 
  3. ^ Howe, Tony. "Walnut Grove, Mississippi". Mississippi Rails. Retrieved February 2014.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  4. ^ Hoffman, Gil. "Jackson & Eastern Railway". Mississippi Rails. Retrieved February 2014.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  5. ^ O'Shea, Kathleen A. (1999). Women and the Death Penalty in the United States, 1900–1998. Greenwood Publishing. 
  6. ^ a b Burnett, John (March 25, 2011). "Town Relies On Troubled Youth Prison For Profits". NPR. 
  7. ^ "Former Mayor of Walnut Grove Sentenced for Federal Witness Tampering". Federal Bureau of Investigation. April 24, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Longtime mayor of Miss. town, William Grady Sims, accused of sexually assaulting an inmate", CBS News, 26 October 2011, accessed 30 January 2016
  9. ^ "Walnut Grove" (Archive). First Impressions. Mississippi State University, February 2008. 5 (5/21). Retrieved on August 14, 2010.
  10. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016. 
  11. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  12. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  13. ^ a b "Walnut Grove." First Impressions. Mississippi State University, February 2008. 0 (3/21). Retrieved on August 14, 2010. "Looking at the MDA profile, the population growth is impressive (year 2000 – 488, year 2006 – 1,424). However, we learned that most of this population growth has been due to the location and annexation of the Walnut Grove Youth Correctional Facility."
  14. ^ "Industrial Closures and Layoffs since 1997 in Leake County, Mississippi" (PDF). Leake County. Retrieved February 2014.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  15. ^ "Town of Walnut Grove Municipal General Election Results". Town of Walnut Grove. June 4, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Sue Gunter". Basketball Hall of Fame. Retrieved February 2014.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  17. ^ Rohrlich, Justin (Nov 18, 2009). "Rags to Riches CEOs: Ken Lewis". Minyanville. 
  18. ^ "Luther J. Riley Named Head Men's Basketball Coach at Alcorn State University". Alcorn State University. March 28, 2011. 

External links[edit]