Arms and the Covenant is a 1938 non-fiction book written by Winston Churchill. It was later published in the US as While England Slept; a Survey of World Affairs, 1932–1938. It highlighted the United Kingdom's lack of military preparation to face the threat of Nazi Germany's expansion and attacked the current policies of the UK government, led by his fellow Conservative Neville Chamberlain. It galvanised many of his supporters and built up public opposition to the Munich Agreement.
John F. Kennedy was inspired by the book's title when publishing his thesis, which he wrote during his senior year at Harvard College, and in which he examined the reasons for the UK's lack of preparation. Originally titled Appeasement in Munich, it was titled Why England Slept upon its 1940 publication.