Z-DNA-binding protein 1, also known as DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) and DLM-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZBP1gene.
ZBP1 is also an abbreviation for chicken or rat β-actin zipcode-binding protein 1, a homolog of the human insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IMP-1) and murine CRD-BP, the proteins involved in mRNA transport (RNA-binding proteins, RBPs).
DLM1 encodes a Z-DNA binding protein. Z-DNA formation is a dynamic process, largely controlled by the amount of supercoiling. ZBP1 recognizes DNA in the cytoplasm as an antiviral mechanism. Viral life cycles often include steps where DNA is exposed in the cytoplasm. DNA is normally contained in the nucleus of a cell, and therefore cells use proteins like ZBP1 as an indicator of a viral infection. Once ZBP1 is activated, it increases the production of antiviral cytokines such as interferon beta. DLM1 then binds to cytosolic Viral DNA using two Z-DNA-binding domains (Zα and Zβ) at its N-terminus along with a DNA binding domain (D3).
Zipcode binding protein 1 (ZBP1) was shown to regulate dendritogenesis (dendrite formation) in hippocampal neurons.
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