Zitterbewegung ("trembling motion" in German) is a hypothetical rapid motion of elementary particles, in particular electrons, that obey the Dirac equation. The existence of such motion was first proposed by Erwin Schrödinger in 1930 as a result of his analysis of the wave packet solutions of the Dirac equation for relativistic electrons in free space, in which an interference between positive and negative energy states produces what appears to be a fluctuation (at the speed of light) of the position of an electron around the median, with a frequency of 2mc2/, or approximately ×1021 radians per second. A reexamination of Dirac theory, however, shows that interference between positive and negative energy states may not be a necessary criterion for observing zitterbewegung. 1.6
Theory for a free electron
The time-dependent Dirac equation is written as
The Heisenberg picture implies that any operator Q obeys the equation
In particular, the time-dependence of the position operator is given by
where xk(t) is the position operator at time t.
The above equation shows that the operator αk can be interpreted as the k-th component of a "velocity operator". To add time-dependence to αk, one implements the Heisenberg picture, which says
The time-dependence of the velocity operator is given by
Now, because both pk and H are time-independent, the above equation can easily be integrated twice to find the explicit time-dependence of the position operator.
The resulting expression consists of an initial position, a motion proportional to time, and an unexpected oscillation term with an amplitude equal to the Compton wavelength. That oscillation term is the so-called zitterbewegung.
The zitterbewegung term vanishes on taking expectation values for wave-packets that are made up entirely of positive- (or entirely of negative-) energy waves. This can be achieved by taking a Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation. Thus, we arrive at the interpretation of the zitterbewegung as being caused by interference between positive- and negative-energy wave components.
Zitterbewegung of a free relativistic particle has never been observed. However, it has been simulated twice. First, with a trapped ion, by putting it in an environment such that the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation for the ion has the same mathematical form as the Dirac equation (although the physical situation is different). Then, in 2013, it was simulated in a setup with Bose–Einstein condensates.
- Casimir effect
- Lamb shift
- Stochastic electrodynamics: Zitterbewegung is explained as an interaction of a classical particle with the zero-point field
References and notes
- David Hestenes (1990). "The zitterbewegung interpretation of quantum mechanics". Foundations of Physics. 20 (10): 1213–1232. Bibcode:1990FoPh...20.1213H. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.412.3589. doi:10.1007/BF01889466.
- Wunderlich, Christof (2010). "Quantum physics: Trapped ion set to quiver". Nature News and Views. 463 (7277): 37–39. doi:10.1038/463037a. PMID 20054385.
- Gerritsma; Kirchmair; Zähringer; Solano; Blatt; Roos (2010). "Quantum simulation of the Dirac equation". Nature. 463 (7277): 68–71. arXiv:0909.0674. Bibcode:2010Natur.463...68G. doi:10.1038/nature08688. PMID 20054392.
- Leblanc; Beeler; Jimenez-Garcia; Perry; Sugawa; Williams; Spielman (2013). "Direct observation of zitterbewegung in a Bose–Einstein condensate". New Journal of Physics. 15 (7): 073011. arXiv:1303.0914. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/15/7/073011.
- Schrödinger, E. (1930). Über die kräftefreie Bewegung in der relativistischen Quantenmechanik [On the free movement in relativistic quantum mechanics] (in German). pp. 418–428. OCLC 881393652.
- Schrödinger, E. (1931). Zur Quantendynamik des Elektrons [Quantum Dynamics of the Electron] (in German). pp. 63–72.
- Messiah, A. (1962). "XX, Section 37" (pdf). Quantum Mechanics. II. pp. 950–952. ISBN 9780471597681.