Temporal range: Miocene, 23.02–16 Ma
The genus was first described in 1942, by E. S. Riggs, who identified the sister genus Promartes at the same time, and assigned to the family Procyonidae. In 1998 it was assigned to the subfamily Oligobuninae of the family Mustelidae. Two species have been identified in the genus: Z. daimonelixensis and Z. freundi.
Z. daimonelixensis showed digging adaptations, as one fossil was found curled up in the "corkscrew" burrow of the Miocene beaver, Palaeocastor. Zodiolestes was most likely a predator of these fossorial beavers. This situation was analogous to the modern day prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and its predator the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes).
- Paleobiology Database
Larry D. Martin. "Fossil history of the terrestrial Carnivora",in John Gittleman,ed.,Carnivore Behavior, Ecology and Evolution, 1989, pp. 546–548.
- "Zodiolestes at the Paleobiology Database". paleodb.org. Retrieved 2008-11-29.