Abd al-Hafid of Morocco

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Abd al-Hafid of Morocco
Abdelhafid.jpg
Sultan of Morocco (more..)
Reign 1909–30 March 1912
Predecessor Abdelaziz of Morocco
Successor

Vacant until August 1912
Yusef (in Rabat)

Ahmed al-Hiba (in Marrakesh)
House House of Alaoui
Born 1878 (1878)
Fes, Morocco
Died (aged 62)
Enghien-les-Bains

Abdelhafid of Morocco (or Mulai Abdelhafid) (Fes, 24 February 1875[1]Enghien-les-Bains, 4 April 1937)[1][2][3] (Arabic: عبد الحفيظ‎) was the Sultan of Morocco from 1908 to 1912 and a member of the Alaouite Dynasty. His younger brother, Abdelaziz of Morocco, preceded him. While Mulai Abdelhafid initially opposed his brother for giving some concessions to foreign powers, he himself became increasingly backed by the French and finally signed the protectorate treaty giving de facto control of the country to France.

After his brother, Abdelaziz appointed him as caliph of Marrakech, Abdelhafid sought to have him overthrown by fomenting distrust over Abdelaziz's European ties.[1] He was aided by Madani al-Glaoui, older brother of T'hami one of the Caids of the Atlas. He was assisted in the training of his troops by Andrew Belton (Kaid), a British officer and veteran of the Second Boer War.[4] For a brief period Abdelaziz reigned from Rabat while Abdelhafid reigned in Marrakech and Fes was disputed. In 1908 Abdelaziz was defeated in battle. In 1909, he became the recognized leader of Morocco.[1]

Abdelhafid abdicated after signing the Treaty of Fez on 30 March 1912,[5] which made Morocco a French protectorate.[6] He signed his abdication only when on the quay in Rabat, with the ship that would bring him to France already waiting. After an extended visit to France, where he received a great deal of attention from the press,[5] he returned to Morocco and was exiled to the Dar el Makhzen (Sultanate Palace) in Tangier.

His brother Yusef was proclaimed Sultan by the French administration several months later (13 August 1912).[7] Yusef was chosen by some dignitaries of Rabat[7] which wasn't the capital of Morocco at the time.

Honours[edit]

[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Abd al-Hafid". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-Ak – Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8. 
  2. ^ There is uncertainty about his exact birthdate. Some sources list either 1875 or 1880 without any month or day listed
  3. ^ Biography of Mulai Abd al Hafiz
  4. ^ New York Times, November 4, 1908
  5. ^ a b W. Harris, "Morocco That Was", ISBN 0-907871-13-5
  6. ^ Long, David E.; Bernard Reich (2002). The Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa. p. 393. 
  7. ^ a b "Journal Officiel". 1 November 1912. Retrieved 22 October 2013. 
  8. ^ http://www.royalark.net/Morocco/morocco10.htm

References and links[edit]

Preceded by
Abdelaziz
Sultan of Morocco
1908–1912
Succeeded by
Ahmed al-Hiba