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In Uralic languages, such as Finnish, Estonian and Hungarian, the adessive case (abbreviated ADE; from Latin adesse "to be present") is the fourth of the locative cases with the basic meaning of "on". For example, Estonian laud (table) and laual (on the table), Hungarian asztal and asztalnál (at the table). It is also used as an instrumental case in Finnish.
In Finnish, the suffix is -lla/-llä, e.g. pöytä (table) and pöydällä (on the table). In addition, it can specify "being around the place", as in koululla (at the school including the schoolyard), as contrasted with the inessive koulussa (in the school, inside the building).
In Estonian, the ending -l is added to the genitive case, e.g. laud (table) - laual (on the table). Besides the meaning "on", this case is also used to indicate ownership. For example, "mehel on auto" means "the man owns a car".
As the Uralic languages don't possess the verb "to have", it is the subject in the adessive case + on (for example, minulla on, "I have", literally "at me is").
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The other locative cases in Finnish, Estonian and Hungarian are:
- Inessive case ("in")
- Elative case ("out of")
- Illative case ("into")
- Allative case ("onto")
- Ablative case ("off")
The Finnish adessive has the word ending -lla or -llä (according to the rules of vowel harmony). It is usually added to nouns and associated adjectives.
It is used in the following ways.
- Expressing the static state of being on the surface of something.
- Possible English meanings of on, on top of, atop
- kynä on pöydällä the pen is on the table
- As an existential clause with the verb olla (to be) to express possession
- This is the Finnish way to express the English verb to have
- Meillä on koira we have a dog ('on our (possession, responsibility, etc.) is dog')
- Expressing the instrumentive use of something
- Possible English meanings of with, by, using
- Hän meni Helsinkiin junalla he went to Helsinki by train
- Hän osti sen eurolla he bought it for a euro
- In certain time expressions expressing the time at which things take place
- Possible English meanings of during in over
- aamulla in the morning keväällä in the spring
- Expressing the general proximity in space or time at which something takes place (where the more specific proximity case would be the inessive)
- Possible English meaning of at
- poikani on koululla my son is at school (c.f. hän on koulussa he is inside the school)
- hän on ruokatunnilla he is at lunch - literally on the lunch hour (c.f. hän teki läksyt ruokatunnissa he did the homework in [the period of] lunch hour
- (Although not strictly a use of the adessive this proximity difference is mirrored in adverbial forms such as täällä - around here and tässä - right here)
- In certain expressions expressing mood
- Janne oli huonolla tuulella Janne was in a bad mood