Alairac

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Alairac
Cartepostale.jpg
Coat of arms of Alairac
Coat of arms
Alairac is located in France
Alairac
Alairac
Coordinates: 43°11′06″N 2°14′29″E / 43.185°N 2.2414°E / 43.185; 2.2414Coordinates: 43°11′06″N 2°14′29″E / 43.185°N 2.2414°E / 43.185; 2.2414
Country France
Region Languedoc-Roussillon
Department Aude
Arrondissement Carcassonne
Canton Montréal, Aude
Intercommunality Carcassonne Agglo
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2014) Roger Adiveze
Area
 • Land1 16.37 km2 (6.32 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Population2 1,279
 • Population2 density 78/km2 (200/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 11005 / 11290
Elevation 158–422 m (518–1,385 ft)
(avg. 190 m or 620 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Alairac is a commune in the Aude department in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of southern France.

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Alairacois, or Alairacoises.[1]

Geography[edit]

The commune is in the urban area of Carcassonne and is located on a hillock at the foot of the Malepère mountain range. Alairac is a traditional circulade village dating to 1000AD. The commune has been part of the agglomeration community called Carcassonne Agglo since 1 January 2010.

The commune is located some 80 km south-east of Toulouse and only 6 km south-west of Carcassonne. The Motorway E80 (A61) passes across the northern tip of the commune but has no exit. The commune can be reached by Road D18 from Carcassone which passes in a south-westerly direction through the heart of the commune towards Cailhau. Road D211 also passes through the commune from Arzens in the west to Lavalette in the east passing to the north of Alairac village. The village can be reached by a number of local roads from both the D211 and the D18. The commune is both farmland and forest with a two small hamlets: Galet and Les Rougeats.

Several streams pass through the commune. In the east the Ruisseau Saint Pierre forms the eastern border of the commune, the Ruisseau de Bonne Mere forms the southern boundary, and the Ruisseau du Sout forms the western boundary. Inside the commune there are several streams with the Ruisseau de Celule Ou Gautel passing near the village. All the streams eventually flow into the Aude river which continues east into the Mediterranean Sea.[2]

Neighbouring communes and towns[2][edit]

Geology, topography and hydrography[edit]

The village overlooks the plain where the Canal du Midi to the north of the commune towards Carcassone and the view extends over a panorama limited to the north by the Montagne Noire (Black Mountain). To the north-east is the city of Carcassonne and to the south the Malepère mountain range covered in oak forest, the domain of wild boar and mushroom collectors.

Climate[edit]

The village has an oceanic climate with a strong Mediterranean influence. This area is dominated by Holly Oak forests which makes it suitable for the cultivation of the grapevines. The summers are temperate and the winters mild.

History[edit]

The first written record of the castle appeared in 1063: the time of the probable construction of the circulade. The area belonged to the Count of Foix, the first of which was Roger I de Foix who was the second son of Bernard-Roger, Count of Bigorre. Over the years, he exchanged the County of Foix with the Viscount of Carcassonne several times to the Trencavel family.

From the 11th century, the village was traversed by one of the paths to Saint Jacques de Compostela called "Path of the Pyrenean Piedmont". This pilgrimage continued until the 18th century.

During the Albigensian Crusade at Easter 1210, Simon de Montfort besieged the castle at Alairac for eleven days at which the people, fearing they may have to surrender, fled by night. In 1309, the last known Cathar perfect, Guillaume Bélibaste, fled Catalonia with Philippe of Alayrac. The latter, on his return home after ten years of exile, was probably captured and burned.

Sign at the entrance of the village

On hearing the sound of an approaching large company from Routiers in 1366, the officers of the Bailiwick of Carcassonne ordered the inhabitants of the castle at Alairac — which belonged to Jean d'Armagnac — to fortify it and destroy the surrounding area. Having failed to execute the order, the Viscount angrily set fire to the castle which was completely burned. Later, the Count of Armagnac ceded the land of Alairac to the Marquis of Mirepoix in 1404.

The lordship was sold at the beginning of the 18th century to a citizen of Carcassonne. This lordship was extinguished by the Revolution in 1789.

During the First World War from 1914–18, the village lost nineteen people whose names are inscribed on the memorial. Every year on 11 November, this sacrifice is remembered by reading their names during a ceremony attended by schoolchildren.

During the Algerian War, many young people from Alairac were called to fight. One of them was killed. Every 19 March the laying of wreaths takes place to commemorate the date the Évian Accords came into force.

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Alairac

Or means a gold background, pale, in heraldry is a vertical band in the middle of the shield and bounded by two lines, tapering: indicates the tapering of the pale, Vert: means the colour green

Blazon:
Or, a pale tapering of Vert.




Administration[edit]

List of Successive Mayors of Alairac

From To Name Party Position
1862 1871 Louis Guilhem
1871 1871 Guilhem benoit
1871 1900 Jean Fages
1900 1919 Guilhem Achilles
1919 1929 Fages Irenaeus
1929 1935 Gaston Vidal
1935 1945 Fages Irenaeus
1945 1952 Urban Marcerou
1952 1953 André Mouls
1953 1971 Carrie Antonin
1971 2014 Roger Adiveze PS

(Not all data is known)

Demography[edit]

In 2010, the commune had 1,279 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1] [Note 2]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
394 562 628 574 580 594 614 610 636
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
605 546 512 483 530 547 574 543 496
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
506 517 507 506 513 503 510 502 415
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2009 2010
391 357 359 537 618 708 1,107 1,263 1,279

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Population of Alairac

Economy[edit]

Viticulture: Malepère (AOC)

Sites and Monuments[edit]

  • The circulade of Alairac with its circular boulevard called Rond Saint-Germain: the heart of the village
  • The War memorial surmounted by a Gallic rooster on which is inscribed the names of the twenty young men of the village who were killed during the wars of the 20th century
  • The Church of Saint-Germain of Alairac from the 13th century with an octagonal bell tower which originally served as a Fortified tower
  • The Cross of Alairac: a Saint Germain style round cross probably dating from the 18th century
  • The Cross of Catuffe: dating from the 17th century on the Chamin des Castelles
  • A courtyard shaded by acacias at the primary school from 1935
  • The village is crossed by one of the roads of the Way of Saint James leading to Saint-Jacques de Compostela

Gallery[edit]

Local life[edit]

Culture and festivals[edit]

  • The Alain Cazalis Library associated with the library of the Aude
  • In March Printemps de notes (Spring notes), an artistic and musical festival of Alairac in Malepère
  • In May, hosting De circulade en circulade, comprising plays, lectures, and local bands together with fourteen other circulade villages of Aude,
  • The first Sunday of June, the feast of hunting with a Mass of Saint Hubert to bless the packs of dogs
  • The last weekend of July, the village fete

Children's activities[edit]

There is a room for teenagers (12–17 years old) organised by the CIAS of Carcassonne. This activity is supervised by Mathieu Bruno the organiser.

Education[edit]

  • In total one hundred and fifty children were enrolled in the Alairac public school in 2012 which has both a primary school[3] built in 1935 and a kindergarten which was built in 2002
  • From eleven years old most of the children go to the Varsovie College at Carcassonne.

Sports[edit]

Notable people linked to the commune[edit]

  • Philippe of Alayrac, companion of the last Cathar Perfect, Guillaume Bélibaste
  • André Mouls, playwright and Occitan poet
  • Alain Cazalis (1950-2012), Deputy Mayor, Deputy for Culture, defender of "rural culture", including the creator of the Spring notes festival and initiator of the association De circulade en circulade
  • Roger Adivèze former regional councilor, officer of the Legion of Honour, mayor since 1971 and vice president of the Carcassonne Agglo since January 2010, and also Chairman of the management centre of the territorial public service of Aude.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 [1], the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" which allow, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For municipalities with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these municipalities is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.
  2. ^ In the census table and the graph, by convention in Wikipedia, and to allow a fair comparison between five yearly censuses, the principle has been retained for subsequent legal populations since 1999 displayed in the census table and the graph that shows populations for the years 2006, 2011, 2016, etc.., as well as the latest legal population published by INSEE

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inhabitants of Aude (French)
  2. ^ a b Google Maps
  3. ^ Alairac School.