Metrication opposition

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The spread of metrication around the world in the last two centuries has been met with both support and opposition. All countries except Burma (Myanmar), Liberia, and the United States of America have officially adopted the metric system, although Liberia has seen some introduction of metric units, and in 2013 Burma formally announced the beginning of its metrication program.[1] The metric system has been largely adopted in the United Kingdom and Canada, without yet having fully displaced the imperial units from all areas of life. In other Anglophone countries such as Australia and New Zealand, the imperial units have been formally deprecated and are no longer officially sanctioned for use.[2][3]

Technical arguments[edit]

Natural evolution and human scale[edit]

One argument used by opponents of the metric system is that traditional systems of measurement were developed organically from actual use.[4] Early measures were human in scale. The prevalence in English of expressions such as a stone's throw, within earshot, a cartload or a handful illustrates both the intuitive accessibility and the inherently imprecise nature of analogous measurements and their units. These measurements' developers, living and working in an era before the modern scientific method had come into existence, gave fundamental priority to ease of learning and use; moreover, the variation permissible within these measurements allowed them to be relational and commensurable: A request for a judgment of measure allowed for a variety of answers, depending on the context of the request. In parts of Malaysia, villagers asked the distance to the next village were likely to respond with three rice cookings; an approximation of the time it would take to travel there on foot. Everyone is assumed to know how long it takes to cook rice. Named units referring to seeming standards also were contextualised. The aune, a French ell used for measuring cloth, depended on the sort of cloth being measured, taking price and scarcity into account; an aune of silk was shorter than an aune of linen.[5]

Some opponents of metrication cite an evolutionary basis for considering the difficulty of conversion between non-metric units to be an advantage rather than a disadvantage of resistance to metrication: To a degree, the use of a system in which conversions are difficult benefits persons with high mathematical aptitude at the expense of persons with lower mathematical aptitude. The use of such a system thereby increases the evolutionary advantage that mathematical aptitude provides (i.e., increases its relevance as a factor affecting fitness for survival), increases the evolutionary fitness (ceteris paribus) of persons who have genetically or culturally inherited mathematical aptitude that is above the population-wide average during their reproductive years, and thereby increases the rate of growth in mathematical aptitude of the population as a whole.[citation needed] The soundness of this argument is limited, however, by the imperfect correlation between aptitude and achievement: On the underinclusive side, such a system confers disadvantage rather than advantage on persons who have a high innate mathematical aptitude and/or who are born into a culture that values mathematical education but whose economic or geographical circumstances deny them access to the formal education that lets them convert these theoretical advantages into practical ones. On the overinclusive side, such a system confers unintentional advantage on individuals who can overcome this obstacle by means of an unrelated or only tangentially related advantage (e.g., economic wealth, including wealth derived through immoral means and/or inherited by chance, sufficient to provide easy access to electronic calculators).

The British Weights and Measures Association has argued that metric led to a greater complexity for consumers because, unlike the ounce, a single gram is too small a measurement in everyday life[6] and that transition from one system of measurement to another can aid profiteering if manufacturers downsize packages during the process.[7]

Divisibility[edit]

Metric opponents cite easier division of customary units as one reason not to adopt a decimalised system. For example, the customary units with ratios of 12 and 16 have more proper factors than the metric 10 - {2, 3, 4, 6} and {2, 4, 8} vs. {2, 5}.

The main disadvantage cited by critics of customary measures is the proliferation of units and difficulty in remembering the ratios between them.

Industry-specific product sizing[edit]

Metric opposed artisans and practitioners may be concerned by certain dimensions being less memorable with metric units. As the table below shows, industries have adapted to such concern by rounding dimensions in metric units:

Industry Common reference Metric reference
Carpentry 4 ft × 8 ft plywood 1219 mm × 2438 mm (exact)
1200 mm × 2400 mm (new Europe)
"2 by 4" 50.8 mm × 101.6 mm (exact)
50 mm × 100 mm (Europe)
(but planing makes all beams 3~8 mm narrower)

Political arguments[edit]

Tradition[edit]

There are conservatives[who?] who label anti-metrication as a form of traditionalism, looking to historic usage spanning centuries and sometimes millennia.

The non-metric units have had different values in different times and places. At the time of the French revolution there were over 5000 different foot measures. The current UK imperial system is based on the Weights and Measures Act 1824, about 30 years after the founding of the metric system.

By contrast, the metric system has remained unchanged since it was first defined. Even though the metre was intended to equal one ten-millionth of the length of the meridian through Paris from pole to the equator, the calculated value was subsequently found to be short by 0.2 millimetres (because researchers miscalculated the flattening of the Earth). Nevertheless, the original reference metre was retained, leaving the exact distance from equator to pole slightly more than ten million metres. Subsequent advances in science and engineering have required increased precision in the definition, so that it is now defined as the length travelled by light in a vacuum during the time interval of 1299,792,458 of a second. In addition, a reference standard (a rod of platinum-iridium alloy) is maintained by the inter-governmental organisation the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, and calibration of a standard metre is usually achieved (to one part in a billion, or slightly better in some recent installations[8]) by counting 1,579,800.298728 wavelengths of the ultra-fine (3s2 to 2p4) emission line of helium–neon laser light (this wavelength being approximately 632.99139822 nm in a vacuum). These refinements improved the precision and consistency with which the metre was defined.

Government compulsion[edit]

The adoption of metric units has required some government compulsion[9] and some have argued that such policies are wrong in principle.[10] However, compulsory standards of weights and measures go back as far as Magna Carta. In 1824 in Britain, the Weights and Measures Act ("An Act for ascertaining and establishing Uniformity of Weights and Measures") consolidated the various gallons in use at the time and established a new imperial gallon, and prohibited the use of the older units, including what the United States now calls customary US measure.

Anti-metrication in the UK often manifests itself in conjunction with Euroscepticism because of the belief that the European Union is responsible for compulsory metrication. However, a Board of Trade committee had (without success) recommended metrication to the government in 1951,[11] ten years before the UK first applied to join the EEC. The Board of Trade initiated metrication in 1965, with a target completion date of 1975[11] and the Metrication Board was established in 1968,[11] five years before the UK actually joined the European Economic Community (on its second attempt). The EU's own Units of Measurement Directive dated from 1971 and was substantially revised in 1979.

All statutory instruments for metrication since 1985 have relied on powers derived from the UK European Communities Act 1972. This helped to reinforce anti-EU sentiment as the British Parliament does not vote on such measures. More recently, anti-metrication supporters have asserted that the (claimed) legal compulsion to adopt the metric system instead of their traditional weights and measures is an infringement of a right to freedom of speech, though this claim has been consistently rejected by the courts. On 25 February 2004, the European Court of Human Rights rejected an application from some British shopkeepers who said that their human rights had been violated.

On 8 May 2007, several British newspapers including The Times[12] used correspondence between Giles Chichester MEP and EU Commissioner Günter Verheugen to report that the European Commission had decided to allow meat, fish, fruit and vegetables to continue to be sold in pounds and ounces. These reports did not mention that pounds and ounces would only retain supplementary-unit status. On 10 September, the EU Commission published proposed amendments to the Units of Measurement Directive that would permit supplementary units (such as pounds and ounces) to be used indefinitely alongside, but not instead of, the units catalogued in the Units of Measurement Directive. The reporting of this decision in the British press was sufficiently misleading that the Roger Marles, Head of [British] Trading Standards, issued the following statement:

"The legal position on the use of imperial measures has not changed. Pre-packed goods and goods sold loose from bulk, such as fruit and vegetables, are still required to be sold in metric quantities and weighing scales must be calibrated in metric units of measurement. Suggestions that goods can now be sold in pounds and ounces are incorrect."[13]

In the US, there is also government compulsion with weights and measures. Federal and state laws control the labelling of goods for sale in the supermarket, drugs, wine, liquor, etc. The US Fair Packaging and Labeling Act mandates that measurement must be in both metric and US customary units.[14] However, wine must be bottled in 50 mL, 100 mL, 187 mL, 375 mL, 500 mL, 750 mL, 1 L, 1.5 L, or 3 L sizes. Containers over 3 L must be bottled in quantities of even litres. No other sizes may be bottled.[15] Spirits must also be sold in metric quantities.[16] On 29 March 2010, NASA, the United States' space agency, decided to avoid making its proposed Constellation rocket system metric-compliant, especially due to pressure from manufacturers; ultimately the program was discontinued. It had been predicted that it would cost US$368 million to convert to metric measurements for parts made by both NASA and external companies. Constellation would have borrowed technology from the 1970s-era Space Shuttle program (which used non-metric measurements in software and hardware).[17] However, commercial space manufacturers, such as Space X, design their systems (e.g. Dragon and Falcon 9) using metric units.

High modernism and legibility[edit]

Commentator Ken Alder noted that on the eve of the French Revolution a quarter of a million different units of measure were in use in France; in many cases quantity associated with each unit of measure differed from town to town and often from trade to trade.[18] He claimed that the metric system originated in the ideology of Pure Reason from the more radical element of the French Revolution, that it was devised in France to try to make France "revenue-rich, militarily potent, and easily administered", and that it was part of a conscious plan to transform French culture, meant to unify and transform French society: "As mathematics was the language of science, so would the metric system be the language of commerce and industry."[19] In his 1998 monograph Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed, James C. Scott argued that central governments attempt to impose what he calls "legibility" on their subjects. Local folkways concerning measurements, like local customs concerning patronymics, tend to come under severe pressure from bureaucracies. Scott's thesis is that in order for schemes to improve the human condition to succeed, they must take into account local conditions, and that the high-modernist ideologies of the 20th century have prevented this. Scott cites the enforcement of the metric system as a specific example of this sort of failed and resented "improvement" imposed by centralizing and standardizing authority.[20] While the metric system was introduced in the French law by the revolutionary government in April 1795,[21] it did not immediately displace traditional measurements in the popular mind. In fact, its use was initially associated with officialdom and elitism as Chateaubriand remarked in 1828: "Whenever you meet a fellow who, instead of talking arpents, toises, and pieds, refers to hectares, metres, and centimetres, rest assured, the man is a prefect."[22] However, it was largely used in France and in other countries by July 1837 when the decimal metric system was finally decided upon and considered the only official measurement system to be used in France.

Price inflation[edit]

The British Weights and Measures Association argues that adopting metric measures in shops, especially in supermarkets, gives an opportunity for traders to increase prices covertly. They give numerous examples of packaged groceries to back up this contention.[23]

However, common metric units are larger than their nearest US/imperial counterparts: half a kilogram is more than a pound (0.5 kg = 1.102 lb), one metre is more than a yard (1 m = 1.094 yd), one litre is a little more than a US quart (1 L = 1.0567 qt) (though a little less than an imperial quart, at 1 L = 0.8800 qt). When Pepsi became the first in the United States to sell soft drinks in two-litre bottles [24] instead of two-quart (US)(1.89 L) bottles, it was a success, and two-litre bottles are now well-established in the American soft drink market,[25] though fluid ounces remain the usual unit of measure for cans.

The move to smaller units (e.g. millilitre vs fluid ounce, gram vs ounce) allows manufacturers to move sizes of packaging up and down with more precision. For example, a 2 oz bag of chips may be moved to 50 grams, then 45 grams. Likewise, strange packaging sizes may arise, such as 690 grams (about 24 oz) or 1200 grams (about 42 oz), usually resulting from conversion and rounding of customary units.

The Australian experience of metric conversion showed no evidence of price inflation caused by metrication.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Myanmar to adopt metric system (archived)". Eleven Media Group. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  2. ^ "Appendix G - Weights and Measures". The World Factbook. Washington: Central Intelligence Agency. 6 September 2007. Retrieved 25 December 2007 
  3. ^ "How do you decide whether a country is “metric” or “non-metric”?". Lamar.colostate.edu. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  4. ^ Lovegreen, Alan. "Past its Sell-By Date". The Yardstick (#1). British Weights and Measures Association. Retrieved 18 January 2007. 
  5. ^ Scott, James C. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed, p. 25. (Yale University Press, 1998) ISBN 0-300-07016-0
  6. ^ "BWMA/Consumers - Death of Measurement". Bwmaonline.com. Retrieved 17 November 2010. 
  7. ^ The Great Metric Rip-Off. Their article neglects to mention the effect of downsizing from 500g to 454g (= 1 pound).
  8. ^ [1][dead link]
  9. ^ [2][dead link]
  10. ^ Richard North. "AGAINST COMPULSORY METRICATION" (PDF). Libertarian.co.uk. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c [3][dead link]
  12. ^ "Consimer Affairs". The Times. 9 May 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  13. ^ "Clearing Up the Metric Muddle". Gloucestershire Trading Standards. 4 April 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  14. ^ "FPLA Introduction". Ftc.gov. Retrieved 17 November 2010. 
  15. ^ "Wine Labeling Regulations" (PDF). Ttb.gov. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  16. ^ "Distilled Spirit Labeling Regulations" (PDF). Ttb.gov. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  17. ^ "REVIEW OF THE CONSTELLATION PROGRAM’S REQUEST TO DISCONTINUE USING THE METRIC SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT" (PDF). Oig.nasa.gov. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  18. ^ Adler, Ken (2002). The Measure of all Things - The Seven -Year-Odyssey that Transformed the World. London: Abacus. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0 349 11507 9. 
  19. ^ Alder, Ken (1995). "A Revolution to Measure: The Political Economy of the Metric System in France", in The Values of Precision, edited by M. Norton Wise. (Princeton University Press, 1995), pp. 39-71. ISBN 0-691-01601-1
  20. ^ Scott, Seeing Like a State, pp. 30-33.
  21. ^ "Histoire de la mesure - du mètre au SI" (in French). metrologie-francaise.fr. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  22. ^ Quoted in Witold Kula, Measures and Men, tr. R. Szreter (Princeton, 1986: ISBN 0-691-05446-0), p. 286
  23. ^ "The Great Metric Rip-Off". British Weights and Measures Association. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  24. ^ "PepsiCo - Company - History". Pepsico.com. 2006. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  25. ^ "PepsiCo Our History". PepsiCo.com. Retrieved 17 November 2010. 
  26. ^ "Metrication in Australia". themetricmaven.com. Australian Government Publishing Service. 1992. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Books supporting metrication
Books opposing metrication