Weights and Measures Act

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Weights and Measures Act 1824)
Jump to: navigation, search

A Weights and Measures Act is an Act of Parliament determining the regulation of weights and measures. The acts may catalogue lawful weights and measures, prescribe the mechanism for inspection and enforcement of the use of such weights and measures and may set out circumstances under which they may be amended.

United Kingdom[edit]

There have been many laws concerned with weights and measures in the United Kingdom or parts of it over the last 1000 or so years. Modern legislation may, in addition to specific requirements, set out circumstances under which the incumbent minister may amend the legislation by means of statutory instruments. Prior to the Weights and Measures Act 1985, Weights and Measures Acts were only concerned with trade law where the weight or size of the goods being traded is important. The 1985 Act, however, had a broader scope, encompassing all aspects covered by the European Economic Community (EEC) European Commission (EC) directive 80/181/EEC.

As of 25 April 2012, the current primary legislation in the United Kingdom is the 1985 Act, which was last amended by statutory instrument in 2011.[1] Statutory instruments made under the authority of the Act do not amend the Act per se, but regulate particular areas covered by the Act.[2]

The Act is currently enforced by the 200 Trading Standards Offices managed by local authorities around the country. Definitions of units of measurements and the technical equipment relating to weights and measures are provided by the National Measurement Office, an agency of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.

Permitted units of measure[edit]

The Weights and Measures (Metric System) Act of 1897 made the provision that metric units could be used, in addition to the traditional imperial units, for trade.[3][4] In practice the actual choice of units was restricted by price marking orders which listed packaging sizes and pricing structures that might be used in specific circumstances. For example, as of April 2012, wine for consumption on premises may only be sold in 125, 175 and 250 ml glasses while draught beer may only be sold in 13, 12, 23 and one pint glasses. Prior to 1973 (the year that the United Kingdom joined the EEC) such specifications were almost all in imperial units.

As part of its attempt to harmonise units of measure between the member states of its Internal Market, the European Commission (EC) issued directive 80/181/EEC which set out the units of measure that should be used for what it called "economic, public health, public safety and administrative" purposes. To comply with this directive, the Weights and Measures Act of 1986 extended the scope of Trading Standards responsibilities from just matters related to trade to all aspects of the directive. For example, it was the Trading Standards Office that criticised the use of sub-standard weighing machines in NHS hospitals.[5]

To help ease the EC's desired transition from sole use of imperial units to sole use of metric units, the directive permitted the use of what were termed "supplementary indicators" – the continued use of imperial units alongside the metric units catalogued by the directive (dual labelling). The initial intention was to prohibit dual labelling after the end of 1989, with metric units only being allowed after that date. This deadline was later extended: first to the end of 1999, then to the end of 2009. Finally in 2007, after an EU-wide consultation, the European Union (EU) (as it had become) and the EC, confirmed that the UK would be permitted to continue indefinitely to use imperial units such as pints, miles, pounds and ounces as at present.[6] Gloucestershire County Council Trading Standards Department confirmed the EU ruling that the previous deadline for ending dual labelling had been abolished.[7]

As of 24 April 2012, there are still a few cases where imperial units are required to be used and where metric units are optional within the scope of the Weights and Measures Act. These are: the pint for the sale of draught beer and cider and of milk in returnable containers; miles, yards, feet and inches for road signs and distances; and troy ounces for the sale of precious metals. In addition, British law specifies which non-metric units may be used with dual labelling (for example the imperial gallon, but not the US gallon).[8]

Historic Acts of Witenagemot[edit]

Numerous acts of the Saxon kings are known to have been lost. Those that have survived include:

10th century[edit]

  • 2 Edgar 8 (959 x 963)[9]
be mynetum and ᵹemetum. of money and measures.
And ᵹanᵹe án mẏnet ofer ealne þæs cẏniᵹes anƿeald⋅ ⁊ þone nan man ne forsace⋅ ⁊ ᵹanᵹe án ᵹemet ⁊ án ᵹeƿihte⋅ sƿilce man on Lunden-bẏriᵹ ⁊ on Ƿintan-ceastre healde⋅ ⁊ ᵹa seo ƿæᵹe ƿulle to ⋅cxx⋅ p̃. ⁊ nan man hiᵹ undeoror ne sẏlle⋅ ⁊ ᵹif hƿa hi þonne undeoror sẏlle⋅ oþþe eaƿunᵹa oþþe dearnunᵹa⋅ ᵹilde æᵹðer þam cẏnᵹe ⋅xl⋅ scillinᵹá. ᵹe seþe hi sẏlle ᵹe seþe hi bẏcᵹe:⋅ And let one money pass throughout the king's dominion; and that let no man refuse: and let one measure and one weight pass; such as is observed at London and at Winchester; and let the wey of wool go for 120 pence; and let no man sell it cheaper; and if any one sell it cheaper, either publicly or privately, let each pay 40 shillings to the king, both him who sells it, and him who buys it.
The statute also survives in a few other Old English and Latin copies, some which omit mention of London and describe "the measure held at Westchester", an indication that a standard ell or yard was nominally in use:[10][11]
de moneta, et mensura, et pondere. on money, and measure, and weight.
Et sit una moneta per totum regis imperium, et nemo sonet eam; et mensura, sicut apud Wincestriam habetur. Et eat pondus lane pro dimidia libra, et nemo carius vendat eam. And let there be one money through all the king's dominion; and let no man refuse it; and [one] measure, as is held at Winchester. And let the weight of wool go for a half-pound, and no one sell it more dearly.
John Quincy Adams's 1821 report on the history of English weights and measures notes of this act that "it was never observed".[12]

Historic Acts of the Royal Council[edit]

See also: Royal Council

11th century[edit]

De mensuris et ponderibus On measures and weights
Et quod habeant per universum regnum mensuras fidelissimas, & signatas, & pondera fidelissima & signata, sicut boni Praedecessores statuerunt.[13][14] "...We ordain and command that the weights and measures, throughout our realm, be as our worthy predecessors have established."[16]

12th century[edit]

9 Richard I c. 27. (1197)[17]

Assize of Measures
"It is established that woollen cloths, wherever they be made, be made of the same width, to wit, of two ells within the lists [selvages], and of the same good quality in the middle and at the sides. Also the ell shall be the same in the whole realm and of the same length and the ell shall be of iron."

Historic Acts of Parliament[edit]

Statutes of uncertain date[edit]

The statutes of uncertain date (Latin: Statuta temporis incerti) are generally dated to the mid-to-late 13th century.[18]

  • Assisa Panis et Cervisiae[19]
a.k.a. The Assize of Bread and Ale
a.k.a. 51 Henry III
  • Statutum de Pistoribus, et cetera[20]
a.k.a. Statute concerning Bakers, et cetera
  • Tractatus de Ponderibus et Mensuris[21][22]
a.k.a. Tractatus de Ponderibus
a.k.a. Compositio de Ponderibus
a.k.a. Assisa de Ponderibus et Mensuris
a.k.a. Assize of Weights and Measures
The Tractatus contains the first use of the word avoirdupois in England. However, the word does not refer to a specific weight system, but to a class of goods, i.e., heavy goods sold by weight rather than by capacity, by count, or by some other means. Since the Tractatus was written in Anglo-Norman French, it does not count as the first occurrence of the word in English.

  • Statutum de Admensuratione Terrase[23]
a.k.a. Statute for the Measuring of Land
a.k.a. An Ordinance for Measuring of Land
a.k.a. 33 Edward I st. 6. (1305)
"When an Acre of Land contianeth 10 Perches in Length, then it shall be in Breadth 16 Perches."

Ordinatum est quod tria grana ordei sicca et rotunda faciunt pollicem, et duodecim pollices faciunt pedem, tres pedes faciunt ulnam, quinque ulne et dimidia faciunt perticam, et quadraginta pertice in longitudine, et quatuor in latitudine, faciunt unam acram. "It is ordained that 3 grains of barley dry and round do make an inch, 12 inches make 1 foot, 3 feet make 1 yard [lit. ell], 5 yards and a half make a perch [i.e., a rod], and 40 perches in length and 4 in breadth make an acre."
The Liber Horn account reads:[27]
"And be it remembered that the iron yard of our Lord the King containeth 3 feet and no more, and a foot ought to contain 12 inches by the right measure of this yard measured, to wit, the 36th part of this yard rightly measured maketh 1 inch neither more nor less and 5 yards and a half make a perch that is 16 feet and a half measured by the aforesaid yard of our Lord the King."
This document seems to have had the effect of redefining the yard, foot, inch, and barleycorn to 1011 of their previous values, but leaves the rod and acre unchanged. The rod thus became 16½ feet instead of 15.

13th century[edit]

Magna Carta
"There shall be but one Measure throughout the Realm"
"One measure of Wine shall be through our Realm, and one measure of Ale, and one measure of Corn, that is to say, the Quarter of London; and one breadth of dyed Cloth, Russets, and Haberjects, that is to say, two Yards within the lists. (2) and it shall be of Weights as it is of Measures."
"Una Mensura vini sit per totum regnum nostrum & una mensura cervise & una mensura bladi scilicet quarter' London' & una latitudo pannorum tinctorum Russettorum & haubergettorum scillicet due ulne infra Listas. De ponderibus vero sit sicut de mensuris."[28]
The Magna Carta of 1215 was not ratified by Parliament until 1225, by which time it had become substantially abridged. Chapter 35 of the Magna Carta of 1215 (dealing with weights and measures) became chapter 25 of the Magna Carta of 1225.

14th century[edit]

"Bushels and Weights shall be made and sent into every Country."
  • 18 Edward III st. 2. Cap.4 (1344)[30]
"Commissions to assay Weights and Measures shall be repealed, and none such granted."
  • 25 Edward III st. 5. c. 9. (1350)[31]
"The Auncel Weight shall be put out, and Weighing shall be by equal Balance."
"qe le sak de leine ne poise qe vint & sys peres & chescun pere poise quatorze livres" \ "so that the Sack of Wooll weigh no more but xxvi. Stones, and every Stone to weigh xiv. l."
  • 25 Edward III st. 5. c. 10. (1350)[31]
"Every measure shall be according to the King's Standard, and shall be striked without Heap; saving the Rents of Lords."

"& contiene le quartre oct busselx par lestandard & neint plus." / "And the Quarter shall contain Eight Bushels by the Standard, and no more."

  • 27 Edward III st. 2. c. 10. (1353)[32][33]
"There shall be but one Weight, Measure and Yard throughout the Realm."
  • 31 Edward III st. 1. c. 2. (1357)[34]
"No Wool shall be bought by Fraud to abate the Price thereof. Weights shall be sent to all the Shires."
"All Vessels of Wine, Honey, and Oil brought into this realm shall be gauged."

"Le Roi a viscont de Kent saluz." / "Richard by the Grace of God, &c. to the Sheriff of Nottingham, Greeting."

  • 13 Richard II st. 1. c. 9. (1389)[36]
"There shall be but one Weight and one Measure throughout the Realm, saving in the County of Lancaster. The Weight of Wool, and the Refuse thereof."
  • 15 Richard II c. 4. (1391)[37]
"There shall be but eight Bushels of Corn striked to the Quarter."
  • 16 Richard II c. 3. (1392)[38]
"The Clerk of the Market shall carry with him all his Weights and Measures signed."

15th century[edit]

An Act concerning the true Measure of Corn.
  • 2 Henry V Stat. 2. c. 4. (1414)[40]
"There Shall be no gilding of Silver Ware but of the Allay of English Sterling."
first notice of troy weight in statute[41]
"Every City and Borough shall have a common Balance and Weight. Who may buy Wool and Yarn."

18 Henry VI c. 16. (1439)[43]

"There shall be but one Measure of Cloth through the Realm by the Yard and the Inch, and not by the Yard and Handful, according to the London Measure."
"Item – come il foit meritorie & almoigne a departer la veritee de la desciet si come jatarde en un parlement tenuz a Westm' la fuist ouste un rayme..."

18 Henry VI c. 17. (1439)[43]

"Vessels of Wine, Oyl, and Honey, shall be gauged"
"Item – Because all the Tuns, Pipes, Tertians and Hogsheads of Wine, Oyl, and Honey..."
"Item – pur ceo qe toutz les tonels pipes tertians & hoggeshedes de vin oyle & mele..."
An Act for Weights and Measures.
"The Names of the Cities and Towns limited for the keeping of Weights and Measures."
  • 12 Henry VII c. 5. (1496)[45]
An Act for Weights and Measures.
"That the Measure of a Bushel contain viij. Gallons of Wheat, and that every Gallon contain viij. li. of Wheat of Troy Weight, and every Pound contain xij. Ounces of Troy Weight, and every Ounce contain xx. Sterlings, and every Sterling be of the Weight of xxxij. Corns of Wheat that grew in the Midst of the Ear of Wheat, according to the old Laws of this Land."

16th century[edit]

"And whereas heretofore the merchaunte paid for coynage of every pounde Towre of fyne gold weighing xi oz. quarter Troye ii s. vi d. Nowe it is determyned by the king's highness, and his said councelle that the foresaid pounde Towre shall be no more used and occupied but al maner of golde and sylver shall be wayed by the pounde Troye, which maketh xii oz. Troy, which exceedith the pounde Towre in weight iii quarters of the oz."
  • 23 Henry VIII c. 4. (1531)[47]
An Act that no Brewers of Beer or Ale shall make their Barrels, Kilderkins or Firkins within them, and how much the same Barrels, et cetera shall contain.
  • 24 Henry VIII c. 3. (1532)[48]
An Act for flesh to be sold by weight, and the prices limited.
"Beef, pork, mutton and veal shall be sold by weight called Haver-de-pois."
  • 24 Henry VIII c. 4. (1532)[48]
"An acre shall be counted 160 perches, and every perch 16-foot and a half.
  • 5 & 6 Edward VI c. 6. (1552)[49]
An Act for the true making of Woolen Cloth.
"XIV. And that all and every Broad Cloth and Clothes called Taunton Clothes, Bridgwaters, and other Clothes which shall be made after the said Feast in Taunton, Bridgwater or in other Places of like Sort, shall contain at the Water in Length betwixt twelve and thirteen Yards, Yard and Inch of the Rule, and in Breadth seven-Quarters of a Yard: (2) And every narrow Cloth made after the said Feast in the said Towns or elsewhere of like Sorts, shall contain in the Water in Length betwixt three and twenty and five and twenty Yards, Yard and Inch as is aforesaid, and in Breadth one Yard of like Measure; (3) and every such Cloth, both Broad and Narrow being well scowred, thicked, milled and fully dried, shall weigh xxxiv. li. the Piece at the least."
"XV. And that all Clothes named Check-Kersie and Straits, which shall be made after the said Feast shall contain being wet between seventeen and eighteen Yards, with the Inches as is aforesaid, and in Breadth one Yard at the least at the Water; and being well scowred, thicked, milled and fully dried, shall weigh xxiv. li. the Piece at the least."
  • 4 & 5 Philip and Mary c. 5. par. IX. (1557–8)[50]
An act touching the making of woolen clothes.
"IX. Item, That every ordinary kersie mentioned in the said act shall contain in length in the water betwixt xvi. and xvii. yards, yard and inch; and being well scoured thicked, milled, dressed and fully dried, shall weigh nineteen pounds the piece at the least:..."
  • 23 Elizabeth. c. 8. (1581) [51]
An Act touching the true melting, making and working of Wax.
"...fill and sell or cause to be filled or sold or offered to be sold any Barrel, Kilderkin or Firkin with Honey, for or in the Name of a Barrel, Kilderkin or Firkin containing less than two and thirty Wine Gallons the Barrel, sixteen Wine Gallons the Kilderkin, and eight Wine Gallons the Firkin; every Person and Persons so offending shall forfeit and lose for every Half Gallon so lacking five Shillings of English Money."
  • 35 Elizabeth. c. 6. (1593)[52]
An Act against converting of great Houses into several Tenements, and for Restraint of Inmates and Inclosures, in and near about the City of London and Westminster.
"... A Mile shall contain eight Furlongs, every Furlong forty Poles, and every Pole shall contain sixteen Foot and an half."[53]
This is the codification and namesake of the statute mile.
  • 35 Elizabeth. c. 10. par. III (1593)[54]
An act for the reformation of sundry abuses in clothes, called Devonshire kerjies or dozens, according to a proclamation of the thirty-fourth year of the reign of our sovereign lady the Queen that now is.
"(2) and each and every of the same Devonshire kersies or dozens, so being raw, and as it cometh forth off the weaver's loom (without racking, stretching, straining or other device to encrease the length thereof) shall contain in length between fifteen and sixteen yards by the measure of yard and inch by the rule, ..."

17th century[edit]

An Act for the better ordering and regulating of the Office of Clerk of the Market, allowed and confirmed by this Statutes; and for the Reformation of false Weights and Measures.
An Act for ascertaining the Measures of Corn and Salt.
First mention of Winchester bushel in statute.
  • 22 & 23 Charles II c. 12. (1670)[57]
An additional Act for ascertaining the Measures of Corn and Salt.
  • 8 & 9 William III c. 22. s. 9. (1696–7)[58][59]
"...every round bushel with a plain and even bottom being eighteen inches and a half wide throughout and eight inches deep shall be determined a legal Winchester bushel according to the Standard of His Majesty's Exchequer."
First definition of Winchester bushel in statute (≈2150.42 cubic inches).

18th century[edit]

An Act for ascertaining the Measures for retailing Ale and Beer.
An Act to ascertain the Water Measure of Fruit.
  • 5 & 6 Anne. c. 27. (1706)[62]
An Act for continuing several Subsidies, Impositions and Duties, and for making Provisions therein mentioned to raise Money by Way of Loan for the Service of the War, and other Her Majesty's necessary and important Occasions, and for ascertaining the Wine Measure.
"...any Vessel containing two hundred thirty one cubical Inches and no more shall be deemed and taken to be a lawful Wine Gallon..."
This statute is the origin of the US gallon, also known as the Queen Anne Gallon, Queen Anne Wine Gallon, or pre-1824 British gallon.
  • False Weights and Scales Act 1770 10 George III c. 44[63]
An Act for more effectually preventing Traders in exciseable Commodities from using false Weights and Scales and for explaining and amending several Acts of Parliament relating to Hackney Coaches and Chairs
An Act for the more effectual Prevention of the Use of defective Weights, and of false and unequal Balances.
  • Weights and Measures Act 1797 37 George III c. 143[65]
An Act to explain and amend an Act made in the thirty-fifth Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, intituled, An Act for the more effectual Prevention of the use of defective Weights, and of false and unequal Balances.

19th century[edit]

  • Weights and Measures Act 1815 55 George III c. 43[66]
An Act for the more effectual Prevention of the Use of false and deficient Measures.

An Act for ascertaining and establishing Uniformity of Weights and Measures.
This is the origin of Imperial units. This statute repeals nearly all previous weights and measures legislation, listing them in chronological order (by regnal year but without dates) beginning with "ancient statutes of uncertain date."
  • Weights and Measures Act 1825 6 George IV c. 12[68]
An Act to prolong the Time of the Commencement of an Act of the last Session of Parliament, for ascertaining and establishing Uniformity of Weights and Measures and to amend the said Act.
An Act to amend and render more effectual Two Acts of the Fifth and Sixth Years of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Fourth, relating to Weights and Measures.
  • Weights and Measures Act 1835 5 & 6 William IV c. 63[70]
An Act to repeal an Act of the Fourth and Fifth Year of His present Majesty relating to Weights and Measures, and to make other Provisions instead thereof.
  • Weights and Measures Act 1855 18 & 19 Victoria. c. 72.[71]
An Act for legalising and preserving the restored Standards of Weights and Measures
"...the Imperial Standard Pound Avoirdupois and shall be deemed to be the only Standard Measure of Weight from which all other Weights and other Measures having Reference..."
An Act to amend the Act of the fifth and sixth years of King William the Fourth, chapter sixty-three, relating to weights and measures.
  • Metric Weights and Measures Act 1864 27 & 28 Victoria. c. 117[73]
An Act to render permissive the Use of the Metric System of Weights and Measures.
  • Weights and Measures Act 1878 41 & 42 Victoria. c. 49[74]
An Act to consolidate the Law relating to Weights and Measures.
This statute abolished the troy pound, effective January 1879.[75]
  • Weights and Measures Act 1889 52 & 53 Victoria. c. 21[76]
An Act for amending the Law relating to Weights and Measures and for other purposes connected therewith.
  • Weights and Measures Act 1897 60 & 61 Victoria. c. 46.[77]
An Act to legalise the Use of Weights and Measures of the Metric System.
Collective title[edit]

The Weights and Measures Acts 1878 to 1893 was the collective title of the following Acts:[78]

  • The Weights and Measures Act 1878 (41 & 42 Vict c 49)
  • The Weights and Measures Act 1889 (52 & 53 Vict c 21)
  • The Weights and Measures (Purchase) Act 1892 (55 & 56 Vict c 18)
  • The Weights and Measures Act 1893 (56 & 57 Vict c 19)

20th century[edit]

  • Weights and Measures Act 1904 4 Edward VII c. 28.[79]
  • Weights and Measures Act 1926 16 & 17 George V Cap.63
Sale of Food (Weights and Measures) Act.
  • Weights and Measures Act 1963[80][81][82]
  • Weights and Measures etc Act 1976[83]
  • Weights and Measures Act 1985[1] This act removed from use for retail sales by weight or measure many traditional and Imperial units as part of the process of metricating retail sales.[84]

Comparable laws in other countries[edit]

Canada[edit]

Weights and measures in Canada are legally defined by its Weights and Measures Act.[85]

India[edit]

  • The Indian Weights and Measures of Capacity Act 1871.[86]
An Act to regulate the Weights and Measures of Capacity of British India.
  • Measures of Length Act 1889.[87]
An Act to declare the Imperial Standard Yard for the United Kingdom to be the legal standard measure of length in British India.

Ireland[edit]

  • Weights and Measures Act 1936.[88]

United States[edit]

In the United States, a regular meeting of the states (the National Conference on Weights and Measures) maintains several handbooks, which are available at the website of the National Institute of Standards and Technology.[89] Most of the states have enacted these handbooks into law.[90]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Weights and Measures Act 1985". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  2. ^ "Full Legislation List". Trading Standards Office. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  3. ^ "Tuesday, August 10, 1897." (PDF). The London Gazette: 4481. 10 August 1897. 
  4. ^ http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1897/jul/22/use-of-metric-weights-and-measures-in#S4V0051P0_18970722_HOL_28 |chapter-url= missing title (help). Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Lords. 22 July 1897. col. 695–696. 
  5. ^ http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldhansrd/text/100225-0001.htm |chapter-url= missing title (help). Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Lords. 25 February 2010. col. 1081–1083. 
  6. ^ Verheugen, Günter (11 September 2007). "Exclusive: Your pint safe in EU hands". Retrieved 10 November 2007. 
  7. ^ "Clearing Up the Metric Muddle". Gloucestershire Trading Standards. 4 April 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  8. ^ UK Parliament. The Weights and Measures (Packaged Goods) Regulations (2006) as made, from legislation.gov.uk.
  9. ^ Thorpe, Benjamin (1840), "The Laws of King Edgar", Ancient Laws and Institutes of England; Comprising Laws enacted under the Anglo-Saxon Kings from Æthelbirht to Cnut, With an English Translation of the Saxon; The Laws called Edward the Confessor's; The Laws of William the Conqueror, and those ascribed to Henry the First: Also, Monumenta Ecclesiastica Anglicana, From the Seventh to the Tenth Century; And the Ancient Latin Version of the Anglo-Saxon Laws. With a Compendious Glossary, &c., London: Commissioners of the Public Records of the Kingdom, p. 113 . (Old English) & (Latin) & (English)
  10. ^ Felix Liebermann (1903). Die gesetze der Angelsachsen: Text und übersetzung. Max Niemeyer. pp. 204–6. Retrieved 29 January 2012. 
  11. ^ Thorpe (1840), p. 525.
  12. ^ a b Adams, John Quincy (1821), Report upon Weights and Measures: Prepared in Obedience to a Resolution of the Senate of the Third March, 1817, Washington: Gales & Seaton, p. 22 .
  13. ^ a b Wilkins, David (1721), Leges Anglo-Saxonicæ Ecclesiasticæ & Civiles. Accedunt Leges Eduardi Latinæ, Guilielmi Conquestoris Gallo-Normannicæ, et Henrici I. Latinæ. Subjungitur Domini Henr. Spelmanni Codex Legum Veterum Statutorum Regni Angliæ, quæ ab ingressu Guilielmi I. usque ad annum nonum Henr. III. edita sunt. Toti Operi præmittitur Dissertatio Epistolaris admodum Reverendi Domini Guilielmi Nicolsoni Episcopi Derrensis De Jure Feudali Veterum Saxonum [The Anglo-Saxon Ecclesiastical and Civil Laws: The Laws of Edward in Latin, of William the Conqueror in Norman French, and of Henry I in Latin, to which is Appended the Legal Code of Old Statutes of the Kings of England of Lord Henry Spelman, which were Published from the Beginning of William I up to the 9th Year of Henry III., the whole work prefaced by the Epistolary Dissertation of the Most Rev. Lord William Nicolson, Bishop of Derry, on the Feudal Law of the Old Saxons], London: Wm. Bowyer for Rob. Gosling, p. 228 . (Latin) & (Norman French) & (Old English)
  14. ^ Schmid, Reinhold, ed. (1858), Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen: In der Ursprache mit Uebersetzung, Erläuterungen und einem antiquarischen Glossar [The Laws of the Anglo-Saxons: In the Original Language with Translation, Explanatory Notes, and an Antiquarian Glossary], Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus, p. 355 . (German) & (Old English) & (Latin)
  15. ^ Clarke, William (1767), The Connexion of the Roman, Saxon, and English Coins Deducing the Antiquities, Customs, and Manners of Each People to Modern Times; Particularly the Origin of Feudal Tenures, and of Parliaments: Illustrated throughout with Critical and Historical Remarks on Various Authors, both Sacred and Profane, London: W. Bowyer & J. Nichols, p. 150 .
  16. ^ Wilkins[13] & Folkes, cited by Clarke,[15] cited by Adams.[12]
  17. ^ Alfred Edward Bland; Richard Henry Tawney (1919). English economic history: select documents. Macmillan Co. pp. 154–5. Retrieved 9 January 2012. 
  18. ^ Great Britain (1863). The public general acts. Proprietors of the Law Journal Reports. p. 270. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  19. ^ Adam Smith (1827). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations. Printed at the University Press for T. Nelson and P. Brown. p. 77. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  20. ^ Royal Historical Society (Great Britain) (1880). Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Printed for The Society. pp. 83–4. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  21. ^ Ruffhead, Owen, ed. (1763), The Statutes at Large, from Magna Charta to the End of the Reign of King Henry the Sixth. To which is prefixed, A Table of the Titles of all the Publick and Private Statutes during that Time, Vol. I, London: Mark Basket for the Crown, pp. 148–149 . (English) & (Latin) & (Norman French)
  22. ^ "Tractatus de Ponderibus et Mensuris". sizes.com. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  23. ^ Ruffhead (1763), p. 152.
  24. ^ Great Britain; Owen Ruffhead (1765). Statutes at Large. Printed by M. Baskett. p. 421. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  25. ^ Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors; W. Fowler (1884). Transactions. p. 277. Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  26. ^ BL Cotton MS Claudius D2
  27. ^ Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors; W. Fowler (1884). Transactions. p. 276. Retrieved 8 January 2012. 
  28. ^ Ruffhead (1763), p. 7.
  29. ^ Ruffhead (1763), p. 227.
  30. ^ Ruffhead (1763), p. 241.
  31. ^ a b Ruffhead (1763), p. 264.
  32. ^ Ruffhead (1763), p. 279.
  33. ^ Danby Pickering, ed. (1762). Statutes at Large 2. pp. 85–6. Retrieved 8 January 2012. 
  34. ^ Ruffhead (1763), pp. 290–291.
  35. ^ Ruffhead (1763), p. 348.
  36. ^ Ruffhead (1763), p. 387.
  37. ^ Ruffhead (1763), p. 401.
  38. ^ Ruffhead (1763), p. 405.
  39. ^ Ruffhead (1763), p. 485.
  40. ^ Ruffhead (1763), p. 499.
  41. ^ the house of lords. 1864. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 
  42. ^ Ruffhead (1763), pp. 542–544.
  43. ^ a b Ruffhead (1763), p. 594.
  44. ^ Great Britain; William David Evans; Anthony Hammond; Thomas Colpitts Granger (1836). A collection of statutes connected with the general administration of the law: arranged according to the order of subjects. W. H. Bond. pp. 309–10. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  45. ^ Great Britain; William David Evans; Anthony Hammond; Thomas Colpitts Granger (1836). A collection of statutes connected with the general administration of the law: arranged according to the order of subjects. W. H. Bond. pp. 312–3. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  46. ^ Royal Society (Great Britain) (1856). Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Royal Society of London. pp. 753–4. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 
  47. ^ Pickering, Danby, ed. (1763), The Statutes at Large, from the First Year of King Richard III. to the Thirty-first Year of King Henry VIII. inclusive. To which is prefixed, A Table containing the Titles of all the Statutes during that Period., Vol. IV, Cambridge: Joseph Bentham for Charles Bathurst, pp. 219–223 .
  48. ^ a b Pickering (1763), p. 252.
  49. ^ Owen Ruffhead, ed. (1763). The statutes at large 2. p. 442. Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  50. ^ Great Britain; Pickering, Danby (1763). Danby Pickering, ed. The statutes at large 6. Printed by J. Bentham. p. 96. Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  51. ^ Great Britain; Danby Pickering (1763). Statutes at Large 6. Printed by J. Bentham. p. 342. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  52. ^ Great Britain; Danby Pickering (1763). Statutes at Large 6. Printed by J. Bentham. p. 433. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  53. ^ The Statutes at Large, From the First Year of King Edward the Fourth To the End of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. To which is prefixed, A Table of the Titles of all the Publick and Private Statutes during that Time, Vol. II, Mark Basket, Printer to the King, 1763, p. 676 
  54. ^ Great Britain; Pickering, Danby (1763). The statutes at large] 6. Printed by J. Bentham. p. 444. Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  55. ^ Great Britain (1763). Statutes at Large 7. pp. 353–5. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  56. ^ Great Britain (1763). Statutes at Large 8. Printed by Joseph Bentham. pp. 287–9. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  57. ^ Great Britain (1763). Statutes at Large 8. Printed by Joseph Bentham. pp. 353–5. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  58. ^ George Henry Townsend (1877). The manual of dates: a dictionary of reference to all the most important events in the history of mankind to be found in authentic records. Frederick Warne. p. 175. Retrieved 31 January 2012. 
  59. ^ Edinburgh encyclopaedia (1830). The Edinburgh encyclopaedia, conducted by D. Brewster. p. 150. Retrieved 31 January 2012. 
  60. ^ Great Britain; Sir Thomas Edlyne Tomlins; John Raithby (1811). Statutes at Large, of England and of Great Britain. Printed by G. Eyre and A. Strahan. pp. 274–7. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  61. ^ Great Britain; Sir Thomas Edlyne Tomlins; John Raithby (1811). Statutes at Large, of England and of Great Britain. Printed by G. Eyre and A. Strahan. p. 349. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  62. ^ Great Britain; Sir Thomas Edlyne Tomlins; John Raithby (1811). The statutes at large, of England and of Great Britain: from Magna Carta to the union of the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. Printed by G. Eyre and A. Strahan. p. 607. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  63. ^ Great Britain (1871). The statutes. Eyre & Spottiswood. pp. 719–20. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  64. ^ Great Britain; Danby Pickering (1795). Statutes at Large 40. Printed by J. Bentham. pp. 363–5. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 
  65. ^ statutes at large. 1798. pp. 677–9. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 
  66. ^ Great Britain; William David Evans; Anthony Hammond; Thomas Colpitts Granger (1836). A collection of statutes connected with the general administration of the law: arranged according to the order of subjects. W. H. Bond. pp. 325–7a. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  67. ^ Great Britain (1824). The statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1807–1865). His Majesty's statute and law printers. pp. 339–354. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  68. ^ Great Britain; William David Evans; Anthony Hammond; Thomas Colpitts Granger (1836). A collection of statutes connected with the general administration of the law: arranged according to the order of subjects. W. H. Bond. pp. 306–27. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  69. ^ Great Britain (1833). A collection of the public general statutes passed in the ... year of the reign of ... Printed by G. W. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen. pp. 217–226. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  70. ^ Great Britain (1835). A compendious abstract of the public general acts of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. J.W. Paget. pp. 137–145. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  71. ^ Great Britain (1855). A collection of public general statutes passed in the 18th and 19th years of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria. pp. 273–75. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  72. ^ Great Britain (1859). The statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1807–1865). His Majesty's statute and law printers. pp. 164–8. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  73. ^ Great Britain (1864). A collection of the public general statutes passed in the ... year of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria ... pp. 575–7. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  74. ^ Great Britain (1878). Statutes at large. pp. 308–341. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  75. ^ Hugh Chisholm (1911). The encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information. At the University press. p. 480. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  76. ^ Sir Christopher Rawlinson (1903). The municipal corporations acts and other enactments: relating to the powers and duties of municipal corporations thereon. Sweet & Maxwell, 1903. pp. 445–52. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  77. ^ The Law journal reports 66. E.B. Ince. 1897. p. 109. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  78. ^ The Short Titles Act 1896, section 2(1) and Schedule 2
  79. ^ Great Britain. Board of Trade (1907). Weights and measures acts, 1878–1904. Printed for H.M.S.O. by Darling & Son. p. 3. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  80. ^ "UK Public General Act 1963 c. 31". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  81. ^ "The Weights and Measures Regulations 1963". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  82. ^ Ronald Edward Zupko (1990). Revolution in measurement: Western European weights and measures since the age of science. American Philosophical Society. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-87169-186-6. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  83. ^ "Weights and Measures &c. Act 1976". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  84. ^ Donald Fenna, ed. (2002). A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units, 2002. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860522-6. The 1985 Act excluded from use for trade the bushell, cental, chain, drachm, dram, fluid drachm, furlong, grain, hundredweight, ounce apoth., peck, pennyweight, quarter, quintal, rood, scruple, stone, ton, the square mile, cubic inch, cubic foot, cubic yard, and the term 'metric ton' 
  85. ^ "Weights and Measures Act". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  86. ^ Andrew Lyon (1873). Law of India. pp. 762–5. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  87. ^ THE SESSIONAL PAPERS PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE HOUSE OF LORDS, OR PRESENTED BY ROYAL COMMAND, IN THE SESSION 1897. 1897. p. 239. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  88. ^ "Weights and Measures Act, 1936". irishstatutebook.ie. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  89. ^ "Weights and Measures". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 20 December 2011. 
  90. ^ "Summary of State Laws and Regulations in Weights and Measures" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology. 1 August 2005. Retrieved 20 December 2011. 

External links[edit]