Atrocity propaganda

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Atrocity propaganda is a term referring to the spreading of deliberate fabrications or exaggerations about the crimes committed by an enemy, constituting a form of psychological warfare.

The inherently violent nature of war means that exaggeration and invention of atrocities often becomes the main staple of propaganda. Patriotism is often not enough to make people hate – propaganda is also necessary.[1] "So great are the psychological resistances to war in modern nations", wrote Harold Lasswell, "that every war must appear to be a war of defense against a menacing, murderous aggressor. There must be no ambiguity about who the public is to hate."[2] Human testimony is deemed unreliable even in ordinary circumstances, but in wartime it can be further muddled by bias, sentiment, and misguided patriotism, becoming of no value whatsoever in establishing the truth.[3]

According to Paul Linebarger, atrocity propaganda leads to real atrocities, as it incites the enemy into committing more atrocities and, by heating up passions, it increases the chances of one's own side committing atrocities, in revenge for the ones reported in propaganda.[4] Atrocity propaganda might also lead the public to mistrust reports of actual atrocities. In January 1944, Arthur Koestler wrote of his frustration at trying to communicate what he had witnessed in Nazi-occupied Europe: the legacy of anti-German stories during World War I, many of which were debunked in the postwar years, meant that these reports were received with considerable amounts of skepticism.[5]

Similarly to propaganda, atrocity rumors detailing exaggerated or invented crimes perpetrated by enemies are also circulated to vilify the opposing side.[6]

Techniques[edit]

By establishing a baseline lie and painting the enemy as a monster, atrocity propaganda serves as an intelligence function, since it wastes the time and resources of the enemy's counterintelligence services to defend itself. Atrocity propaganda can either be white, gray, or black. Atrocity propaganda is often white, as it makes no attempt to hide its source and is overt in nature. The propagandists' goal is to influence perceptions, attitudes, opinions, and policies; often targeting officials at all levels of government. Atrocity propaganda is violent, gloomy, and portrays doom to help rile up and get the public excited. It dehumanizes the enemy, making them easier to kill. Wars have become more serious, and less gentlemanly; the enemy must now be taken into account not merely as a man, but as a fanatic.[7] So, "falsehood is a recognized and extremely useful weapon in warfare, and every country uses it quite deliberately to deceive its own people, attract neutrals, and to mislead the enemy."[8] Harold Lasswell saw it as a handy rule for arousing hate, and that "if at first they do not enrage, use an atrocity. It has been employed with unvarying success in every conflict known to man."[2]

The extent and devastation of the Great War required nations to keep morale high. Propaganda was used here to mobilize hatred against the enemy, convince the population of the justness of one's own cause, enlist the active support and cooperation of neutral countries, and strengthen the support of one's allies.[9] The goal was to make the enemy appear savage, barbaric, and inhumane.

Atrocity propaganda in history[edit]

Before the 20th century[edit]

Accounts of Irish atrocities during the Rebellion of 1641 are now dismissed as propaganda, but led to real massacres.[10]

In a sermon at Clermont during the Crusades, Urban II justified the war against Islam by claiming that the enemy "had ravaged the churches of God in the Eastern provinces, circumcised Christian men, violated women, and carried out the most unspeakable torture before killing them."[11] Urban II sermon succeeded in mobilizing popular enthusiasm in support of the People's Crusade.

Lurid tales purporting to unveil Jewish atrocities against Christians were widespread in the Middle Ages.[12] The charge against Jews of kidnapping and murdering Christian children to drink their blood during passover became known as blood libel.[13]

In the 17th century, the English press fabricated graphic descriptions of atrocities allegedly committed by Irish Catholics against English Protestants, including the torture of civilians and the raping of women. The English public reacted to these stories with calls for stern reprisals.[14] During the Irish rebellion of 1641, lurid reports of atrocities, including of pregnant women who had been ripped open and had their babies pulled out, provided Oliver Cromwell with justification for his subsequent slaughter of defeated Irish rebels.[10]

After the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, stories began to circulate in the British and colonial press of atrocities, especially rapes of European women, in places like Cawnpore; a subsequent official inquiry found no evidence for any of the claims.[15]

In the lead up to the Spanish-American War, Pulitzer and Hearst published stories of Spanish atrocities against Cubans. While occasionally true, the majority of these stories were fabrications meant to boost sales.[16]

20th century[edit]

World War I[edit]

It was reported that some thirty to thirty-five German soldiers entered the house of David Tordens, a carter, in Sempst; they bound him, and then five or six of them assaulted and ravished in his presence his thirteen year-old daughter, and afterwards fixed her on bayonets. After this horrible deed, they bayoneted his nine-year-old boy and then shot his wife.

[17]
Stories of German soldiers impaling children on their bayonets were based on extremely flimsy evidence.[18]

Atrocity propaganda was widespread during World War I, when it was used by all belligerents, playing a major role in creating the wave of patriotism that characterised the early stages of the war.[19] British propaganda is regarded has having made the most extensive use of fictitious atrocities to promote the war effort.[19]

One such story was that German soldiers were deliberately mutilating Belgian babies by cutting off their hands, in some versions even eating them. Eyewitness accounts told of having seen a similarly mutilated baby. As Arthur Ponsonby later pointed out, in reality a baby would be very unlikely to survive similar wounds without immediate medical attention.[20]

Another atrocity story involved a Canadian soldier, who had supposedly been crucified with bayonets by the Germans (see The Crucified Soldier). Many Canadians claimed to have witnessed the event, yet they all provided different version of how it had happened. The Canadian high command investigated the matter, concluding that it was untrue.[21]

Other reports circulated of Belgian women, often nuns, who had their breasts cut off by the Germans.[22] A story about German corpse factories, where bodies of German soldiers were supposedly turned into glycerine for weapons, or food for hogs and poultry, was published in a Times article on April 17, 1917.[23] In the postwar years, investigations in Britain and France revealed that these stories were false.[19]

In 1915, the British government asked Viscount Bryce, one of the best-known contemporary historians, to head the Committee on Alleged German Outrages which was to investigate the allegations of atrocities. The report purported to prove many of the claims, and was widely published in the United States, where it contributed to convince the American public to enter the war. Few at the time criticised the accuracy of the report. After the war, historians who sought to examine the documentation for the report were told that the files had mysteriously disappeared. Surviving correspondence between the members of the committee revealed they actually had severe doubts about the credibility of the tales they investigated.[24]

Message under the stamp[edit]

A notable example of atrocity rumor concerns a family who receives a letter from their son, who is imprisoned a German POW camp; the letter says that he is being treated well and fed sufficiently, and that the stamp on the letter might be of interest to "Alfie", the youngest son. Because the family has no son by that name, they become suspicious, and underneath the stamp they find a message saying "they've torn out my tongue!"[6] Prisoners' letters, however, bore no stamps.[25]

World War II[edit]

During World War II, atrocity propaganda was not used on the same scale as in World War I, as by then it had long been discredited by its use during the previous conflict.[26] There were exceptions in some propaganda films, such as Hitler's Children, Women in Bondage, and Enemy of Women, which portrayed the Germans (as opposed to just Nazis) as enemies of civilization, abusing women and the innocent.[27] Hitler's Children is now spoken of as "lurid", while Women in Bondage is described as a low-budget exploitation film; the latter carries a disclaimer that "everything in the film is true", but facts are often distorted or sensationalized.[28]

Toy-shaped land mines[edit]

The PFM-1 mine was claimed to have been deliberately designed to attract children

According to a 1985 UN report backed by Western countries, the KGB had deliberately designed mines to look like toys, and deployed them against Afghan children during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. The story likely originated from the PFM-1 mine, which was made from brightly colored plastic and had been directly copied from the American BLU-43 Dragontooth design. The Mine Action Coordination Center of Afghanistan reported that the allegations "gained a life for obvious journalist reasons", but otherwise had no basis in reality.[29]

Yugoslav Wars[edit]

In November 1991, a Serbian photographer claimed to have seen the corpses of 41 children, which had allegedly been killed by Croatian soldiers. The story was published by media outlets worldwide, but the photographer later admitted to fabricating his account. The story of this atrocity was blamed for inciting a desire for vengeance in Serbian rebels, who summarily executed Croatian fighters who were captured near the alleged crime scene the day after the forged report was published.[30]

Gulf war[edit]

Main article: Nayirah (testimony)

Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. On October 10, 1990, a young Kuwaiti girl known only as "Nayirah" appeared in front of a congressional committee and testified that she witnessed the mass murdering of infants, when Iraqi soldiers had snatched them out of hospital incubators and threw them on the floor to die. Her testimony became a lead item in newspapers, radio and TV all over the US. The story was eventually exposed as a fabrication in December 1992, in a CBC-TV program called To Sell a War. Nayirah was revealed to be the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the United States, and actually hadn't seen the "atrocities" she described take place; the PR firm Hill & Knowlton, which had been hired by the Kuwaiti government to encourage American intervention in the war, had heavily promoted her testimony.[31]

21st century[edit]

Iraq War[edit]

In the runup to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, press stories appeared in the United Kingdom and United States of a plastic shredder or wood chipper[32][33] into which Saddam and Qusay Hussein fed opponents of their Baathist rule. These stories attracted worldwide attention and boosted support for military action, in stories with titles such as "See men shredded, then say you don't back war". A year later, it was determined there was no evidence to support the existence of such a machine.[34]

In 2004, former Marine Staff Sgt. Jimmy Massey claimed that he and other Marines intentionally killed dozens of innocent Iraqi civilians, including a 4-year-old girl. His allegations were published by news organizations worldwide, but none of the five journalists who covered his battalion said they saw reckless or indiscriminate shooting of civilians. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch dismissed his claim as "either demonstrably false or exaggerated".[35]

In July 2003 an Iraqi woman, Jumana Hanna, testified that she had been subjected to inhumane treatment by Baathist policemen during two years of imprisonment, including being subjected to electric shocks and raped repeatedly. The story appeared on the front page of The Washington Post, and was presented to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by then-Deputy Defense Secretary Paul D. Wolfowitz. In January 2005, articles in Esquire and The Washington Post concluded that none of her allegations could be verified, and that her accounts contained grave inconsistencies. Her husband, who she claimed had been executed in the same prison where she was tortured, was in fact still alive.[36]

Other cases[edit]

During the 2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes, a rumor spread among ethnic Kyrgyz that Uzbek men had broken into a local women's dormitory and raped several Kyrgyz women. Local police never provided any confirmation that such an assault occurred.[37]

During the Arab Spring, Libyan media was reporting atrocities by Muammar Gaddafi loyalists, who where ordered to perform mass "Viagra-fueled rapes" (see 2011 Libyan rape allegations).[38] A later investigation by Amnesty International has failed to find evidence for these allegations, and in many cases has discredited them, as the rebels were found to have deliberately lied about the claims.[39]

In July 2014, the Russian public broadcaster Channel 1 aired a report claiming that Ukrainian soldiers in Sloviansk had crucified a three-year old boy to a board, and later dragged his mother with a tank, causing her death.[40] The account of the only witness interviewed for the report was not corroborated by anyone else,[41] and other media have been unable to confirm the story,[42] despite claims in the testimony that many of the city's inhabitants had been forced to watch the killings.[41] A reporter for Novaya Gazeta similarly failed to find any other witnesses in the city.[43]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Rogerson, Sidney (1938). Propaganda in the Next War. Great Britain: MacKays Limited. p. 27. 
  2. ^ a b Delwiche, Aaron. "Domestic Propaganda During the First World War". Retrieved 12 November 2012. 
  3. ^ Ponsonby, p.128
  4. ^ Budge, Kent. "Propaganda". The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 November 2012. 
  5. ^ "Inventing Atrocities". National Review Online. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  6. ^ a b David L. Miller (6 August 2013). Introduction to Collective Behavior and Collective Action: Third Edition. Waveland Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-4786-1095-3. 
  7. ^ Linebarger, Paul (1948). Psychological Warfare. Landisville, Pennsylvania: Coachwhip Publications. p. 22. ISBN 1-61646-055-5. 
  8. ^ "Falsehood in Wartime". Retrieved 11 November 2012. 
  9. ^ Cull, Culbert, Welch, p.24
  10. ^ a b "How lies about Irish 'barbarism' in 1641 paved way for Cromwell's atrocities". theguardian.com. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
  11. ^ Cull, Culbert, Welch, p. 23–4
  12. ^ Carl R. Trueman (2010-01-01). Histories and Fallacies: Problems Faced in the Writing of History. Crossway. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-4335-2080-8. 
  13. ^ Kembrew McLeod (2014-01-01). Pranksters: Making Mischief in the Modern World. NYU Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8147-6436-7. 
  14. ^ James David Drake (1999). King Philip's War: Civil War in New England, 1675–1676. Univ of Massachusetts Press. p. 134. ISBN 1-55849-224-0. 
  15. ^ Alex Tickell (2013-06-17). Terrorism, Insurgency and Indian-English Literature, 1830–1947. Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-136-61841-3. 
  16. ^ Michael Golay (2009-01-01). Spanish-American War, Updated Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4381-0013-5. 
  17. ^ Ponsonby, p.129
  18. ^ "Alleged German atrocities: Bryce report". The National Archives. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  19. ^ a b c Nicholas John Cull; David Holbrook Culbert; David Welch (2003-01-01). Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-57607-820-4. 
  20. ^ Celia M. Kingsbury (2010-07-01). For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front. U of Nebraska Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-8032-2832-5. 
  21. ^ Jennifer Keene; Michael Neiberg (2011). Finding Common Ground: New Directions in First World War Studies. BRILL. p. 32. ISBN 90-04-19182-8. 
  22. ^ Neil Hollander (2013-12-27). Elusive Dove: The Search for Peace During World War I. McFarland. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-7864-7891-0. 
  23. ^ Celia M. Kingsbury (2010-07-01). For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front. U of Nebraska Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-8032-2832-5. 
  24. ^ "The Historian Who Sold Out". History News Network. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  25. ^ "Message Under the Stamp". Snopes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  26. ^ Philip M. Taylor (15 November 2003). Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda, Third Edition. Manchester University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-7190-6767-9. 
  27. ^ Philip M. Taylor (15 November 2003). Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda, Third Edition. Manchester University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-7190-6767-9. 
  28. ^ Bernard F. Dick. The Star-spangled Screen: The American World War II Film. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 189–190. ISBN 0-8131-2821-8. 
  29. ^ Rodric Braithwaite (2011). Afgantsy: The Russians in Afghanistan, 1979–89. Profile Books. p. 223. ISBN 1-84668-054-9. 
  30. ^ "Media : Truth Is Again a Casualty of War : Fabricated accounts of atrocities in Yugoslavia have often led to fierce reprisals". Los Angeles Times. 
  31. ^ "When contemplating war, beware of babies in incubators". CSMonitor.com. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  32. ^ Saddam Executed; An Era Comes to an End
  33. ^ Prison Stands as Testament to Saddam's Evil
  34. ^ "Brendan O'Neill: The missing people-shredder". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  35. ^ "Is Jimmy Massey telling the truth about Iraq?". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  36. ^ "Iraqi Refugee's Tale of Abuse Dissolves Upon Later Scrutiny". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  37. ^ "Barriers Removed in Kyrgyzstan Despite Uzbek Protests". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  38. ^ Baker, Russ. "WhoWhatWhy Factchecks The Media: More Questions About The Libyan Sex Atrocity Reporting". WhoWhatWhy. 
  39. ^ "Amnesty questions claim that Gaddafi ordered rape as weapon of war". The Independent. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  40. ^ "Malaysia Airlines crash: Russian media blame Kiev". FT.com. 
  41. ^ a b "Russians Hear News About Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 That's Good for Kremlin". WSJ. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
  42. ^ "Russian TV sparks outrage with Ukraine child 'crucifixion' claim". Yahoo News. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
  43. ^ "There's No Evidence the Ukrainian Army Crucified a Child in Slovyansk". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 

References[edit]

  • Ponsonby, Arthur (1928). Falsehood in Wartime. Institute for Historical Review. p. 128. ISBN 0-939484-39-0. 
  • Nicholas Cull, David Culbert, David Welch (2003). Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. pp. 23–25. ISBN 1-57607-820-5. 

External links[edit]