Augustamnica

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Provincia Augustamnica
ἐπαρχία Αὑγουσταμνικῆς
Province of the Byzantine Empire

4th Century–641
Capital Pelusium
Historical era Antiquity
 -  Established 4th Century
 -  Arab-Byzantine Wars 641
Today part of  Egypt
Map of the late Roman Diocese of Egypt, with Augustamnica in the East.

Augustamnica (Latin) or Augoustamnike (Greek) was a Roman province of Egypt[1] created during the 5th century and was part of the Diocese of Oriens first and then of the Diocese of Egypt, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in the 640s.

Some ancient episcopal sees of the province are included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[2]

Augustamnica[edit]

The province was instituted in tetrarchic times with the name of Aegyptus Herculia (for Diocletian's colleague Maximian) with ancient Memphis as capital (315-325), but later re-merged in Aegyptus. In 341 the province was reconstituted, but the name was changed into Augustamnica to remove pagan connotations. It consisted of the Eastern part of the Nile delta and the ancient Heptanomia, and belonged to the Diocese of Oriens.[3][4]

Augustamnica was the only Egyptian province under a Corrector, a lower ranking governor.

Around 381 the provinces of Egypt become a diocese in their own, and so Augustamnica become part of the Diocese of Egypt. Between 386 and the end of the 4th century the new province of Arcadia, named after Emperor Arcadius, was created with territory from Augustamnica, the Heptanomia;[4] Augustamnica's capital was moved to Pelusium.

From the military point of view, the province was under the Comes limitis Aegypti. According to the Notitia dignitatum, the province hosted several military units: the Ala secunda Ulpia Afrorum at Thaubasteos, the Ala secunda Aegyptiorum at Tacasiria, the Cohors prima sagittariorum at Naithu, the Cohors prima Augusta Pannoniorum at Tohu, the Cohors prima Epireorum at Castra Iudaeorum, the Cohors quarta Iuthungorum at Affroditus, the Cohors secunda Ituraeorum at Aiy, the Cohors secunda Thracum at Muson and the Cohors quarta Numidarum at Narmunthi.[5]

Augustamnica I and II[edit]

Before 539, Augustamnica was divided into two provinces: Augustamnica Prima (First - North) and Augustamnica Secunda (Second - South).[4]

Augustamnica Prima had Pelusium as metropolis (administrative centre) and was under a corrector, who governed the following cities: Pelusium, Setroithes (or Sethroitis), Tanis, Thmuis, Rhinocorura, Ostracine (or Ostracina), Pentaschoinon, Casium, Aphnaion, Hephaestus, Panephysis, the Tents outside Gerra, the Tents inside Gerra, Thennesus, Panephusis.[6]

Episcopal sees[edit]

Ancient episcopal sees of Augustamnica I listed in the Annuario Pontificio as titular sees:[2]

Ancient episcopal sees of Augustamnica II listed in the Annuario Pontificio as titular sees:[2]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ [Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, p. 102]
  2. ^ a b c Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013
  3. ^ Alan K. Bowman, Egypt after the pharaohs: 332 BC-AD 642. From Alexander to the Arab Conquest, University of California Press, 1996, ISBN 0-520-20531-6, p. 79.
  4. ^ a b c Keenan, p. 613.
  5. ^ Notitia Dignitatum In partibus Orientis, XXVIII.
  6. ^ Georgius Cyprius, 685-700; Hierocles, Synecdemos 726:3-727:6.

References[edit]

  • Keenan, James K. (2000). "Egypt". In Cameron, Averil; Ward-Perkins, Bryan; Whitby, Michael. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XIV - Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D. 425–600. Cambridge University Press. pp. 612–637. ISBN 978-0-521-32591-2.