Battle of Gibraltar (1607)
|Battle of Gibraltar|
|Part of the Eighty Years' War|
The Battle of Gibraltar by Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom. Oil on canvas. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
|Commanders and leaders|
|Jacob van Heemskerk †||Juan Álvarez de Ávila †|
|26 warships||10 galleons
about 12 smaller vessels(Dutch claim)
10 galleons(Spanish claim)
|Casualties and losses|
|no ships lost 100 dead
|7-10 galleons and 9-12 smaller vessels,4000 men.(Dutch claim)
5 galleons and 9 small vessels.
350 dead or captured,
110 prisoners(Spanish claim)
The naval Battle of Gibraltar took place on 25 April 1607 during the Eighty Years' War when a Dutch fleet surprised and engaged a Spanish fleet anchored at the Bay of Gibraltar. During the four hours of action, most of the Spanish fleet was destroyed.
The Dutch fleet of 26 warships was led by Jacob van Heemskerk. The Dutch flagship was Æolus. Other Dutch ships were De Tijger (The Tiger), De Zeehond (The Seal), De Griffioen (The Griffon), De Roode Leeuw (The Red Lion), De Gouden Leeuw (The Gold Lion), De Zwarte Beer (The Black Bear), De Witte Beer (The White Bear) and De Ochtendster (The Morningstar).
The Spanish fleet of 21 ships, including 10 galleons was led by Don Juan Álvarez de Ávila. The Spanish flagship San Augustin (St Augustine) was commanded by Don Juan's son. Other ships were Nuestra Señora de la Vega (Our Lady of Vega) and Madre de Dios (Mother of God). The Spanish fleet was covered by a fortress, although the Dutch fleet was out of range of its guns at all times and they could not intervene in the battle[dubious ] .
The battle 
Van Heemskerk left some of his ships at the bay entrance to prevent the escape of any Spanish ship. Twenty of the Dutch attacking ships were ordered to focus on the Spanish galleons while the rest attacked the smaller vessels. Van Heemskerk was killed during the first approach on the Spanish flagship as a cannon ball severed his leg. The Dutch effectively then doubled up the galleons (in a move that almost two centuries later was copied by Admiral Nelson during the Battle of the Nile of 1798) and a few of the galleons caught fire. One Spanish ship exploded due to a shot into the powder magazine. The Dutch captured the Spanish flagship, but let it go adrift.
Following the destruction of the Spanish ships, the Dutch deployed boats and killed hundreds of swimming Spanish sailors. The Dutch lost 100 men including admiral Van Heemskerk. 60 Dutch were wounded. The Spanish lost most or their entire fleet and between 350 and 4.000 men killed or captured. Álvarez de Ávila was amongst the dead.
- (Dutch)Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche zeewezen, p.207
- (Dutch)Vier eeuwen varen,, p.64
- (Spanish)Fernández Duro, p. 235
- (Spanish)San Juan, p. 84
- de Jonge describes 7 galleons sunk or burned. Warnsinck states the Spanish ships were either burned or driven ashore and Akveld state the entire Spanish fleet was destroyed. Spanish sources state 14 ships lost of which 5 were galleons
- (Spanish)San Juan, p. 85
- (Spanish)Fernández Duro, p. 234
- Fernández Duro, Cesáreo (1898). Armada Española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y Aragón III. Madrid, Spain: Est. tipográfico "Sucesores de Rivadeneyra". (Spanish)
- Francis Vere, Salt in their Blood: The Lives of the Famous Dutch Admirals, 1955.
- Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche zeewezen, Johannes Cornelis de Jonge 1833-1848
- Vier eeuwen varen, L.M. Akveld, Ph.M. Bosscher, J.R. Bruijn en F.C. van Oosten 1973
- Warnsinck, J.C.M. (1941): Twaalf Doorluchtige Zeehelden
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